journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38752285/the-impact-of-exercise-training-on-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Sarah E Meyer, Miranda Kimber, Lauren E Maier, Brittany Matenchuk, Ramiah Moldenhauer, Stephanie de Waal, Allison Sivak, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of exercise training on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans. Studies included exercise interventions (randomized controlled trials [RCTs], non-randomized controlled trials [non-RCTs] or pre-to-post intervention) that reported on adults (>18 years) where MSNA was directly assessed using microneurography, and relevant outcomes were assessed (MSNA [total activity, burst frequency, burst incidence, amplitude], heart rate, blood pressure [systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or mean blood pressure], and aerobic capacity [maximal or peak oxygen consumption])...
May 16, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38752284/mechanisms-of-whole-body-respiratory-acid-base-buffering-a-first-computer-model-test-of-three-physicochemical-acid-base-theories
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Matthew B Wolf
Acid-base disorders are currently analyzed and treated using a bicarbonate-centered approach, derived from blood studies prior to the advent of digital computers, which could solve computer models capable of quantifying the complex physicochemical nature governing distribution of water and ions between fluid compartments. An alternative is the Stewart approach, which can predict pH of a simple mixture of ions and electrically charged proteins, hence the role of extravascular fluids has been largely ignored...
May 16, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38722754/effect-of-glycocalyx-targeted-therapy-on-vascular-function-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Colin J Gimblet, Jackson W Ernst, Blair Bell, Kyle D Bos, Amy K Stroud, Linder H Wendt, Anthony J Donato, Diana I Jalal, Gary L Pierce
Advancing age increases cardiovascular disease risk, in part, because of impaired glycocalyx thickness and endothelial dysfunction. Glycocalyx-targeted therapies, such as Endocalyx Pro{trade mark, serif}, could improve both glycocalyx thickness and endothelial function in older adults, however, this has yet to be tested. We hypothesized that Endocalyx Pro{trade mark, serif} supplementation would increase glycocalyx thickness and endothelial function in older adults. Twenty-three older adults aged 66±7 years (52% female) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arms study to investigate the effect of 12-week Endocalyx Pro{trade mark, serif} supplementation (3,712 mg/day) on glycocalyx thickness and endothelial function...
May 9, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38722753/insights-into-post-translational-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-contractile-function-by-the-acetyltransferases-p300-and-cbp
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gretchen A Meyer, Jeremie L A Ferey, James A Sanford, Liam S Fitzgerald, Akiva E Greenberg, Kristoffer Svensson, Michael J Greenberg, Simon Schenk
Mice with skeletal muscle-specific and inducible double knockout of the lysine acetyltransferases, p300 (E1A binding protein p300) and CBP (cAMP-response element-binding protein binding protein), referred to as i-mPCKO, demonstrate a dramatic loss of contractile function in skeletal muscle and ultimately die within 7 days. Given that many proteins involved in ATP generation and cross-bridge cycling are acetylated, we investigated whether these processes are dysregulated in skeletal muscle from i-mPCKO mice and, thus, whether they could underlie the rapid loss of muscle contractile function...
May 9, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38722752/lama-improve-tissue-oxygenation-more-than-laba-in-patients-with-copd
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Silvia Perez-Bogerd, Alain Van Muylem, Selim Zengin, Yasmina El Khloufi, Emilie Maufroy, Vitalie Faoro, Andrei Malinovschi, Alain Michils
Background The effect of bronchodilators is mainly assessed with forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1 ) in COPD. Their impact on oxygenation and lung periphery is less known. Objectives To compare the action of long-acting ß2 -agonists (LABA-olodaterol) and muscarinic antagonists (LAMA-tiotropium) on tissue oxygenation in COPD, considering their impact on proximal and peripheral ventilation as well as lung perfusion. Methods FEV1 , Helium slope (SHe ) from a single-breath washout test (SHe decrease reflecting a peripheral ventilation improvement), frequency dependence of resistance (R5-R19), area under reactance (AX), lung capillary blood volume (Vc) from double diffusion (DLNO /DLCO ) and transcutaneous oxygenation (TcO2 ) were measured before and 2 hours post-LABA (day 1) and LAMA (day 3) in 30 COPD patients (FEV1 54±18% pred; GOLD A 31%/B 48%/E 21%) after 5-7 days of washout, respectively...
