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Neuroscience Research

Takayasu Mikuni
A neuron contains thousands of proteins, each of which mediates neuronal processes at distinct subcellular compartments. Thus, precise mapping of each protein with subcellular resolution in the brain is essential to understand neuronal processes at the molecular level. However, no conventional methods have provided rapid, generalizable, and high-throughput readouts for the subcellular localization of endogenous proteins in the mammalian brain. Recently, new methods based on in vivo genome editing have been developed for high-throughput determination of the protein localization with high specificity, resolution and contrast in mammalian brain tissue...
April 26, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Yuuki Ishita, Takahiro Chihara, Misako Okumura
Serotonin is a conserved neuromodulator that controls feeding behavior in response to environmental inputs in a wide range of species, including the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. To understand the detailed mechanism and evolution of serotonergic neuromodulation, the feeding behaviors of C. elegans and related species have been studied intensively because of their simple neural anatomy and genetic manipulability. C. elegans shows patterned movements of a feeding structure called the pharynx, and serotonin modulates feeding rhythms via several serotonin receptors expressed in pharyngeal motor neurons and muscles...
April 24, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Watcharin N Sovijit, Watcharee E Sovijit, Shaoxia Pu, Kento Usuda, Ryo Inoue, Gen Watanabe, Hirohito Yamaguchi, Kentaro Nagaoka
Depression and anxiety, which are severe symptoms during menopause, are caused by ceased ovarian activity and declined serum progesterone levels. Studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota can regulate brain function and change the microbiota composition during the perimenopause period. This study investigated whether progesterone affects depressant and anxious behaviors via gut microbiota. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, treatment with progesterone improved depressive and anxious behaviors, and gut microbiota composition was significantly changed...
April 22, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Hiroki Watanabe, Hiroki Tanaka, Sakriani Sakti, Satoshi Nakamura
Neural oscillations synchronize with the periodicity of external stimuli such as the rhythm of the speech amplitude envelope. This synchronization induces a speech-specific, replicable neural phase pattern across trials and enables perceived speech to be classified. In this study, we hypothesized that neural oscillations during articulatory imagination of speech could also synchronize with the rhythm of speech imagery. To validate the hypothesis, after replacing the imagined speech with overt speech due to the physically unobservable nature of imagined speech, we investigated (1) whether the EEG-based regressed speech envelopes correlate with the overt speech envelope and (2) whether EEG during the imagined speech can classify speech stimuli with different envelopes...
April 18, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Kichan Song, Susumu Takahashi, Yoshio Sakurai
Operant conditioning of neuronal activity is a core process for better operation of brain-machine interfaces. However, few studies have investigated the role of reinforcement schedules in neuronal operant conditioning, although they are very effective in behavioral operant conditioning. To test the effect of different reinforcement schedules, the authors trained single-neuron activity in the motor cortex using fixed ratio (FR) and variable ratio (VR) schedules in rats. Neuronal firing rates were enhanced in the FR but not in the VR schedule during conditioning, suggesting that the principles of operant conditioning of neuronal activity are different from those of behavioral responses...
April 16, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Baohui Zhai, Jingxuan Fu, Shitong Xiang, Yingchun Shang, Yuxing Yan, Tao Yin, Tao Zhang
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which could improve learning and memory, is widely used in psychiatry and neurology as a therapeutic approach. There are few studies reporting effective countermeasures to cognition decline in astronauts during space flight. Accordingly, we examined whether rTMS was able to significantly alleviate the learning and memory deficits induced by hindlimb unloading (HU), a general accepted rodent model to simulate microgravity, in mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, rTMS, HU, and HU + rTMS groups...
April 10, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Atsuhito Yamagishi, Maya Okada, Masatoshi Masuda, Nobuya Sato
The affiliative effect of oxytocin on behavior toward other individuals can be modulated by positive and negative aspects of those individuals. However, the context-dependent effect of oxytocin on helping behavior is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of oxytocin administration on helping behavior in rats. The rats learned to open a door to help a cagemate soaked with water. The rats were divided into Pair and Solo groups. The rats in the Pair group were housed with their cagemates and those in the Solo group were housed individually...
