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E Gibula-Tarlowska, P Grochecki, J Silberring, J H Kotlinska
Research has shown that opioids are involved in the rewarding effects of ethanol. Neuropeptyde FF (NPFF) has been described as an anti-opioid peptide because it, in many cases, inhibits opioid and ethanol effects in rodents. Kissorphin (KSO) is a new peptide derived from kisspeptin-10 with structural similarities to NPFF. This peptide possesses NPFF-like biological activity in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a KSO (Tyr-Asn-Trp-Asn-Ser-Phe-NH2) influences the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP) in rats...
April 11, 2019: Alcohol
Ladan Vaghef, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Marjan Erfani, Alireza Majdi, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Pouran Karimi, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee, Javad Mahmoudi
The present study investigates the potential neuroprotective effect of cerebrolysin (CBL), a combination of neurotrophic factors, on the cognitive and biochemical alterations induced by chronic ethanol administration in rats. The animals were divided into 5 groups as follows: Control, ethanol (4 g/kg, for 30 days) plus normal saline (Ethanol + NS), ethanol plus CBL 1 ml/kg (Ethanol + CBL 1), ethanol plus CBL 2.5 ml/kg (Ethanol + CBL 2.5), and ethanol plus CBL 5 ml/kg (Ethanol + CBL 5). Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to assess cognitive impairment...
April 11, 2019: Alcohol
Candice E Van Skike, Charles Goodlett, Douglas B Matthews
Addiction has been conceptualized as a specific form of memory that appropriates typically adaptive neural mechanisms of learning to produce the progressive spiral of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior, perpetuating the path to addiction through aberrant processes of drug-related learning and memory. From that perspective, to understand the development of alcohol use disorders it is critical to identify how a single exposure to alcohol enters into or alters the processes of learning and memory, so that involvement of and changes in neuroplasticity processes responsible for learning and memory can be identified early on...
April 11, 2019: Alcohol
Veronica Paterlini, Nadia Maria Porpiglia, Elio Franco De Palo, Franco Tagliaro
Asialo-human transferrin (asialo-hTf) is a glycoform of the human serum protein transferrin characterized by the lack of the sialic acid (SA) terminal unit. It is known that glycosylation micro-heterogeneity and the presence of SA are strongly involved in protein functioning and patho-physiological activities. Some hTf glycoforms are valuable biomarkers for the detection of both genetic defects of glycosylation and/or sialoform distribution changes. The determination of the carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) glycoforms is currently a widely employed method for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse...
March 16, 2019: Alcohol
Ulla Nivukoski, Aini Bloigu, Risto Bloigu, Mauri Aalto, Tiina Laatikainen, Onni Niemelä
BACKGROUND: While alcohol use is linked with a wide variety of health problems, the question whether differences in drinking patterns could yield different outcomes has remained unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We measured liver enzymes (ALT, GGT) from alcohol consumers with or without binge drinking from a population-based sample in Finland, where binge-type drinking is common. Data on alcohol use, diet, body weight, lifestyle (smoking, coffee consumption, physical activity) and health status were collected from 19,225 subjects (9,492 men, 9,733 women), aged 25-74 years...
March 16, 2019: Alcohol
Wei-Yang Chen, Huaibo Zhang, Eleonora Gatta, Elizabeth J Glover, Subhash C Pandey, Amy W Lasek
Withdrawal from chronic alcohol drinking can cause depression, leading to an inability to function in daily life and an increased risk for relapse to harmful drinking. Understanding the causes of alcohol withdrawal-related depression may lead to new therapeutic targets for treatment. Epigenetic factors have recently emerged as important contributors to both depression and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Specifically, acetylation of the N-terminal tails of histone proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes is altered in stress-induced models of depression and during alcohol withdrawal...
March 6, 2019: Alcohol
Jessica Saalfield, Linda Spear
Studies in rats have revealed marked age differences in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol, with a developmental insensitivity to ethanol aversion that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion; however, it is unknown how ontogenetic changes within this reward/aversion circuitry contribute to developmental differences in aversive sensitivity...