May 9, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38722751/motor-evoked-potentials-in-the-human-upper-and-lower-limb-do-not-increase-after-single-30-minute-sessions-of-acute-intermittent-hypoxia
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anandit J Mathew, Harrison T Finn, Sophie G Carter, Simon C Gandevia, Jane E Butler
Acute Intermittent Hypoxia (AIH) can induce sustained facilitation of motor output in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Most studies of corticospinal tract excitability in humans have used 9% FiO2 AIH (AIH-9%), with inconsistent outcomes. We investigated the effect of single sessions of 9% FiO2 and 12% FiO2 AIH (AIH-12%) on corticospinal excitability of a hand and leg muscle in able-bodied adults. Ten naïve participants without SCI completed three sessions comprising 15 cycles of one minute of AIH-9%, AIH-12% or sham (SHAM-21%) followed by one minute of room air (21% FiO2 ) in a randomised crossover design...
May 9, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695358/fetal-sex-and-the-relative-reactivity-of-human-umbilical-vein-and-arteries-are-key-determinants-in-potential-beneficial-effects-of-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anne-Christine Peyter, Manon Beaumann, Flavien Delhaes, Sébastien Joye, Steeve Menétrey, David Baud, Jean-François Tolsa
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common complication of pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that IUGR is associated with an impaired nitric oxide (NO)-induced relaxation in the human umbilical vein (HUV) of growth-restricted females compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns. We found that phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition improved NO-induced relaxation in HUV, suggesting that PDEs could represent promising targets for therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PDE inhibition on human umbilical arteries (HUAs) compared to HUV...
May 2, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695357/whole-body-sweat-rate-prediction-outdoor-running-and-cycling-exercise
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ollie Jay, Julien D Périard, Brad Clark, Lindsey Hunt, Haiyu Ren, HyunGyu Suh, Richard R Gonzalez, Michael N Sawka
Our aim was to develop and validate separate whole-body sweat rate prediction equations for moderate to high intensity outdoor cycling and running, using simple measured or estimated activity and environmental inputs. Across two collection sites in Australia, 182 outdoor running trials, and 158 outdoor cycling trials were completed at a wet-bulb globe temperature ranging from ~15 to ~29˚C, with ~60-min whole-body sweat rates measured in each trial. Data were randomly separated into model development (running: 120; cycling: 100 trials) and validation groups (running: 62; cycling: 58 trials), enabling proprietary prediction models to be developed and then validated...
May 2, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695356/supraspinal-spinal-and-motor-unit-adjustments-to-fatiguing-isometric-contractions-of-the-knee-extensors-at-low-and-high-submaximal-intensities-in-males
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Luca Angius, Alessandro Del Vecchio, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Paul Ansdell, Elliott Atkinson, Dario Farina, Glyn Howatson
Contraction intensity is a key factor determining the development of muscle fatigue and it has been shown to induce distinct changes along the motor pathway. The role of cortical and spinal inputs that regulate motor unit (MU) behaviour during fatiguing contractions is poorly understood. We studied the cortical, spinal, and neuromuscular response to sustained fatiguing isometric tasks performed at 20 and 70% of the maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), together with MUs behaviour of knee extensors in healthy active males...
May 2, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695355/enhancing-flow-mediated-dilation-analysis-by-optimizing-an-open-source-software-with-automated-edge-detection
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kseniya S Masterova, Jiefei Wang, Courtney Mack, Tatiana Moro, Rachel Deer, Elena Volpi
Flow mediated dilation (FMD) is a common measure of endothelial function and an indicator of vascular health. Automated software methods exist to improve the speed and accuracy of FMD analysis. Compared to commercial software, open-source software offers similar capabilities at a much lower cost while allowing for increased customization specific to users' needs. We introduced modifications to an existing open-source software, FloWave.us to better meet FMD analysis needs. The purpose of this study was to compare the repeatability and reliability of the modified FloWave...
