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Meredith R Watson, Kimberly James, Guy Mittleman, Douglas B Matthews
The United States population is continuing to increase in age and data suggest that by the year 2060 the population of people over the age of 65 will more than double, providing a potentially massive strain on healthcare systems. Research demonstrates individuals 65 and older continue to consume ethanol, often at high levels. However, preclinical animal models are still being developed to understand how ethanol might interact with the aged population. The current experiments investigated differential body temperature responses in aged rats compared to adult rats and adolescent rats...
August 10, 2019: Alcohol
Jean A King, Benjamin C Nephew, Asmita Choudhury, Guillaume L Poirier, Arlene Lim, Pranoti Mandrekar
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects over 15 million adults over age 18 in the United States, with estimated costs of 220 billion dollars annually-mainly due to poor quality of life and lost productivity, which in turn is intricately linked to cognitive dysfunction. AUD induced neuroinflammation in the brain, notably the hippocampus, is likely to contribute to cognitive impairments. The neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediating the impact of chronic alcohol on the central nervous system, specifically cognition, require further study...
August 6, 2019: Alcohol
Davy Vancampfort, Mats Hallgren, Hannelore Vandael, Michel Probst, Philip Van Hoof, Joseph Firth, Tine Van Damme
The purpose of this study was to compare the functional exercise capacity of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) with an age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy control group. Thirty patients (22♂, 40.4±10.5years, illness duration=9.7±9.3 years) and healthy control subjects (22♂, 40.2±10.7 years) participated. Participants performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to assess their functional exercise capacity, were asked about musculoskeletal problems and dyspnea, executed a standing broad jump to assess the muscular strength and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)...
August 6, 2019: Alcohol
Thu A Nguyen, Simon W Lam
A symptom-triggered lorazepam regimen is the standard for treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in an inpatient setting. However, in severe AWS, lorazepam requirements can reach significant amounts and lead to risk of delirium and propylene glycol toxicity. Phenobarbital has been shown to be an effective adjunctive therapy for AWS, reducing benzodiazepine use, in the emergency department. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of phenobarbital in adjunct to symptom-triggered lorazepam for severe AWS versus lorazepam alone in the intensive care unit (ICU)...
July 18, 2019: Alcohol
Mikio Marumo, Kazumi Ekawa, Shigeyuki Ebara, Ichiro Wakabayashi
Alcohol is known to inhibit blood coagulation. Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to show hypercoagulability. However, it remains to be clarified whether and how habitual alcohol drinking affects coagulability in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol intake and d-dimer, a sensitive marker of blood coagulation, in patients with diabetes. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and d-dimer in plasma of 269 patients with type 2 diabetes by using analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, and histories of smoking and anti-coagulation therapy...
July 10, 2019: Alcohol
Susan E Luczak, Vijay A Ramchandani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2019: Alcohol
M Katherine Jung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2019: Alcohol
Jessica I Wooden, Kyle Schuller, Gregg Roman, Joydip Das, J Leigh Leasure
The role of the munc 13-1 pre-synaptic protein in alcohol-related behaviors has been little-studied, despite being a known site of action for ethanol binding. Munc 13-1 is an active zone protein that plays a vital role in vesicle maturation and the release of neurotransmitter in excitatory neurons. Ethanol binds munc 13-1, decreasing its functionality. In Drosophila, loss of the homologous protein Dunc13 is associated with an increase in ethanol preference, and a resistance to sedation following ethanol exposure...
June 29, 2019: Alcohol
Adolfo Pérez-García, América Guadalupe Arroyo-Valerio, Mayra A Bustos-Esquivel, Rosa M Quispe-Siccha, José Luis Zaldívar-Fujigaki, Judith Pacheco-Yepez, David Kershenobich, Joselín Hernández-Ruiz
Alcohol consumption is an issue of worldwide relevance and a national scale problem in Mexico. The consumption pattern of large amounts in weekends is rapidly increasing in young adults between 18-29 years. Despite various studies have focused on the noxious effect of alcohol in immunity, the changes in the immunoprofiles of peripheral blood cells have not been completely described. Natural Killer Cells (NKC) are lymphoid origin cells of the immune system that are responsible of defense against tumors among other functions...
June 29, 2019: Alcohol
Jürgen Rehm, Omer S M Hasan
Most epidemiological research on alcohol as a risk factor is based on the assumption that outcomes are linked to pattern and level of alcohol exposure where different beverages are converted into grams of ethanol. This review examines this basic assumption, that alcohol has the same impact, independent of beverage type. We conducted a systematic search on comparative research of beverage-specific alcohol exposure and consequences. Research was divided by methodology (survey, case-control, cohort, time-series analyses, interventional research)...
June 28, 2019: Alcohol
Nikita A Mitkin, Petr K Anokhin, Maria V Belopolskaya, Olga Y Frolova, Ekaterina A Kushnir, Maxim L Lovat, Vsevolod V Pavshintsev
Chronic ethanol consumption in high doses is associated with constitutively elevated activity of the serum alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADH I) isoform, which demonstrates a high affinity not only for ethanol but also for a number of bioamine metabolites. Such excessive ADH activity is probably associated with disruptions in the metabolism of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine) and subsequent long-term changes in the activity of their receptors. Ultimately, a stable depressive-like condition contributes to the development of patients' craving for ethanol intake, frequent disruptions during therapy, and low efficiency of treatment...
