Kosuke Kazashi, Kakeru Miura, Sota Ueda, Kazuhito Utsunomiya, Mari Kiriyama, Motoki Yagisawa, Masayuki Ikeda, Masanobu Kano, Toshihide Tabata
The gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp technique is indispensable for recording neuronal activities without changing the intracellular Cl- concentration. Conventionally, gramicidin contained in the pipette fluid is delivered to the cell membrane by passive diffusion. Gramicidin deposited on the pipette orifice sometimes hampers giga-seal formation, and perforation progresses only slowly. These problems may be circumvented by delivering a high concentration of gramicidin from an intra-pipette capillary after a giga-seal is formed...
May 11, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Yuka Koike
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are characterized by nuclear depletion and cytoplasmic aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43). TDP-43 plays a key role in regulating the splicing of numerous genes, including TARDBP. This review aims to delineate two aspects of ALS/FTD pathogenesis associated with TDP-43 function. First, we provide novel mechanistic insights into the splicing of UNC13A, a TDP-43 target gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in UNC13A are the most common risk factors for ALS/FTD...
May 7, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Kotaro Yamashiro, Yuji Ikegaya, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto
Rhythmic movement is the fundamental motion dynamics characterized by repetitive patterns. Precisely defining onsets in rhythmic movement is essential for a comprehensive analysis of motor functions. Our study introduces an automated method for detecting rat's forelimb foot-strike onsets using deep learning tools. This method demonstrates high accuracy of onset detection by combining two techniques using joint coordinates and behavioral confidence scale. The analysis extends to neural oscillatory responses in the rat's somatosensory cortex, validating the effectiveness of our combined approach...
April 18, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Kengo Inada
Parental behavior is essential for mammalian offspring to survive. Because of this significance, elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms that facilitate parental behavior has received strong interest. Decades of studies utilizing pharmacology and molecular biology have revealed that in addition to its facilitatory effects on parturition and lactation, oxytocin (OT) promotes the expression of parental behavior in rodents. Recent studies have also described the modulation of sensory processing by OT and the interaction of the OT system with other brain regions associated with parental behavior...
April 18, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Kazumi Sogabe, Junichi Hata, Daisuke Yoshimaru, Kei Hagiya, Hirotaka James Okano, Hideyuki Okano
The field of aging biology, which aims to extend healthy lifespans and prevent age-related diseases, has turned its focus to the Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) to understand the aging process better. This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to non-invasively analyze the brains of 216 marmosets, investigating age-related changes in brain structure; the relationship between body weight and brain volume; and potential differences between males and females. The key findings revealed that, similar to humans, Callithrix jacchus experiences a reduction in total intracranial volume, cortex, subcortex, thalamus, and cingulate volumes as they age, highlighting site-dependent changes in brain tissue...
April 16, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Eiji Kitamura, Naomi Kanazawa, Takahiro Iizuka, Kazutoshi Nishiyama
One characteristic of migraine is recurrent headache attacks, which are known to be induced by changes in climatic variables such as atmospheric pressure, humidity, and outside temperature. However, the relationship between temperature changes and migraine remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between body temperature changes and cortical spreading depression (CSD) using KCl-induced rat models of CSD. We initially induced CSD under controlled conditions at a room temperature of 28°C on an operating table maintained at 37°C...
April 12, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Ryan S Chung, Jonathon Cavaleri, Shivani Sundaram, Zachary D Gilbert, Roberto Martin Del Campo-Vera, Andrea Leonor, Austin M Tang, Kuang-Hsuan Chen, Rinu Sebastian, Arthur Shao, Alexandra Kammen, Emiliano Tabarsi, Angad S Gogia, Xenos Mason, Christi Heck, Charles Y Liu, Spencer S Kellis, Brian Lee
The Stroop Task is a well-known neuropsychological task developed to investigate conflict processing in the human brain. Our group has utilized direct intracranial neural recordings in various brain regions during performance of a modified color-word Stroop Task to gain a mechanistic understanding of non-emotional human conflict processing. The purpose of this review article is to: 1) synthesize our own studies into a model of human conflict processing, 2) review the current literature on the Stroop Task and other conflict tasks to put our research in context, and 3) describe how these studies define a network in conflict processing...
