Amy Chadburn
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are a well-recognized complication of solid organ and stem cell transplantation. Much data has accumulated with respect to the pathobiology and clinical behavior of these lesions in the general post-transplant population as well as in the pediatric and adult age groups. However, information as to these lesions in the adolescent and young adult populations, which bridge the pediatric and adult groups, is limited. In this review, the focus is on this unique population of PTLD patients and their proliferations...
August 1, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Shachar Naor, Etai Adam, Ginette Schiby, Dita Gratzinger
Biopsies from patients with inborn error of immunity (IEI) may pose a diagnostic challenge due to the abnormal anatomy of their lymphoid organs and the tendency for the development of lymphoproliferations in various organs, some of which may lead to the wrong impression of malignant lymphoma which may prompt aggressive unnecessary treatment. In this article we will review typical histologic findings in various IEI's described in the literature and discuss the appropriate approach to the diagnosis of lymphoproliferations in these patients by presenting illustrative cases...
July 11, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Srishti Gupta, Jeffrey W Craig
Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is a unique form of lymphoid cancer featuring a heterogeneous tumor microenvironment and a relative paucity of malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells with characteristic phenotype. Younger individuals (children, adolescents and young adults) are affected as often as the elderly, producing a peculiar bimodal age-incidence profile that has generated immense interest in this disease and its origins. Decades of epidemiological investigations have documented the populations most susceptible and identified multiple risk factors that can be broadly categorized as either biological or environmental in nature...
June 30, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Aarti E Sharma, Darcy A Kerr, Nicole A Cipriani
Bone and soft tissue lesions in the head and neck encompass not only a broad morphologic spectrum but also significant inherent clinicopathologic overlap. Epidemiology, radiology, and location - similar to the diagnostic assessment in other sites - are especially important considerations in the context of an established mesenchymal proliferation. Herein, the approach towards diagnosis is stratified by morphology (spindle, sarcomatoid, epithelioid, round cell), cellular lineage (fibroblastic, nerve sheath, rhabdomyogenic), and tumor grade (benign, low- to high-grade malignant) as the basis of further immunohistochemical or molecular investigation...
June 29, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Jingwei Li, Jacob R Bledsoe
The diagnostic work up and surveillance of germline disorders of bone marrow failure and predisposition to myeloid malignancy is complex and involves correlation between clinical findings, laboratory and genetic studies, and bone marrow histopathology. The rarity of these disorders and the overlap of clinical and pathologic features between primary and secondary causes of bone marrow failure, acquired aplastic anemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome may result in diagnostic uncertainty. With an emphasis on the pathologist's perspective, we review diagnostically useful features of germline disorders including Fanconi anemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, telomere biology disorders, severe congenital neutropenia, GATA2 deficiency, SAMD9/SAMD9L diseases, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and acquired aplastic anemia...
June 28, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Abberly Lott Limbach
Small biopsies in the larynx can make a definitive diagnosis challenging due to the sampling or tangential sectioning. The differential diagnosis can be divided into mucosal lesions (squamous papillomas, intraepithelial dysplasia, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma) or submucosal lesions (vocal cord polyps/nodules, amyloidosis, granular cell tumor, rhabdomyoma, neuroendocrine neoplasms, salivary gland tumors, and cartilaginous tumors). Diagnostic criteria (both morphologic and immunohistochemical) are reviewed to arrive at a diagnosis even on small biopsy...
September 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Brendan Belovarac, Fang Zhou, Jake Sharma, Tamar C Brandler
Thyroid cytology has in recent years been augmented by molecular testing for indeterminate lesions. Three commercial molecular tests are available which provide variable amounts of detail regarding the genetic alterations identified in a sample. This paper will describe these tests, as well as the common molecular drivers associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular patterned lesions, in order to help the practicing pathologist and clinician better interpret the results of these tests and incorporate this information into their management of cytologically indeterminate thyroid lesions...
September 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Grant M Fischer, David J Papke
Cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms are diagnostically challenging because of their overlapping morphology, and, often, the limited tissue in skin biopsy specimens. Molecular and cytogenetic techniques have identified characteristic gene fusions in many of these tumor types, findings that have expanded our understanding of disease pathogenesis and motivated development of useful ancillary diagnostic tools. Here, we provide an update of new findings in tumor types that can occur in the skin and superficial subcutis, including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, benign fibrous histiocytoma, epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma, angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma, glomus tumor, myopericytoma/myofibroma, non-neural granular cell tumor, CIC-rearranged sarcoma, hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma, and clear cell sarcoma...