February 21, 2019: Alcohol
Dominika Hosová, Linda Patia Spear
Alcohol consumption is typically initiated during adolescence, with the incidence of binge drinking (production of blood ethanol concentrations [BECs] > 80mg/dl) peaking during this stage of development. Studies in outbred rats investigating the consequences of adolescent ethanol exposure have typically employed intragastric, vapor, or intraperitoneal administration to attain BECs in this range. While these procedures have yielded valuable data regarding the consequences of adolescent exposure, they are varyingly stressful, administer the full dose at once, and/or bypass digestion...
February 21, 2019: Alcohol
Alejandro Cuesta, Sohaib Haseeb, Federico Aquistapache, Pedro Grosso, Bryce Alexander, Wilma Hopman, Ricardo Lopez Santi, Adrian Baranchuk
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heavy alcohol use is a risk factor for disease and mortality; however epidemiological findings have demonstrated protective effects of a light-to-moderate intake of alcohol on cardiovascular health. There are many misconceptions regarding appropriate levels of alcohol intake and the risks and benefits of consumption. We sought to examine physician attitudes and recommendations regarding alcohol intake in a cohort of Uruguayan cardiologists. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 25 questions was distributed through the Uruguayan Society of Cardiology to attending cardiologists and advanced cardiology trainees...
February 12, 2019: Alcohol
Mari Archer, Onni Niemelä, Kaisa Luoto, Johanna Kultti, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Antti Koivukangas, Esa Leinonen, Olli Kampman
INTRODUCTION: The studies on the relations between alcohol consumption, the status of inflammation and depression have produced conflicting results. In this study we followed patients with major depressive disorders by monitoring biomarkers of inflammation together with biomarkers of heavy alcohol use. METHOD: The levels of IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-8 (interleukin-8), hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein), YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase-3-like protein 1 or CHI3L1) and biomarkers of alcohol consumption and liver status (GT, CDT, ALT, alkaline phosphatase) were measured at baseline and after 6 months of psychiatric treatment from 242 patients suffering from current major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 99) or without (n = 143) alcohol use disorder (AUD)...
February 12, 2019: Alcohol
Sheila Alessi, Nancy Petry, Nancy Barnett
BACKGROUND: Transdermal alcohol sensing technology allows for objective continuous monitoring of alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to characterize alcohol consumption measured with this technology among alcohol use disorder treatment outpatients in two clinical trials. METHODS: Participants were community-based alcohol treatment outpatients in usual care (N = 63) during the first three years of studies that monitored drinking with the secure continuous remote alcohol monitor (SCRAMx®) ankle bracelet...
January 30, 2019: Alcohol
Michał Oczkowski, Alina Rembiszewska, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Ewa Wolińska-Witort, Aleksandra Kołota, Agnieszka Malik, Małgorzata Stachoń, Katarzyna Lachowicz, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Beer is one of the most popular type of alcoholic beverage consumed by young people, that is associated with ethanol intake resulted in harmful effects also within the reproductive system. Bioactive compounds occurring in beer may diminish the toxic effect of ethanol. However, there is still too little of knowledge about the effect of beer consumption on hormonal regulation of male reproduction in organisms exposed to alcohol since peripubertal age. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the influence of beer intake on plasma reproductive hormones, immunolocalization of cleaved-caspase-3 (casp-3) and neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in Leydig cells (LCs) in adolescent male Wistar rats...
January 25, 2019: Alcohol
Barbara Juarez, Yutong Liu, Lu Zhang, Ming-Hu Han
Optogenetic techniques have been widely used in the study of neuropsychiatric diseases such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. Cell-type specific targeting of optogenetic tools to neurons has contributed to a tremendous understanding of the function of neural circuits for future treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Though optogenetics has been widely used in many research areas, the use of optogenetic tools to uncover and elucidate neural circuit mechanisms of alcohol's actions in the brain are still developing...
