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Anastasia I Nikoulina, Lindsay R Arcurio, Peter R Finn, Thomas W Jame
Music is a ubiquitous feature of young adults' social drinking environments, yet no studies have assessed whether and how it impacts risky decisions to drink alcohol. Previous research on the influence of music on risky decisions is largely based around decision tasks with monetary incentives. METHODS: To assess the impact of music listening on risky drinking decisions, the current study used visual alcohol cues paired with hypothetical risky drinking scenarios (e.g. "You do not have a safe ride home," for alcohol)...
May 14, 2019: Alcohol
Onkar B Sawant, Sharla M Birch, Charles R Goodlett, Timothy A Cudd, Shannon E Washburn
Early detection of prenatal alcohol exposure is critical for designing and testing effectiveness of interventional therapeutics. Choline supplementation during and after prenatal alcohol exposure has shown promising benefits in improving outcomes in rodent models and clinical studies. A sheep model of first trimester-equivalent binge alcohol exposure was used in this study to model the dose of maternal choline supplementation used in an ongoing prospective clinical trial involving pregnancies at risk for FASD...
May 10, 2019: Alcohol
Núria Obradors-Rial, Carles Ariza, Xavier Continente, Carles Muntaner
Risky alcohol consumption among adolescents has health and social consequences. Evidence identifying the school context that determines alcohol consumption among rural and urban adolescents is lacking. This study aimed to describe the contextual school and town factors determining risky alcohol consumption among rural and urban 10th-grade adolescents (15-17 years old) from Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). The study had a cross-sectional design. Cluster sampling with the class as the sampling unit was used, and a total of 1,268 10th-grade adolescents from Catalonia nested in 26 high schools participated in the study...
May 10, 2019: Alcohol
Alina Kępka, Piotr Zwierz, Sylwia Chojnowska, Agnieszka Ochocińska, Ewa Skorupa, Marek Szczepański, Sławomir Dariusz Szajda, Napoleon Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT) and plasma carnitine are all indirect biomarkers of alcohol abuse. Carnitine transfers long chain fatty acids from cytoplasm to mitochondria for β-oxidation. The aim of the study was determination the relationship between daily alcohol intake, time of alcohol dependence, plasma carnitine and serum aminotransferases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: we studied 26 men addicted for 2-30 years, consuming ethanol 75-700 g/day (alcoholic group) and 17 healthy men (control group)...
April 25, 2019: Alcohol
G Rocchitta, A T Peana, G Bazzu, A Cossu, S Carta, P Arrigo, A Bacciu, R Migheli, D Farina, M Zinellu, E Acquas, P A Serra
Highly sensitive, with high temporal resolution, detection of ethanol concentrations in discrete brain regions of rats voluntarily accessing ethanol would represent a source of greatly desirable data in studies devoted to understanding the kinetics of the neurobiological basis of ethanol's ability to impact on behaviour. In the present study we present a series of experiments aiming to validate and apply an original high-tech implantable device, consisting of the coupling, for the first time, of an amperometric biosensor for brain ethanol detection, with a sensor for detecting the micro vibrations of the animal...
April 25, 2019: Alcohol
Irene Lorrai, Andrea Contini, Gian Luigi Gessa, Claudia Mugnaini, Federico Corelli, Giancarlo Colombo, Paola Maccioni
Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred, over almost forty years, for high alcohol preference and consumption. sP rats have served as animal model for more than 120 published studies. With very few exceptions however, these studies have always employed male sP rats, and little is known on alcohol-related behaviors in female sP rats. The present study was designed to fill, at least in part, this gap. Accordingly, alcohol self-administration under the fixed ratio 4 schedule of reinforcement was compared among male, intact female, and ovariectomized female sP rats...
April 25, 2019: Alcohol
Yoo Jeong Lee, Min-Gyu Yoo, Hyeon-Kyeong Kim, Han Byul Jang, Keon Jae Park, Hye-Ja Lee, Sung-Gon Kim, Sang Ick Park
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem in East Asian countries. Alcohol use leads to a cascade of problems including increased chances of risky behavior and wide range of negative health consequences from alcoholic liver disease to upper gastric and liver cancer. These alcohol effects are known to be influenced by ethnic variability and genetics. METHODS: In this study, subjects were administered a single dose of alcohol (0.6 g/kg for men or 0...