May 2, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695354/differential-effects-of-exercise-intensity-and-tolerable-duration-on-exercise-induced-diaphragm-and-expiratory-muscle-fatigue
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tim A Hardy, Matt R Chadwick, Carrie Ferguson, Troy J Cross, Bryan J Taylor
We investigated the effect of exercise intensity and tolerable duration on the development of exercise-induced diaphragm and expiratory muscle fatigue. Ten healthy adults (25 ± 5 y; 2 females) cycled to intolerance on three separate occasions: 1) 5% below critical power (<CP; heavy intensity ); 2) ~25% of the difference (Δ) between CP and peak ramp-incremental power (Δ25; severe intensity 'longer' ); and 3) ~50% Δ (Δ50; severe intensity 'shorter' ). Diaphragm and expiratory muscle fatigue were quantified as a pre- to 5 min post-exercise reduction in magnetically evoked transdiaphragmatic (Pditw ) and gastric (Pgatw ) twitch pressures, respectively...
May 2, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695353/age-related-differences-in-finger-interdependence-during-complex-hand-movements
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lisa Klemm, Esther Kuehn, Avinash Kalyani, Stefanie Schreiber, Christoph Reichert, Elena Azañón
The well-known decrease in finger dexterity during healthy aging leads to a significant reduction in quality of life. Still, the exact patterns of altered finger kinematics of older adults in daily life are fairly unexplored. Finger interdependence is the unintentional co-movement of fingers that are not intended to move, and it is known to vary across the lifespan. Nevertheless, the magnitude and direction of age-related differences in finger interdependence are ambiguous across studies and tasks and have not been explored in the context of daily life finger movements...
May 2, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695352/the-use-of-accelerometers-to-improve-estimation-of-the-thermic-effect-of-food-in-whole-room-calorimetry-studies
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sarah A Purcell, Samuel R LaMunion, Kong Y Chen, Corey A Rynders, Elizabeth A Thomas, Edward L Melanson
We tested whether spontaneous physical activity (SPA) from accelerometers could be used in a whole-room calorimeter to estimate thermic effect of food (TEF). Eleven healthy participants (63% female; age: 27 ± 4 years; body mass index: 22.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2 ) completed two 23-hour visits in randomized order: one 'fed' with meals provided and one 'fasted' with no food. SPA was measured by ActivPAL and Actigraph accelerometers. Measured TEF was calculated as the difference in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) between fed and fasted visits and compared to three methods of estimating TEF: 1) SPA-adjusted TEF (adjTEF)-difference in TDEE without SPA between visits, 2) Wakeful TEF-difference in energy expenditure obtained from linear regression and basal metabolic rate during waking hours, 3) 24h TEF-increase in TDEE above SPA and sleeping metabolic rate...
May 2, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38660730/biological-sex-does-not-independently-influence-time-dependent-changes-in-core-temperature-and-sweating-of-children-exercising-in-uncompensable-heat-stress
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Thomas H Topham, James W Smallcombe, Harry A Brown, Brad Clark, Andrew P Woodward, Richard D Telford, Ollie Jay, Julien D Périard
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of biological sex, independent of differences in aerobic fitness and body fatness, on the change in gastro-intestinal temperature (∆Tgi ) and whole-body sweat rate (WBSR) of children exercising under uncompensable heat stress. METHODS: Seventeen boys (mean±SD; 13.7±1.3 years) and 18 girls (13.7±1.4) years) walked for 45 min at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production per kg body mass (8 W·kg-1 ) in 40°C and 30% relative humidity...
April 25, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38660729/the-effect-of-obesity-on-sleep-apnea-pathogenesis-differs-in-women-vs-men-multiple-mediation-analyses-in-the-retrospective-snoozzze-cohort
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Brandon Nokes, Jeremy E Orr, Stephanie White, Steven Luu, Zihan Chen, Raichel Alex, Scott A Sands, Brian S Wojeck, Robert L Owens, Atul Malhotra, Christopher N Schmickl
There are multiple mechanisms underlying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) development. However, how classic OSA risk factors such as body mass index (BMI) and sex portend to OSA development have not been fully described. Thus, we sought to evaluate how obesity leads to OSA, and assess how these mechanisms differ between men and women. Methods The San Diego Multi-Outcome OSA Endophenotype (SNOOzzzE) cohort includes 3,319 consecutive adults who underwent a clinical in-laboratory polysomnography at the UCSD sleep clinic between 1/2017-12/2019...