February 2019: Alcohol
Gregg E Homanics
Genetically engineered animals are powerful tools that have provided invaluable insights into mechanisms of alcohol action and alcohol-use disorder. Traditionally, production of gene-targeted animals was a tremendously expensive, time consuming, and technically demanding undertaking. However, the recent advent of facile methods for editing the genome at very high efficiency is revolutionizing how these animals are made. While pioneering approaches to create gene-edited animals first used zinc finger nucleases and subsequently used transcription activator-like effector nucleases, these approaches have been largely supplanted in an extremely short period of time with the recent discovery and precocious maturation of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) system...
February 2019: Alcohol
A Romero-Martínez, S Vitoria-Estruch, L Moya-Albiol
Men who misuse alcohol tend to experience negative affect, which may entail difficulties regulating emotions to cope effectively with stressful or anxiety-provoking situations, increasing the risk of alcohol relapse. This dysphoric state has been associated with alexithymia, which compromises an individual's abilities to acknowledge, recognize and regulate emotional states. A physiological correlate of emotional regulation is autonomic flexibility, emotional dysregulation in men who misuse alcohol being correlated with reduced parasympathetic activation to control heart rate variability during stress and/or conflict situations...
January 18, 2019: Alcohol
Todd B Nentwig, E Margaret Starr, L Judson Chandler, Elizabeth J Glover
The abuse of alcohol during adolescence is widespread and represents a particular concern given that earlier age of drinking onset is associated with increased risk for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Despite this risk, it remains unclear whether binge-like adolescent alcohol exposure facilitates drinking despite aversive consequences, a characteristic common among individuals with AUDs. The present study examined voluntary alcohol consumption and aversion-resistant drinking in adult male Long-Evans rats that had undergone adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure by vapor inhalation between post-natal days (PD) 28-44...
January 18, 2019: Alcohol
Koichi Fujisawa, Taro Takami, Takahiro Nagatomo, Yumi Fukui, Hisashi Hoshida, Issei Saeki, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Isao Hidaka, Naoki Yamamoto, Isao Sakaida
Alcohol has long been acknowledged to be one of the main causes of hepatic disorders. In recent years, with the advancements in antiviral therapies, the relative proportion alcoholic liver disease constitutes among liver diseases has increased, necessitating the establishment of a useful model for the elucidation of the mechanism of its development. In this study, we developed a model of alcoholic liver disease using medaka, a small-sized fish known for its usefulness as a model organism. After rearing medaka in water containing ethanol for 2 months, fat deposition was observed in their livers...
January 17, 2019: Alcohol
Nguyen Thi Mai Loan, Joseph S Bertino, Tanattha Kittisopee
AIMS: To identify the extent to which patients admitted to a general hospital in Vietnam meet the criteria for risky alcohol drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), describe problems and behavior of alcohol use such as types and quantity of alcohol drinking in a hospitalized population in Vietnam and investigate the association among age, disease-related factors and alcohol consumption with AWS. METHODS: This study was conducted prospectively in 1340 patients admitted to a general hospital...
January 17, 2019: Alcohol
R J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Alexander Greig, Charles W Schindler
Ethanol-paired Conditioned Stimuli are widely thought to invigorate ethanol responding, and thus, precipitate relapse to drinking. However, preclinical studies investigating this issue using Pavlovian Instrumental Transfer (PIT) procedures have had mixed results, with some studies finding PIT while others did not. The studies failing to show PIT used Lewis rats and induced ethanol drinking using a post-prandial drinking procedure. The present experiments examined whether either of these two variables influenced the magnitude of PIT observed...
January 11, 2019: Alcohol
Jeanette N McClintick, Jay A Tischfield, Li Deng, Manav Kapoor, Xiaoling Xuei, Howard J Edenberg
The short term effects of alcohol on gene expression in brain tissue cannot directly be studied in humans. Because neuroimmune signaling is altered by alcohol, immune cells are a logical, accessible choice to study and might provide biomarkers. RNAseq was used to study the effects of 48 h exposure to ethanol on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 21 alcoholics and 21 controls. Ethanol exposure resulted in differential expression of 4,577 of the 12,526 genes detectably expressed in the LCLs (FDR ≤ 0.05); 55% of these showed increased expression...
January 8, 2019: Alcohol
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