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Alcohol | Page 2

Sheila Alessi, Nancy Petry, Nancy Barnett
BACKGROUND: Transdermal alcohol sensing technology allows for objective continuous monitoring of alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to characterize alcohol consumption measured with this technology among alcohol use disorder treatment outpatients in two clinical trials. METHODS: Participants were community-based alcohol treatment outpatients in usual care (N = 63) during the first three years of studies that monitored drinking with the secure continuous remote alcohol monitor (SCRAMx®) ankle bracelet...
January 30, 2019: Alcohol
Michał Oczkowski, Alina Rembiszewska, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Ewa Wolińska-Witort, Aleksandra Kołota, Agnieszka Malik, Małgorzata Stachoń, Katarzyna Lachowicz, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Beer is one of the most popular type of alcoholic beverage consumed by young people, that is associated with ethanol intake resulted in harmful effects also within the reproductive system. Bioactive compounds occurring in beer may diminish the toxic effect of ethanol. However, there is still too little of knowledge about the effect of beer consumption on hormonal regulation of male reproduction in organisms exposed to alcohol since peripubertal age. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the influence of beer intake on plasma reproductive hormones, immunolocalization of cleaved-caspase-3 (casp-3) and neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in Leydig cells (LCs) in adolescent male Wistar rats...
January 25, 2019: Alcohol
A Romero-Martínez, S Vitoria-Estruch, L Moya-Albiol
Men who misuse alcohol tend to experience negative affect, which may entail difficulties regulating emotions to cope effectively with stressful or anxiety-provoking situations, increasing the risk of alcohol relapse. This dysphoric state has been associated with alexithymia, which compromises an individual's abilities to acknowledge, recognize and regulate emotional states. A physiological correlate of emotional regulation is autonomic flexibility, emotional dysregulation in men who misuse alcohol being correlated with reduced parasympathetic activation to control heart rate variability during stress and/or conflict situations...
January 18, 2019: Alcohol
Todd B Nentwig, E Margaret Starr, L Judson Chandler, Elizabeth J Glover
The abuse of alcohol during adolescence is widespread and represents a particular concern given that earlier age of drinking onset is associated with increased risk for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Despite this risk, it remains unclear whether binge-like adolescent alcohol exposure facilitates drinking despite aversive consequences, a characteristic common among individuals with AUDs. The present study examined voluntary alcohol consumption and aversion-resistant drinking in adult male Long-Evans rats that had undergone adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure by vapor inhalation between post-natal days (PD) 28-44...
January 18, 2019: Alcohol
Koichi Fujisawa, Taro Takami, Takahiro Nagatomo, Yumi Fukui, Hisashi Hoshida, Issei Saeki, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Isao Hidaka, Naoki Yamamoto, Isao Sakaida
Alcohol has long been acknowledged to be one of the main causes of hepatic disorders. In recent years, with the advancements in antiviral therapies, the relative proportion alcoholic liver disease constitutes among liver diseases has increased, necessitating the establishment of a useful model for the elucidation of the mechanism of its development. In this study, we developed a model of alcoholic liver disease using medaka, a small-sized fish known for its usefulness as a model organism. After rearing medaka in water containing ethanol for 2 months, fat deposition was observed in their livers...
January 17, 2019: Alcohol
Nguyen Thi Mai Loan, Joseph S Bertino, Tanattha Kittisopee
AIMS: To identify the extent to which patients admitted to a general hospital in Vietnam meet the criteria for risky alcohol drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), describe problems and behavior of alcohol use such as types and quantity of alcohol drinking in a hospitalized population in Vietnam and investigate the association among age, disease-related factors and alcohol consumption with AWS. METHODS: This study was conducted prospectively in 1340 patients admitted to a general hospital...
January 17, 2019: Alcohol
R J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Alexander Greig, Charles W Schindler
Ethanol-paired Conditioned Stimuli are widely thought to invigorate ethanol responding, and thus, precipitate relapse to drinking. However, preclinical studies investigating this issue using Pavlovian Instrumental Transfer (PIT) procedures have had mixed results, with some studies finding PIT while others did not. The studies failing to show PIT used Lewis rats and induced ethanol drinking using a post-prandial drinking procedure. The present experiments examined whether either of these two variables influenced the magnitude of PIT observed...
January 11, 2019: Alcohol
Jeanette N McClintick, Jay A Tischfield, Li Deng, Manav Kapoor, Xiaoling Xuei, Howard J Edenberg
The short term effects of alcohol on gene expression in brain tissue cannot directly be studied in humans. Because neuroimmune signaling is altered by alcohol, immune cells are a logical, accessible choice to study and might provide biomarkers. RNAseq was used to study the effects of 48 h exposure to ethanol on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 21 alcoholics and 21 controls. Ethanol exposure resulted in differential expression of 4,577 of the 12,526 genes detectably expressed in the LCLs (FDR ≤ 0.05); 55% of these showed increased expression...
January 8, 2019: Alcohol
Gopalakrishnan Natarajan, Curtis Perriotte-Olson, Carol A Casey, Terrence M Donohue, Geoffrey A Talmon, Edward N Harris, Alexander V Kabanov, Viswanathan Saraswathi
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that nanoformulated copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Nano) attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation in obese animals. Here, we sought to determine whether Nano treatment attenuates alcohol-associated liver disease (AALD) and AT inflammation in alcohol-fed mice. METHODS: We pre-treated E-47 cells (HepG2 cells that over-express CYP2E1) with native- or nano- SOD for 6 h, followed by treatment with ethanol and/or linoleic acid (LA), a free fatty acid...
