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Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

Javad Anjum, Brooke Hallowell
INTRODUCTION: Semantic priming paradigms are important for understanding lexical-semantic processing and the nature of linguistic deficits accompanying language performance in neurologically impaired individuals such as people with aphasia. Reaction-time-(RT)-based traditional semantic priming tasks entail potential confounds, especially problematic when applied to people with aphasia, who may have concomitant neurocognitive challenges that limit task performance. Some of these confounds include requirements of following complex instructions, making metalinguistic judgments, and using speech or limb-based motor actions to indicate overt responses...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Tanja C W Nijboer, Stefan Van Der Stigchel
Patients with visuospatial neglect (VSN) suffer from an imbalance in visual attention between their left and right (egocentric or allocentric) hemispace. The view of VSN as an attentional imbalance between two hemispaces ignores the fact that-in our daily life-we are presented with varying levels of stimulus density, within but also across hemispaces. Therefore, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which stroke patients (n = 207) were presented with a different number of simple objects in the left and right (egocentric) hemispaces and were asked to indicate whether there were more objects in the left or the right hemispace...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
January Durant, Kevin Duff, Justin B Miller
INTRODUCTION: Standardized regression based (SRB) methods can be used to determine whether meaningful changes in performance on cognitive assessments occur over time. Both raw and standardized scores have been used in SRB models but it is unclear which score metric is most appropriate for predicting follow-up performance. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in SRB prediction formulas using raw versus standard scores on two memory tests commonly used in assessment of older adults...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Justine Ledochowski, Brendan F Andrade, Maggie E Toplak
OBJECTIVE: Executive functions (EFs) have been assessed with performance-based measures and rating scales. Research has shown a lack of association between these two methods. One factor that might contribute to this difference is the structure provided on performance-based measures that is not provided on rating scales. This study examined the role of structure on self-directed task completion, an aspect of EF, using a novel unstructured performance-based task (UPT). METHOD: Children aged 8-12 years (38 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 42 typically developing) and their caregivers participated...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Kevin Duff, Dana McDermott, Dan Luong, Christopher Randolph, Adam L Boxer
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits, as well as motor and psychiatric disturbances. As clinical trials for PSP evolve, briefer screening instruments will be needed to determine cognitive effects of interventions. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) may fill this gap. Three hundred four participants diagnosed with Richardson's syndrome of PSP were evaluated with the RBANS, as well as other scales typically used in PSP...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Lee Ashendorf
INTRODUCTION: The use of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) by U.S. Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs (VA) providers for all mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) evaluations led to the development of methods to screen for symptom exaggeration. The present study was designed to explore the clinical utility of three metrics-the Validity-10 scale, the NSI total score, and the mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS)-relative to the results of several different criterion measures of symptom validity...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Estelle Guerdoux-Ninot, Raphaël Trouillet
INTRODUCTION: Stress is a well-known determinant of cognitive performance in both younger and older adults. However, the moderating effect of pathological aging on this relationship remains insufficiently documented. We hypothesize that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients will report higher perceived stress than control older adults, when asked to complete an effortful cognitive task. We also hypothesize that the deleterious effect of perceived stress on cognitive performance is more evident in MCI and AD patients...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Dede M Ukueberuwa, Peter A Arnett
INTRODUCTION: In people with multiple sclerosis (MS), depression symptoms could be a direct consequence of neuropathological processes or a secondary consequence of coping with debilitating illness. We investigated the interaction of white matter structure and patient coping style in predicting positive and negative emotion symptoms of depression. METHOD: Participants completed a neuropsychological battery, including the Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory (CMDI) and a measure of coping strategies that has Active Coping (more adaptive) and Avoidant Coping (less adaptive) scales...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Ryan Mulligan, Michael R Basso, Lily Lau, Bradley Reynolds, Douglas M Whiteside, Dennis Combs, Robert A Bornstein
OBJECTIVE: As many as 70% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have clinically significant cognitive impairment, and most of these individuals exhibit executive dysfunction. Most research concerning executive dysfunction in MS has focused upon nonverbal measures. The Verbal Concept Attainment Test (VCAT) has demonstrated construct validity as an executive function measure in people infected with HIV and in people with focal brain lesions, but its validity among people with MS is unknown...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Mohinish Shukla, Eileen C Rasmussen, Paul G Nestor
The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) represents a rich neuropsychological framework to study emotion-based decision-making. It originates from early brain lesion studies using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which showed that adaptive decision-making relies on intact ventromedial prefrontal cortex for the integration of so-called "hot" affective signals and rational "cold" perceptual cognitive computations. Subsequent studies over the past 20 years have provided converging evidence for the reliability and validity of the IGT in assessing decision-making in both healthy and clinical samples, although some discrepancies remain...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Laura E Korthauer, David P Salmon, Elena K Festa, Douglas Galasko, William C Heindel
