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Aquatic Toxicology

Giun-Yi Hung, Ciao-Ling Wu, Yi-Ling Chou, Chiang-Ting Chien, Jiun-Lin Horng, Li-Yih Lin
This study aimed to assess the sublethal effects of a platinum-based compound, cisplatin, using a zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were incubated in different concentrations of cisplatin at 0-96 h post-fertilization. Using a non-invasive, scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET), we measured the functions of hair cells (Ca2+ influx) and ionocytes ([H+ ] gradients). The survival rate, hatching rate, phenotype, body length, whole-body ion (Na+ , Cl- , and Ca2+ ) and Pt contents were also determined...
February 13, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Sara Rastgar, Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Ebrahim Zabihi, Abdolali Movahedinia, Amir Parviz Salati
The expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and their roles in important cell processes such as apoptosis in the macrophages exposed to estrogen/xenoestrogen have remained a complex secret. This study focused on the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and the stimulation of apoptosis in the macrophages from the two sexes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to 17-βestradiol (E2) and nonylphenol (NP) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. For the in vivo experiment, fish were exposed to NP (10-6 M and 10-7 M) and E2 (10-6 M) for 24 days...
February 13, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Mauricio Roza, Juliana da Silva Fonseca, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Caroline Stürmer de Oliveira, Tayndy Gubert Zocke, Juliana Lemos Dal Pizzol, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo, Adalto Bianchini
In this study, we measured the interactive effect of temperature (22 °C and 28 °C) and waterborne copper (Cu) contamination (9 μg/L and 20 μg/L) on the killifish Poecilia vivipara. Endpoints analyzed included parameters involved in Cu-accumulation, antioxidant capacity (antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals [ACAP] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation [LPO]) and upper thermal tolerance (critical thermal maximum [CTMax]). Results show that Cu hepatic accumulation was elevated in 28 °C in comparison to 22 °C in both exposure groups...
February 7, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Xin Ren, Weitong Wang, Xuesong Zhao, Baixiang Ren, Limin Chang
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is a re-emerging environmental contaminant used as a suitable substitute for brominated flame retardants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TDCIPP on thyroid disruption and growth inhibition in zebrafish (Danio rerio) offspring after chronic parental exposure, and to examine the possible molecular mechanisms involved. When adult zebrafish (4 months old) were exposed to 5.66, 25.55, or 92.8 μg TDCIPP/L for 90 days, bioconcentration of TDCIPP and its metabolic product [bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, BDCIPP] was observed in 7-day postfertilization (dpf) F1 larvae, which suggests the transfer of this compound from adult fish to their offspring...
February 7, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
A Vigneron, O Geffard, H Quéau, A François, A Chaumot
While the phenomenon of increased population tolerance to environmental contaminants has been widely reported for aquatic animal species living in contaminated ecosystems, the question of the nature of the tolerance, i.e., genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, has not yet been studied to the same degree and remains under debate when explaining the variability of toxicological sensitivity among field populations. The occurrence of both processes challenges the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, questioning the relevance of toxicity assessment procedures based on bioassays employing organisms from naive reference populations...
February 6, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Xingxing He, Changjian Xie, Yuhui Ma, Lin Wang, Xiao He, Weiqun Shi, Xiaodong Liu, Ying Liu, Zhiyong Zhang
Thorium (Th) is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has the potential to be used as a clean nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the aquatic toxicity of Th, especially in nanoparticulate form, which may be the main chemical species of Th in the natural waters. In this study, impacts of ThO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with two different sizes (52 ± 5 nm, s-ThO2 vs. 141 ± 6 nm, b-ThO2 ) on a green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) were evaluated. Results indicated that C...
February 5, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Paolo Cocci, Gilberto Mosconi, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) belong to the group of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and are known to affect endocrine and metabolic functions of liver. There is growing evidence that MDCs may also act modulating the expression levels of micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) and thus affecting post-transcriptional expression of hundreds of target genes. Herein, we used a gilthead sea bream in vitro hepatocyte model for analyzing the effects of an exposure to phthalates (i.e. DiDP) or flame retardants (i...
February 4, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Dariusz P Fey, Magdalena Jakubowska, Martyna Greszkiewicz, Eugeniusz Andrulewicz, Zbigniew Otremba, Barbara Urban-Malinga
The number of underwater cables transferring electric current in sea and freshwater environments is constantly increasing. As a result, the risk of negative effects of magnetic fields generated in the vicinity of those cables on fish eggs and larvae is also growing. This is especially the case for species that settle on the bottom for certain periods of time during early development. To study those effects, eggs and larvae of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were subjected under experimental conditions to a static magnetic field (MF) of 10 m T and a 50 Hz electromagnetic field (EMF) of 1 m T for a period of 36 days (i...
January 30, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Aoife Parsons, Anke Lange, Thomas H Hutchinson, Shinichi Miyagawa, Taisen Iguchi, Tetsuhiro Kudoh, Charles R Tyler
Brominated flame retardants are known to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in several vertebrate species, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process and their effects on TH-sensitive tissues during the stages of early development are not well characterised. In this study, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larvae to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) via the water for 96 h from fertilisation and assessed for lethality, effects on development and on the expression of a suite of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis via both real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) on whole body extracts and whole mount in situ hybridisation (WISH) to identify tissue targets...