June 28, 2019: Alcohol
Kari A Johnson, Daniel J Liput, Gregg E Homanics, David M Lovinger
Chronic alcohol exposure is associated with increased reliance on behavioral strategies involving the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), including habitual or stimulus-response behaviors. Presynaptic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on cortical and thalamic inputs to the DLS inhibit glutamate release, and alcohol-induced disruption of presynaptic GPCR function represents a mechanism by which alcohol could disinhibit DLS neurons and thus bias towards use of DLS-dependent behaviors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2 ) is a Gi/o -coupled GPCR that robustly modulates glutamate transmission in the DLS, inducing long-term depression (LTD) at both cortical and thalamic synapses...
June 21, 2019: Alcohol
Deborah Deas, Natalie Johnson, Suzanne Thomas
A biomarker that could indicate problematic drinking in adolescents and/or reflect changes in heavy drinking would be a valuable addition to prevention, treatment, and research efforts. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is a valid biomarker of heavy drinking in adults, however not well examined in adolescents. Adolescents with alcohol dependence (AD) (n=21; 9 females) and non-dependent controls (ND) (n=6; 3 females), ages 14-20, were interviewed to determine drinks per drinking day, peak number of drinks, and percent days heavy drinking (≥4 standard drinks/day)...
June 21, 2019: Alcohol
Fernando Hernández-Quiroz, Khemlal Nirmalkar, Loan Edel Villalobos-Flores, Selvasankar Murugesan, Yair Cruz-Narváez, Enrique Rico-Arzate, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo, Alejandra Chavez-Carbajal, María Luisa Pizano-Zárate, Jaime García-Mena
Beer is a beverage consumed worldwide for thousands of years due to social, religious, and cultural reasons, it contains polyphenolic compounds as well as phenolic acids with a potential positive effect in human health. This study aimed to explore the impact of moderate beer consumption in human health and gut microbiota function. 355 mL of non-alcoholic beer (NAB) or alcoholic beer (AB) were consumed daily by the participants for 30 days in each study. Anthropometric measures, blood samples for biochemistry, and fecal samples for microbiota analysis were collected on day 1 and 30...
June 12, 2019: Alcohol
Luz Anyela Morales Quintero, María de la Villa Moral Jiménez, José Luis Rojas-Solís, Carolina Bringas Molleda, Alejandro Soto Chilaca, Francisco Javier Rodríguez Díaz
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol abuse is a worldwide health problem because of its association with high rates of morbidity, mortality and interpersonal conflicts. In Mexico, young people are the group most severely affected by high levels of alcohol intake. This study attempts to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the Mexican youth population since validation studies do not exist to date. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An opinion sampling method was used based on the inclusion criteria for the study and the accessibility of the sample...
June 11, 2019: Alcohol
Brian J Meier, Deena El-Gabri, Mark Mvungi, Blandina T Mmbaga, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Catherine A Staton
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Rates of alcohol abuse in Moshi, Tanzania, are about 2.5 times higher than the Tanzanian average. We sought to qualitatively assess the perceptions of alcohol use among injury patients in Moshi, including availability, consumption patterns, abuse, and treatments. METHODS: Participants were Emergency Department injury patients, their families, and community advisory board members...
June 10, 2019: Alcohol
Katherine L March, Jennifer D Twilla, Anne B Reaves, Timothy H Self, Melissa M Slayton, Jaclyn B Bergeron, Sami A Sakaan
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a serious complication of abrupt alcohol cessation. Severe AWS can develop into delirium tremens (DT), which is potentially life-threatening. Lorazepam (LOR) and chlordiazepoxide (CDE) are mainstays of therapy for AWS. Current literature lacks studies comparing outcomes between the two for patients who are not in a de-addiction ward specifically for withdrawal treatment. The primary objective of the study was to determine the incidence rate of DT between the groups. Of 2112 patients screened, 142 met inclusion criteria (LOR=74, CDE=68)...
June 6, 2019: Alcohol
Alan M Rosenwasser, Walter D McCulley, Matthew C Hartmann, Michael C Fixaris, John C Crabbe
Seasonal variations in photoperiod are associated with alterations in human mood and behavior. Similarly, manipulation of the environmental lighting regimen can exert pronounced effects on affective behavior in experimental animals. These observations may be due, in part, to light-induced alterations in circadian rhythms, but it seems likely that other, non-circadian factors also contribute. Several studies have shown that voluntary alcohol (ethanol) consumption can be affected by lighting conditions in rodents, suggesting that photoperiodic variation may account for seasonal and geographic patterns of human alcohol consumption...
June 5, 2019: Alcohol
Hao Wang, Yi Zhang, Xinyu Zhang, Jiaolun Li, Zebin Lin, Zhibin Huang, Jing Chang, Yunfeng Zhang, Jingru Wang, Chengqiang Zhang, Yulan Rao
Problems of stability were found for biomarkers of alcohol consumption, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), phosphatidylethanols (PEths) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in whole blood. The purpose of this study was to establish a method for the determination of these 4 kinds of ethanol's non-oxidative metabolites in dried blood spots (DBS) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and to evaluate their stability. In this method, 50 μL of human blood was spotted on a filter paper for DBS analysis...
June 5, 2019: Alcohol
Anna Y Klintsova, Derek A Hamilton, Sandra M Mooney, Christie L M Petrenko
The 2018 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was entitled "Sex Differences and Vulnerability." The theme reflected the ongoing NIH initiative to address sex differences in both clinical and preclinical research. The first keynote speaker, Jill Becker, Ph.D., addressed sex differences in addiction in preclinical studies. The second keynote speaker, Meeyoung Min, Ph.D., discussed effects of gender on adolescent outcomes in poly-drug exposed children. The conference presented updates from three government agencies, a discussion panel of new data on FASD prevalence, and short presentations by junior and senior investigators showcasing late-breaking FASD research...
June 4, 2019: Alcohol
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