The Hick-Hyman law states that choice response time (RT) increases linearly with increasing information uncertainty. Neuroimaging studies suggest that the representation of uncertainty in support of response generation is mediated by the cognitive control network (CCN), which is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we predicted that patients with AD would be sensitive to increased uncertainty particularly under conditions that place demands on the internal representation of uncertainty, and that choice RT performance under these conditions would be associated with performance on tests of executive function...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Megan S Barker, Gail A Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Anomia is an impairment of naming: the retrieval of specific lexical items from the mental lexicon. Theoretically, whether anomia reflects a failure of selection at the preverbal "idea" level or at the subsequent linguistic formulation stage remains a topic of debate. We investigated the preverbal mechanism of idea selection for sentence generation, which requires the selection of a proposition from among competing alternatives during message formulation, in patients with severe anomia...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Anne-Marie Ternes, Meaghan Clough, Paige Foletta, Owen White, Joanne Fielding
INTRODUCTION: Inhibitory control deficits are frequently reported in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), although it is unclear whether these deficits represent a global or process-specific failure. Notably, most models of inhibitory control recognize at least two dissociable processes, the most consistent being: (a) the inhibition of a dominant response: response suppression, and (b) the inhibition of a dominant response and initiation of a nondominant response: executive control. This study aimed to ascertain the processes underlying inhibitory failure in MS...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
J Megan Ross, Karen Granja, Jacqueline C Duperrouzel, Ileana Pacheco-Colón, Catalina Lopez-Quintero, Samuel W Hawes, Raul Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has demonstrated that externalizing symptoms, cannabis use problems, and poor decision-making abilities are each independently related to risky sexual behavior (RSB). However, few studies have examined the joint effect of these factors on RSB among a sample of adolescents. METHODS: The current study addresses this gap in the literature by examining how externalizing disorder symptoms, cannabis use, and decision-making abilities interact to predict RSB among a sample of adolescents (n = 204; Mage  = 15...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Victoria C Merritt, Amanda R Rabinowitz, Erin Guty, Jessica E Meyer, Liora S Greenberg, Peter A Arnett
INTRODUCTION: Interpreting change in cognitive performance across baseline and post-concussion evaluations is complicated by poor understanding of how incentives, such as return-to-play, may impact performance. This study examines the influence of an anticipated financial incentive on two sets of outcomes from the ImPACT computerized battery: (a) cognitive composites, meant to serve as measures of cognitive function, and (b) validity indices, proposed as indicators of invalid performance...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Noemí Cerulla, Àngels Arcusa, José-Blas Navarro, Nuria de la Osa, Maite Garolera, Cristina Enero, Glòria Chico, Luís Fernández-Morales
Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment (CRCI) can be an adverse effect in women treated for breast cancer. Some longitudinal studies reported deficits in attention, memory, and executive function following treatment, but other studies did not find cognitive changes. It is known that practice effects (PE) on repeated assessments with cognitive tests contribute to the discrepancies in these results, but its influence on scores has not been systematically explored. The present study examines the impact of PE on retest scores in a group of women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy and evaluated longitudinally...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Scott F Sorg, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine L Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on neuropsychological functioning in military Veterans with a remote history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 99 Veterans (mTBI = 53; military controls, MC = 46) who underwent neuropsychological assessment and APOE genotyping. Three neurocognitive composite scores-memory (α = .84), speed (α = ...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Andrew J Levine, Eileen Martin, Cynthia A Munro, Ned Sacktor, Steve Horvath, James T Becker
INTRODUCTION: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are estimated to affect approximately 50% of infected individuals at any one time. Dispersion, a type of intraindividual variability in neurocognitive test performance, has been identified as a potential behavioral marker of HAND; however, the specificity of dispersion to HAND and how it is influenced by participant effort when taking neurocognitive tests remain unclear. METHOD: Data were analyzed from 996 (474 HIV-, 522 HIV+) men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Carla Ruis
INTRODUCTION: Historically, most studies about awake brain surgery have focused on language or motor functions. More recently, other cognitive functions have also been assessed. However, a clear overview of the neuropsychological tests or test paradigms that are used during such procedures is missing. The primary research question of this review is: What neuropsychological tests or paradigms are used during awake brain surgery? This review aims to give an extensive overview about the assessment of cognition during awake brain surgery...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jeremy J Davis
INTRODUCTION: This study examined false positive rates on embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) in older adults grouped by cognitive status. METHOD: The research design involved secondary analysis of data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database. Participants (N = 22,688) were grouped by cognitive status: normal (n = 10,319), impaired (n = 1,194), amnestic or nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 5,414), and dementia (n = 5,761)...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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