April 3, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Yuki H Hamano, Sho K Sugawara, Takaaki Yoshimoto, Norihiro Sadato
Neural substrates of motor engrams in the human brain are hard to identify because their dormant states are difficult to discriminate. We utilized eigenvector centrality (EC) to measure the network information that accumulates as an engram during learning. To discriminate engrams formed by emphasis on speed or accuracy, we conducted functional MRI on 58 normal volunteers as they performed a sequential finger-tapping task with the non-dominant left hand. Participants alternated between performing a tapping sequence as quickly as possible (maximum mode) or at a constant speed of 2 Hz, paced by a sequence-specifying visual cue (constant mode)...
March 30, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Shogo Takamiya, Shoko Yuki, Junya Hirokawa, Hiroyuki Manabe, Yoshio Sakurai
In this update article, we focus on "memory engrams", which are traces of long-term memory in the brain, and emphasizes that they are not static but dynamic. We first introduce the major findings in neuroscience and psychology reporting that memory engrams are sometimes diffuse and unstable, indicating that they are dynamically modified processes of consolidation and reconsolidation. Second, we introduce and discuss the concepts of cell assembly and engram cell, the former has been investigated by psychological experiments and behavioral electrophysiology and the latter is defined by recent combination of activity-dependent cell labelling with optogenetics to show causal relationships between cell population activity and behavioral changes...
March 30, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Tadashi Yamazaki, William Lennon
Long-term depression at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses plays a principal role in learning in the cerebellum, which acts as a supervised learning machine. Recent experiments demonstrate various forms of synaptic plasticity at different sites within the cerebellum. In this article, we take into consideration synaptic plasticity at parallel fiber-molecular layer interneuron synapses as well as at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, and propose that the cerebellar cortex performs reinforcement learning, another form of learning that is more capable than supervised learning...
March 25, 2019: Neuroscience Research
C Prablanc, F Panico, L Fleury, L Pisella, T Nijboer, S Kitazawa, Y Rossetti
When individuals are exposed to a constant change of the interplay with their environment, they are able to develop compensatory alterations of visuo-motor coordination in order to counteract the perturbation. Prism adaptation (PA) is a very simple tool that has been used for several decades to investigate adaptive processes. However, the specific terminology used in PA literature has continuously evolved and is still subjected to broad inconsistency. Growing confusion about the choice of terms used to describe specific processes and methods has yielded the critical need for clarifying the adaptation vocabulary...
March 22, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Ravi Tharakan, Simion Kreimer, Ceereena Ubaida-Mohien, Joelle Lavoie, Volodimir Olexiouk, Gerben Menschaert, Nicholas T Ingolia, Robert N Cole, Koko Ishizuka, Akira Sawa, Leslie G Nucifora
Brain derived peptides function as signaling molecules in the brain and regulate various physiological and behavioral processes. The low abundance and atypical fragmentation of these brain derived peptides makes detection using traditional proteomic methods challenging. In this study, we introduce and validate a new methodology for the discovery of novel peptides derived from mammalian brain. This methodology combines ribosome profiling and mass spectrometry-based peptidomics. Using this framework, we have identified a novel peptide in mouse whole brain whose expression is highest in the basal ganglia, hypothalamus and amygdala...
March 9, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Takatoshi Hikida, Makiko Morita, Mahomi Kuroiwa, Tom Macpherson, Takahide Shuto, Naoki Sotogaku, Minae Niwa, Akira Sawa, Akinori Nishi
Development of drug addictive behaviors is modulated by both genetic and environmental risk factors. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To address the role of adolescent stress in the development of drug addiction, we combined a transgenic mouse model in which a putative dominant-negative form of DISC1 under expressional control of the prion protein promoter is used as a genetic risk factor and adolescent social isolation stress as a gene-environmental interaction (GXE). Repeated cocaine exposure induced greater locomotion in the GXE group than in the other groups...