April 16, 2019: Alcohol
Roberto U Cofresí, Marie-H Monfils, Nadia Chaudhri, Rueben A Gonzales, Hongjoo J Lee
The ability of environmental cues to trigger alcohol seeking behaviors is believed to facilitate problematic alcohol use. We previously showed that the development of this cue-evoked alcohol approach reflects cue-alcohol learning and memory in the adult male rat; however, we do not know whether the same is true for similarly aged female rats. Consequently, adult Long-Evans female rats were allowed to drink unsweetened alcohol in the homecage (MWF 24 hr two-bottle choice, 5 weeks) and subsequently split into two experimental groups: paired and unpaired...
April 16, 2019: Alcohol
E Gibula-Tarlowska, P Grochecki, J Silberring, J H Kotlinska
Research has shown that opioids are involved in the rewarding effects of ethanol. Neuropeptyde FF (NPFF) has been described as an anti-opioid peptide because it, in many cases, inhibits opioid and ethanol effects in rodents. Kissorphin (KSO) is a new peptide derived from kisspeptin-10 with structural similarities to NPFF. This peptide possesses NPFF-like biological activity in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a KSO (Tyr-Asn-Trp-Asn-Ser-Phe-NH2) influences the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP) in rats...
April 11, 2019: Alcohol
Ladan Vaghef, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Marjan Erfani, Alireza Majdi, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Pouran Karimi, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee, Javad Mahmoudi
The present study investigates the potential neuroprotective effect of cerebrolysin (CBL), a combination of neurotrophic factors, on the cognitive and biochemical alterations induced by chronic ethanol administration in rats. The animals were divided into 5 groups as follows: Control, ethanol (4 g/kg, for 30 days) plus normal saline (Ethanol + NS), ethanol plus CBL 1 ml/kg (Ethanol + CBL 1), ethanol plus CBL 2.5 ml/kg (Ethanol + CBL 2.5), and ethanol plus CBL 5 ml/kg (Ethanol + CBL 5). Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to assess cognitive impairment...
April 11, 2019: Alcohol
Candice E Van Skike, Charles Goodlett, Douglas B Matthews
Addiction has been conceptualized as a specific form of memory that appropriates typically adaptive neural mechanisms of learning to produce the progressive spiral of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior, perpetuating the path to addiction through aberrant processes of drug-related learning and memory. From that perspective, to understand the development of alcohol use disorders it is critical to identify how a single exposure to alcohol enters into or alters the processes of learning and memory, so that involvement of and changes in neuroplasticity processes responsible for learning and memory can be identified early on...
April 11, 2019: Alcohol
Veronica Paterlini, Nadia Maria Porpiglia, Elio Franco De Palo, Franco Tagliaro
Asialo-human transferrin (asialo-hTf) is a glycoform of the human serum protein transferrin characterized by the lack of the sialic acid (SA) terminal unit. It is known that glycosylation micro-heterogeneity and the presence of SA are strongly involved in protein functioning and patho-physiological activities. Some hTf glycoforms are valuable biomarkers for the detection of both genetic defects of glycosylation and/or sialoform distribution changes. The determination of the carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) glycoforms is currently a widely employed method for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse...
March 16, 2019: Alcohol
Ulla Nivukoski, Aini Bloigu, Risto Bloigu, Mauri Aalto, Tiina Laatikainen, Onni Niemelä
BACKGROUND: While alcohol use is linked with a wide variety of health problems, the question whether differences in drinking patterns could yield different outcomes has remained unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured liver enzymes (ALT, GGT) from alcohol consumers with or without binge drinking from a population-based sample in Finland, where binge-type drinking is common. Data on alcohol use, diet, body weight, lifestyle (smoking, coffee consumption, physical activity) and health status were collected from 19,225 subjects (9,492 men, 9,733 women), aged 25-74 years...