April 25, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38660728/persistent-neuroinflammation-and-functional-deficits-in-a-murine-model-of-decompression-sickness
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Abid R Bhat, Awadhesh K Arya, Veena M Bhopale, Zuha Imtiyaz, Su Xu, Dilara Bedir, Stephen R Thom
We hypothesized that early intra-CNS responses in a murine model of decompression sickness (DCS) would be reflected by changes in the microparticles (MPs) that exit the brain via the glymphatic system, and due to systemic responses the MPs would cause inflammatory changes lasting for many days leading to functional neurological deficits. Elevations on the order of 3-fold of blood-borne inflammatory MPs, neutrophil activation, glymphatic flow and neuroinflammation in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were found in mice at 12 days after exposure to 760 kPa of air for 2 hours...
April 25, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38660727/feasibility-of-continuous-bronchoscopy-during-exercise-in-the-assessment-of-large-airway-movement-in-healthy-subjects
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Zander J Williams, Christopher M Orton, Justin L Garner, Ley T Chan, Anand Tana, Pallav L Shah, Michael I Polkey, Thomas Semple, James H Hull
Excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) is a recognized cause of exertional dyspnea arising due to invagination of the trachea and/ or main bronchi. EDAC is typically assessed by evaluating large airway movement with forced expiratory maneuvers. This differs from the respiratory response to exercise hyperpnea. We aimed to evaluate large airway movement during physical activity, with continuous bronchoscopy during exercise (CBE), in healthy subjects and compare findings with resting bronchoscopic maneuvers and imaging techniques...
April 25, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38660726/ozone-exposure-limits-cardiorespiratory-function-during-maximal-cycling-exercise-in-endurance-athletes
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Owen D Harris, Patric E O Gonçalves, Andy Hung, Bennett Stothers, Valérie Bougault, A William Sheel, Michael S Koehle
Ground-level ozone (O3 ) is a potent air pollutant well recognized to acutely induce adverse respiratory symptoms and impairments in pulmonary function. However, it is unclear how the hyperpnea of exercise may modulate these effects, and the subsequent consequences on exercise performance. We tested the hypothesis that pulmonary function and exercise capability would be diminished, and symptom development would be increased during peak real-world levels of O3 exposure compared to room air. Twenty aerobically trained participants [13M, 7F; maximal O2 uptake (O2max ), 64...
April 25, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38660725/increased-diameter-and-stiffness-of-elastic-but-not-muscular-arteries-in-men-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kristian Shlimon, Marcus Lindenberger, Rachel De Basso, Magnus Cinthio, Niclas Bjarnegård
It has been proposed that formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is part of a systemic arterial dilatative disease. However, arteries in the upper extremity are scarcely studied and it remains unclear whether both muscular and elastic arteries are affected by the proposed systemic arterial dilatation. The aim of this study was to investigate diameter and stiffness of muscular and elastic arteries in arterial branches originating from the aortic arch. Twenty-six men with AAA (69 ± 4 years) and fifty-seven men without AAA (70 ± 5 years) were included in the study...
April 25, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38660724/sex-differences-in-muscle-morphology-between-male-and-female-sprinters
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Robert Miller, Thomas G Balshaw, Garry J Massey, Sumiaki Maeo, Marcel B Lanza, Bill Haug, Michael Johnston, Sam J Allen, Jonathan P Folland
There is a marked difference between males and females in sprint running performance, yet a comprehensive investigation of sex differences in the muscle morphology of sprinters remains to completed. This study compared muscle volumes of 23 individual leg muscles/compartments and five functional muscle groups, assessed with 3T magnetic resonance imaging, between male (n=31) and female (n=22) sprinters, and sub-groups of elite males (EM, n=5), elite females (EF, n=5), and performance matched (to elite females) males (PMMEF , n=6)...
April 25, 2024: Journal of Applied Physiology
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