March 1, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Paolo Barbaresi, Emanuela Mensà, Andrea Sagrati, Laura Graciotti
The postnatal development of nitric oxide (NO)-producing intracallosal neurons was studied in rats by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P30. NADPH-d-positive neurons (NADPH-d+Ns ) were detected already at P0, mainly in the rostral region of the corpus callosum (cc). Their location and the intensity of staining allowed them to be classified as type I NO-producing neurons. At P0, tufts of intensely labeled fibers, probably corresponding to the callosal septa described in the monkey and human cc, entered the ventral cc region and reached its dorsal portion...
February 20, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yohei Okada
Cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS) facilitates the ipsilateral soleus H-reflex, which reflects the excitability of the spinal motoneuron pool. This study aimed to investigate whether this facilitation of the spinal motoneuron pool excitability by C-TMS is affected by cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) in a polarity-specific manner. Eleven healthy adults participated in this study. The H-reflex was measured from the right soleus muscle by electrical stimulation of the right tibial nerve...
February 19, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Shigeyoshi Fujisawa, Hokto Kazama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Neuroscience Research
Kentaro K Ishii, Kazushige Touhara
Reproduction is essential for any animal species. Reproductive behaviors, or sexual behaviors, are largely shaped by external sensory cues exchanged during sexual interaction. In many animals, including rodents, olfactory cues play a critical role in regulating sexual behavior. What exactly these olfactory cues are and how they impact animal behavior have been a central question in the field. Over the past few decades, many studies have dedicated to identifying an active compound that elicits sexual behavior from crude olfactory components...
March 2019: Neuroscience Research
Yuki Motegi, Masaaki Sato, Kazuhide Horiguchi, Masamichi Ohkura, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Yuji Ikegaya, Yasuyuki Fusamae, Yoshie Hongo, Minoru Suzuki, Koichi Ogawa, Miyako Takaki, Junichi Nakai
Most imaging studies of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that regulates the function of the gastrointestinal tract are so far performed using preparations isolated from animals, thus hindering the understanding of the ENS function in vivo. Here we report a method for imaging the ENS cellular network activity in living mice using a new transgenic mouse line that co-expresses G-CaMP6 and mCherry in the ENS combined with the suction-mediated stabilization of intestinal movements. With confocal or two-photon imaging, our method can visualize spontaneous and pharmacologically-evoked ENS network activity in living animals at cellular and subcellular resolutions, demonstrating the potential usefulness for studies of the ENS function in health and disease...
February 18, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Yoshihisa Ishihara, Takaichi Fukuda, Fumi Sato
The subiculum is one of output structures of the hippocampal formation and plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. Because its morphological features are less investigated than those of the hippocampus proper, we explored the internal structure of the rat subiculum using immunohistochemistry. The septal subiculum comprised one region, whereas the temporal subiculum consisted of two subregions, the distal subiculum (Sub1) and proximal subiculum (Sub2). The Sub2 contained four layers: (1) molecular layer, (2) superficial cell layer containing three types of pyramidal neurons immunolabeled for either nitric oxide synthase, Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4), or calbindin, (3) middle cell layer where boutons labeled for zinc transporter 3 and those for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 accumulated in the proximal and distal part of the Sub2, respectively, and (4) deep cell layer containing PCP4positive pyramidal cells, apical dendrites of which showed a characteristic bundling pattern...
February 12, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Koichi Yokosawa, Yui Murakami, Hiroaki Sato
Spontaneous 8- to 10-Hz "tau-rhythm" in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings has been reported to originate in the auditory cortex and be suppressed by sound. For unknown reasons however, tau-rhythm is often difficult to detect. In this study, we sought to characterize its emergence and auditory reactivity. Using a 306-channel MEG on 26 right-handed participants, we delivered six-second-long, natural, monaural sounds with pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral emotional valence. In eight participants, a clear, sound-related bilateral suppression of 8-10 Hz tau-rhythm occurred in the temporal areas, close to the source of the 100-ms auditory response...
February 12, 2019: Neuroscience Research
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