March 16, 2019: Alcohol
Wei-Yang Chen, Huaibo Zhang, Eleonora Gatta, Elizabeth J Glover, Subhash C Pandey, Amy W Lasek
Withdrawal from chronic alcohol drinking can cause depression, leading to an inability to function in daily life and an increased risk for relapse to harmful drinking. Understanding the causes of alcohol withdrawal-related depression may lead to new therapeutic targets for treatment. Epigenetic factors have recently emerged as important contributors to both depression and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Specifically, acetylation of the N-terminal tails of histone proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes is altered in stress-induced models of depression and during alcohol withdrawal...
March 6, 2019: Alcohol
Jessica Saalfield, Linda Spear
Studies in rats have revealed marked age differences in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol, with a developmental insensitivity to ethanol aversion that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion; however, it is unknown how ontogenetic changes within this reward/aversion circuitry contribute to developmental differences in aversive sensitivity...
February 21, 2019: Alcohol
Dominika Hosová, Linda Patia Spear
Alcohol consumption is typically initiated during adolescence, with the incidence of binge drinking (production of blood ethanol concentrations [BECs] > 80mg/dl) peaking during this stage of development. Studies in outbred rats investigating the consequences of adolescent ethanol exposure have typically employed intragastric, vapor, or intraperitoneal administration to attain BECs in this range. While these procedures have yielded valuable data regarding the consequences of adolescent exposure, they are varyingly stressful, administer the full dose at once, and/or bypass digestion...
February 21, 2019: Alcohol
Alejandro Cuesta, Sohaib Haseeb, Federico Aquistapache, Pedro Grosso, Bryce Alexander, Wilma Hopman, Ricardo Lopez Santi, Adrian Baranchuk
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heavy alcohol use is a risk factor for disease and mortality; however epidemiological findings have demonstrated protective effects of a light-to-moderate intake of alcohol on cardiovascular health. There are many misconceptions regarding appropriate levels of alcohol intake and the risks and benefits of consumption. We sought to examine physician attitudes and recommendations regarding alcohol intake in a cohort of Uruguayan cardiologists. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 25 questions was distributed through the Uruguayan Society of Cardiology to attending cardiologists and advanced cardiology trainees...
February 12, 2019: Alcohol
Mari Archer, Onni Niemelä, Kaisa Luoto, Johanna Kultti, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Antti Koivukangas, Esa Leinonen, Olli Kampman
INTRODUCTION: The studies on the relations between alcohol consumption, the status of inflammation and depression have produced conflicting results. In this study we followed patients with major depressive disorders by monitoring biomarkers of inflammation together with biomarkers of heavy alcohol use. METHOD: The levels of IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-8 (interleukin-8), hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein), YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase-3-like protein 1 or CHI3L1) and biomarkers of alcohol consumption and liver status (GT, CDT, ALT, alkaline phosphatase) were measured at baseline and after 6 months of psychiatric treatment from 242 patients suffering from current major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 99) or without (n = 143) alcohol use disorder (AUD)...
February 12, 2019: Alcohol
Barbara Juarez, Yutong Liu, Lu Zhang, Ming-Hu Han
Optogenetic techniques have been widely used in the study of neuropsychiatric diseases such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. Cell-type specific targeting of optogenetic tools to neurons has contributed to a tremendous understanding of the function of neural circuits for future treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Though optogenetics has been widely used in many research areas, the use of optogenetic tools to uncover and elucidate neural circuit mechanisms of alcohol's actions in the brain are still developing...
February 2019: Alcohol
Gregg E Homanics
Genetically engineered animals are powerful tools that have provided invaluable insights into mechanisms of alcohol action and alcohol-use disorder. Traditionally, production of gene-targeted animals was a tremendously expensive, time consuming, and technically demanding undertaking. However, the recent advent of facile methods for editing the genome at very high efficiency is revolutionizing how these animals are made. While pioneering approaches to create gene-edited animals first used zinc finger nucleases and subsequently used transcription activator-like effector nucleases, these approaches have been largely supplanted in an extremely short period of time with the recent discovery and precocious maturation of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) system...
February 2019: Alcohol
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