April 4, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Erin Santos, William C Huffman, R Douglas Fields
Neural activity can increase the length of nodes of Ranvier (NOR) and slow impulse transmission; however, little is known about the biologically and clinically important recovery process. Sensory deprivation promotes neural plasticity in many phenomena, raising the question of whether recovery of NOR morphology is influenced by sensory deprivation. The results show that NOR gap length recovery in mouse optic nerve was not affected significantly by binocular visual deprivation imposed by maintaining mice in 24hr dark for 30 days compared to mice recovering under normal visual experience...
March 28, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Shinya Nakata, Kanako Iwasaki, Hiromasa Funato, Masashi Yanagisawa, Haruka Ozaki
Sleep is homeostatically regulated by sleep pressure, which increases during wakefulness and dissipates during sleep. Recent studies have suggested that the cerebral neocortex, a six-layered structure composed of various layer- and projection-specific neuronal subtypes, is involved in the representation of sleep pressure governed by transcriptional regulation. Here, we examined the transcriptomic changes in neuronal subtypes in the neocortex upon increased sleep pressure using single-nucleus RNA sequencing datasets and predicted the putative intracellular and intercellular molecules involved in transcriptome alterations...
March 25, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Takeru Nagayama, Sosuke Yagishita, Megumi Shibata, Akiko Furuno, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C Saido, Shuji Wakatsuki, Toshiyuki Araki
Sleep apnea is regarded as an important risk factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Chronic intermittent hypoxia treatment (IHT) given during the sleep period of the circadian cycle in experimental animals is a well-established sleep apnea model. Here we report that transient IHT for 4 days on AD model mice causes Aβ overproduction 2 months after IHT presumably via upregulation of synaptic BACE1, side-by-side with tau hyperphosphorylation. These results suggest that even transient IHT may be sufficient to cause long-lasting changes in the molecules measured as AD biomarkers in the brain...
March 19, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Kentaro Miyamoto
For animals, including humans, to have self-awareness, the ability to reflect on one's own perceptions and cognitions, which is known as metacognition, and an understanding of consistency of the self from the past to the present and into the future based on metacognition is essential. Through the mediation of self-consciousness, animals are thought to be able to proactively act to change their environment rather than passively responding to changes in their environment. However, it has not been known whether animals have self-awareness, and, if so, how it is implemented neurobiologically...
March 7, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Ruchira Pranay Patil, Nitin Kumar, Arveen Kaur, Rajendra Kumar Munian, Bishakh Bhattacharya, Subramaniam Ganesh, Rashmi Parihar
Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) affect distinct populations of neurons and manifest various clinical and pathological symptoms. A subset of ND prognoses has been linked to vascular risk factors. Consequently, the current study investigated retinal vascular abnormalities in a murine model of Lafora neurodegenerative disease (LD), a fatal and genetic form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy that affects children. Here, arterial rigidity was evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity and vasculature deformations in the retina...
March 6, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Kohei Kawano, Maiko Shobako, Taichi Furukawa, Tatsuhiro Toyooka, Kousaku Ohinata
Herein, we investigated the effects of Camembert cheese (CC) and its fatty acid contents on cognitive function in mice by employing the object recognition test to evaluate hippocampus-dependent memory. Orally administered CC improved the cognitive decline induced by a high-fat diet. Next, we focused on myristamide (MA), oleamide, and stearamide, which are fatty acid amides produced during the fermentation process of CC. We found that oral administration of MA improved cognitive decline. Notably, an improvement was not observed using myristic acid, a free fatty acid that is not amidated...
March 6, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Kotaro Shibayama, Haruna Nakajo, Yuki Tanimoto, Hisaya Kakinuma, Toshiyuki Shiraki, Takashi Tsuboi, Hitoshi Okamoto
The serotonergic neurons in the raphe nucleus are implicated in various cognitive functions such as learning and emotion. In vertebrates, the raphe nucleus is divided into the dorsal raphe and the median raphe. In contrast to the abundance of knowledge on the functions of the dorsal raphe, the roles of the serotonergic neurons in the median raphe are relatively unknown. The studies using zebrafish revealed that the median raphe serotonergic neurons receive input from the two distinct pathways from the habenula and the IPN...