July 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Cooper D Rutland, Gregory R Bean, Gregory W Charville
Vascular neoplasms account for a substantial fraction of cutaneous mesenchymal tumors, spanning from clinically indolent benign lesions to highly aggressive malignancies. These neoplasms present a distinctive challenge in terms of their diagnostic histopathology, both because of the breadth of their morphological manifestations and because of the significant histological overlap between different entities, even benign and malignant ones. The post-radiotherapy setting is particularly problematic diagnostically, insofar as radiation exposure predisposes not only to secondary angiosarcoma, but also to atypical vascular lesion, a largely benign proliferation of cutaneous blood vessels typically affecting the breast...
July 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Abbas Agaimy
Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon, primary dermal neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis, typically originating in the sun-damage skin of the head and neck of the elderly. Since first description in 1958, ∼3000 cases have been reported in the literature. However, the disease is underreported as the neoplasm is considered a standard diagnosis in the last decades. On the other hand, many earlier reports likely have included non-AFX mimics or aggressive pleomorphic dermal sarcomas. In contrast to its alarming high-grade histology, AFX behaves indolently with rare recurrences/ metastatic rate of <2%...
June 23, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Amrit Singh, Ifeyinwa E Obiorah
Mature non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) of the pediatric and young adults(PYA), including Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), high-grade B cell lymphoma (HGBCL), primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMBL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), generally have excellent prognosis compared to the adult population. BL, DLBCL and HGBCL are usually of germinal center (GCB) origin in the PYA population. PMBL neither belongs to the GCB nor the activated B cell subtype and is associated with a poorer outcome than BL or DLBCL of comparable stage...
June 22, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Rachel A Mariani, Elizabeth L Courville
Benign lymphadenopathy is common in the pediatric population and may be clinically striking. As in adults, lymph node evaluation in pediatric patients requires careful morphologic and immunohistochemical assessment and clinical contextualization of the findings. It is important for the pathologist to be familiar with benign and reactive conditions that may mimic malignancy. This review presents non-neoplastic or indolent processes or patterns of lymphoid hyperplasia that may be confused with or raise the differential of lymphoma, with a focus on those more commonly encountered in the pediatric/adolescent population...
June 1, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Aaron Auerbach, Nadine S Aguilera
Histiocytic neoplasms in the children are very rare, and histiocytoses can occur in the perinatal period. The presumed origins and presentation of specific histiocytoses in the pediatric age group are described. Common and newly described histiocytoses are presented including Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Rosai-Dorfman disease, histiocytic sarcoma, ALK positive histiocytosis, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Molecular findings common to pediatric histiocytoses are also discussed.
May 20, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Konstantinos Linos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Jingjing Zhang, Jean Oak
Measurable/minimal residual disease (MRD) tracking has emerged as a powerful tool for assessing treatment response and predicting outcomes in acute leukemia. However, the clinical and technological challenges associated with MRD tracking must be addressed to improve its utility in routine patient care. This review article aims to provide a summary of the different MRD methodologies used in acute leukemia. It highlights the strengths, diagnostic pitfalls, and clinical utility associated with MRD tracking in this rapidly evolving field...
May 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Maximiliano Ramia de Cap, Weina Chen
Myeloid Sarcoma (MS) is a high grade, hematological malignancy defined as an extramedullary tumor mass of myeloid blasts with or without maturation that effaces tissue architecture. It is a highly heterogenous condition that represents a variety of myeloid neoplasms. This heterogeneity of MS, together with its rarity, have greatly hampered our understanding of the condition. Diagnosis requires tumor biopsy, which should be accompanied by bone marrow evaluation for medullary disease. It is presently recommended that MS be treated similar to AML...
May 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Paul Barone, Sanjay Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Katelynn Davis, Taimoor Sheikh, Nidhi Aggarwal
Tremendous strides have been made in the molecular and cytogenetic classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on gene expression profiling data, leading to an expansion of entities in the recent International Consensus Classification (ICC) of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias and 2022 WHO Classification of Tumours: Haematolymphoid Tumors, 5th edition. This increased diagnostic and therapeutic complexity can be overwhelming, and this review compares nomenclature differences between the ICC and WHO 5th edition publications, compiles key features of each entity, and provides a diagnostic algorithmic approach...
May 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Pranav Pramod Patwardhan, Mahmoud Aarabi, Nidhi Aggarwal
Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) demonstrate overlapping pathologic and molecular features of myelodysplastic (MDS) and myeloproliferative (MPN) neoplasms. Diagnosis is difficult based on morphology alone, requiring exclusion of various non-neoplastic causes for CBC abnormalities and morphologic findings and other myeloid neoplasms. Identifying a clonal abnormality by cytogenetics or molecular studies has vastly improved our ability to diagnose MDS/MPN and has been incorporated in the different classification schemas...
May 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Nianyi Li, Mingyi Chen, C Cameron Yin
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with uncontrolled proliferation of one or more hematopoietic cell types, including myeloid, erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, and minimal defect in maturation. Most MPN are associated with well-defined molecular abnormalities involving genes that encode protein tyrosine kinases that lead to constitutive activation of the downstream signal transduction pathways and confer cells proliferative and survival advantage...
May 2023: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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