January 3, 2019: Alcohol
Jonathan Kent Gore-Langton, Linda Patia Spear
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2018: Alcohol
Olalekan Ogunsakin, Phanuwat Sriyotha, Taylor Burns, Tete Hottor, Michael McCaskill
Ethanol has been found to affect pulmonary cells by interfering with vitamin D metabolism and pulmonary defense mechanisms. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanisms of ethanol's disruptive influence on the vitamin D pathway and inhibition of anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37). Bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs), primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), primary human alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs), and human monocyte cells (THP-1s) were used in this study. These cells were cultured and exposed to different treatment groups: media only control, ethanol (70mM) only, diallyl disulfide (DADS) (10μM) only, and a co-exposure of ethanol(70mM) and DADS (10μM) for 10 or 24 hours...
December 20, 2018: Alcohol
Juna Konomi Johnson, Frank L Harris, Xiao-Du Ping, Theresa W Gauthier, Lou Ann S Brown
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that maternal alcohol use significantly increases the risk of sepsis in premature and term newborns. In the mouse, fetal ethanol exposure results in an immunosuppressed phenotype for the alveolar macrophage (AM) and decreases bacterial phagocytosis. In pregnant mice, ethanol decreased AM zinc homeostasis which contributed to immunosuppression and impaired AM phagocytosis. In this study, we explored whether ethanol-induced zinc insufficiency extended to the pup AM and contributed to immunosuppression and exacerbated viral lung infections...
December 20, 2018: Alcohol
Zhenhua Ren, Xin Wang, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A Frank, Jia Luo
Developmental exposure to ethanol may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and immature central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to ethanol. In addition to the developing brain, we previously showed that ethanol also caused neuroapoptosis, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. Minocycline is an antibiotic that inhibits microglial activation and alleviates neuroinflammation. We sought to determine whether minocycline could protect spinal cord neurons against ethanol-induced damage...
December 7, 2018: Alcohol
Leslie L Devaud, Mehrdad Alavi, Jeremiah P Jensen, Melinda L Helms, Michelle A Nipper, Deborah A Finn
Human studies reported that the number of past-year stressors was positively related to current drinking patterns, including binge drinking. In animal models, exposure to predator odor stress (PS), considered a model of traumatic stress, consistently increased ethanol intake. Recently, we reported that repeated PS significantly increased ethanol intake and had a synergistic interaction with prior binge drinking (binge group) in male but not in female C57BL/6J mice, when compared to mice without prior binge exposure (control group)...
December 6, 2018: Alcohol
Todd A Wyatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Alcohol
Pradeep K Shukla, Avtar S Meena, Rupa Rao, RadhaKrishna Rao
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with social interaction behavior and gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. These abnormal behaviors and GI abnormalities overlap with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated the effect of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) on social interaction deficits (hallmark of autism) in mice. Evidence indicates that exogenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration during gestation induces autism-like behavior in the offspring. LPS regulates the expression of genes underlying differentiation, immune function, myelination, and synaptogenesis in fetal brain by the LPS receptor, TLR-4-dependent mechanism...
December 2018: Alcohol
Erin M Lowery, Martin Walsh, Meagan Yong, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Cara Joyce, Majid Afshar
Phosphatidylethanol is a direct alcohol biomarker for identifying alcohol misuse. It carries several advantages over other alcohol biomarkers, including a detection half-life of several weeks and little confounding by patient characteristics or organ dysfunction. The aim of this study is to derive an optimal phosphatidylethanol cut point to identify organ donors with alcohol misuse, and to assess the impact of alcohol misuse on organ allocation. Discrimination of phosphatidylethanol was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve from a mixed effects logistic regression model...
December 2018: Alcohol
Leslie R Amodeo, Derek N Wills, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, William Nguyen, Bruno Conti, Cindy L Ehlers
Epidemiological studies suggest that binge drinking is prevalent among adolescents, and may result in neurobehavioral consequences. Animal models provide the experimental control to investigate the consequences of "binge" alcohol exposure during this neurodevelopmental epoch. The current study used an animal model that combined an intermittent pattern of alcohol vapor exposure with voluntary drinking of 20% unsweetened alcohol in adolescent male and female Wistar rats (postnatal day [PD] 22-62), in order to test for potential differences in behavioral changes, ethanol drinking, and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/OX) signaling associated with exposure status...
December 2018: Alcohol
Milton Wainberg, Maria A Oquendo, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Lazaro Gonzalez-Calvo, Ilana Pinsky, Cristiane S Duarte, Qiongru Yu, Ann F Green, Samuel Martinho, Troy D Moon, Carolyn M Audet
Hazardous drinking places individuals at risk for adverse health events, resulting in a major public health burden globally. Patterns of alcohol consumption among women in Africa remain poorly understood. We aimed to describe alcohol consumption in a representative sample of female heads-of-household in Mozambique. A 2014 population-based cross-sectional study of 3892 heads-of-household was conducted in Zambézia Province. Data on alcohol use were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
December 2018: Alcohol
C N Miller, C Ruggery, H M Kamens
Binge alcohol drinking is a health burden in the United States which has an alarming economic impact. Unfortunately, medications available for alcohol abuse have low efficacy or adverse side effects creating a need to evaluate novel therapies. Growing research suggests that 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), an α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, may be effective at reducing ethanol consumption. However, its effect on binge-like ethanol consumption and other alcohol behaviors have not been examined...
November 26, 2018: Alcohol
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