March 4, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Shaolei Jiang, Bo Song, Zhongdong Liu, Shuifa Shen, Weiliang Qian, Jing Sun, Gaowei Chen, Yingjie Zhu
Although the brain can discriminate between various sweet substances, the underlying neural mechanisms of this complex behavior remain elusive. This study examines the role of the anterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (aPVT) in governing sweet preference in mice. We fed the mice six different diets with equal sweetness for six weeks: control diet (CD), high sucrose diet (HSD), high stevioside diet (HSSD), high xylitol diet (HXD), high glycyrrhizin diet (HGD), and high mogroside diet (HMD). The mice exhibited a marked preference specifically for the HSD and HSSD...
February 14, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Yaotian Gao, Keyi Lin, Bangyue Wang, Wei Ji, Jia Liu, Mengcheng Du, Wei Wang, Yan Li, Xiaowen Du, Yuyang Wang, Tao Jiang
Studies have demonstrated that the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) extensively affects brain function. Although cognitive dysfunction is considered a common manifestation in COVID-19 patients during the recovery period, the potential changes in decision-making ability, are not yet clear. Decision-making functions are essential to the work of healthcare workers. However, there is a lack of a multidimensional assessment of its functioning in COVID-19 cases. Here, we used tests combined with the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) stabilization feature amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) to explore decision-making behavior and brain neural activity changes in healthcare workers after mild COVID-19...
February 12, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Aurelio Cortese, Mitsuo Kawato
Theories of consciousness abound. However, it is difficult to arbitrate reliably among competing theories because they target different levels of neural and cognitive processing or anatomical loci, and only some were developed with computational models in mind. In particular, theories of consciousness need to fully address the three levels of understanding of the brain proposed by David Marr: computational theory, algorithms and hardware. Most major theories refer to only one or two levels, often indirectly...
February 3, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Rebecca Keogh, Joel Pearson
The inability to visualise was given the name aphantasia in 2015 by Zeman and colleagues. In 2018 we published research showing that fifteen individuals who self-identified as having aphantasia also demonstrated a lack of sensory visual imagery when undergoing the binocular rivalry imagery paradigm, suggesting more than just a metacognitive difference. Here we update these findings with over fifty participants with aphantasia and show that there is evidence for a lack of sensory imagery in aphantasia. How the binocular rivalry paradigm scores relate to the vividness of visual imagery questionnaire (VVIQ) and how aphantasia can be confirmed is discussed...
February 2, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Wanqin Tan, Yoko Ikoma, Yusuke Takahashi, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Hajime Hirase, Ko Matsui
The potential role of astrocytes in lateral habenula (LHb) in modulating anxiety was explored in this study. The habenula are a pair of small nuclei located above the thalamus, known for their involvement in punishment avoidance and anxiety. Herein, we observed an increase in theta-band oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs) in the LHb when mice were exposed to anxiety-inducing environments. Electrical stimulation of LHb at theta-band frequency promoted anxiety-like behavior. Calcium (Ca2+ ) levels and pH in the cytosol of astrocytes and local brain blood volume changes were studied in mice expressing either a Ca2+ or a pH sensor protein specifically in astrocytes and mScarlet fluorescent protein in the blood plasma using fiber photometry...
February 2, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Satoshi Hamano, Toshiki Yoshimizu, Mutsuki Mori, Akio Iida, Toshihide Yamashita
The purpose of this study was to analyze and elucidate the mechanisms of non-obese diabetes-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (NOD-EAE), an animal model of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), and to compare the pathological features with those observed in human progressive MS. Pathological analysis, flow cytometry analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and transcriptome analysis were performed at each pathological stage of the NOD-EAE mice to characterize each pathological stage in the lesion. The NOD-EAE mice showed a biphasic pattern of disease progression once in remission...
January 31, 2024: Neuroscience Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.