January 28, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Łukasz Sikorski, Michał Baciak, Agnieszka Bęś, Barbara Adomas
Research into plants plays an important role in evaluations of water pollution with pesticides. Lemna minor (common duckweed) is widely used as an indicator organism in environmental risk assessments. The aim of this study was to determine by biological Lemna test and chemical methods the effect of glyphosate (GlyPh) concentrations of 0-40 μM on duckweed, an important link in the food chain. There are no published data on glyphosate's effects on the activity of enzymes of the amine biosynthesis pathway: ornithine decarboxylase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, tyrosine decarboxylase, lysine decarboxylase and arginine decarboxylase, and the content of shikimic acid and glyphosate residues in the tissues of common duckweed...
January 25, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Jun Chul Park, Min-Chul Lee, Deok-Seo Yoon, Jeonghoon Han, Heum Gi Park, Un-Ki Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
In this study, the entire glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), the major phase II detoxification enzyme, were identified in two marine copepod species Tigriopus japonicus and Paracyclopina nana. The genome-wide identification of GSTs in T. japonicus and P. nana resulted in 32 and 20 GSTs in total, respectively. Among the identified GSTs, two specific classes of GSTs, specifically sigma and delta/epsilon GSTs were the dominant form of cytosolic GSTs in T. japonicus, while delta/epsilon and mu classes were dominant cytosolic GSTs in P...
January 24, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Manisha Nanda, Vinod Kumar, Nighat Fatima, Vikas Pruthi, Monu Verma, P K Chauhan, Mikhail S Vlaskin, Anatoly V Grigorenko
Organophosphorus compounds exhibit a wide range of toxicity to mammals. In this study the effect of malathion on the growth and biochemical parameters of microalgae was evaluated. Three microalgae (Micractinium pusillum UUIND2, Chlorella singulari UUIND5 and Chlorella sorokiniana UUIND6) were used in this study. Among the three algal strains tested, Chlorella sorokiniana UUIND6 was able to tolerate 100 ppm of malathion. The photosynthetic pigments, the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents of microalgal cells were also analyzed...
January 24, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Navdeep Sandhu, Liang Liang, James McGeer, Robert M Dores, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Cadmium is an endocrine disruptor and inhibits corticosteroid production, but the mechanisms are far from clear. We tested the hypothesis that sublethal exposure to environmentally realistic levels of cadmium impairs cortisol production by disrupting the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) signaling in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.75 or 2.0 μg/L) in a flow-through system for 7 d and subjected to an acute secondary stressor to evoke a cortisol response...
January 24, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Pedro Martínez-Paz, Viviana Negri, Adrian Esteban-Arranz, José Luis Martínez-Guitarte, Paloma Ballesteros, Mónica Morales
Nowadays, due to the physical, chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT), its have been currently incorporated into biomedical products and they are employed in drug delivery drug administration, biosensor design, microbial treatments, consumer products, and new products containing CNT are expected in the future. CNT are hydrophobic and have a tendency to accumulate in sediments if they are released into aquatic ecosystems. Vertebrate studies have revealed concerns about the toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but there is very limited data on the toxic effects in aquatic invertebrate species...
January 21, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Charlotte Falaise, Patrick Cormier, Réjean Tremblay, Céline Audet, Jean-Sébastien Deschênes, François Turcotte, Cyrille François, Andreas Seger, Gustaaf Hallegraeff, Niels Lindquist, Damien Sirjacobs, Sylvie Gobert, Pierre Lejeune, Vincent Demoulin, Jean-Luc Mouget
Marennine is a water-soluble blue-green pigment produced by the marine diatom Haslea ostrearia. The diatom and its pigment are well known from oyster farming areas as the source of the greening of oyster gills, a natural process increasing their market value in Western France. Blooms of blue Haslea are also present outside oyster ponds and hence marine organisms can be exposed, periodically and locally, to significant amounts of marennine in natural environments. Due to its demonstrated antibacterial activities against marine pathogenic bacteria (e...
January 21, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Gavin K Dehnert, William H Karasov, Marc A Wolman
Aquatic herbicides are used worldwide to eradicate nuisance and invasive plants despite limited knowledge of their toxicity to non-target organisms. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a common active ingredient in commercial herbicide formulations, which triggers plant cell death by mimicking the plant-specific hormone auxin. Application practices of 2,4-D commercial herbicides typically coincide with yearly freshwater fish spawning periods. This practice exposes fish to xenobiotics at their vulnerable larval stages...
January 18, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Ahmed Abdelmoneim, Amira Abdu, Shuai Chen, Maria S Sepúlveda
Estrogenic contaminants released into water bodies are potentially affecting the reproduction of aquatic organisms. Exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen agonist commonly found in sewage effluents, has been shown to cause gonadal changes in male gonochoristic fish ranging from gonadal intersex to complete sex reversal. Although these gonadal changes have been well studied in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes, the molecular mechanisms behind them are poorly understood. Our objective was to study the signaling pathways elicited by exposure to different concentrations of EE2 in this species...
January 16, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Manuela D Machado, Eduardo V Soares
The increasing and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is the origin of their introduction in aquatic systems through domestic and livestock effluents. The occurrence of erythromycin (ERY), a macrolide antibiotic, in water bodies raises serious concerns about its potential toxic effect in aquatic biota (non-target organisms), particularly in microalgae, the first organisms in contact with aquatic contaminants. This study aimed to evaluate the possible toxic effects of ERY on relevant cell targets of the freshwater microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata...
January 16, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Qian Liu, Xuexi Tang, You Wang, Yingying Yang, Wei Zhang, Yunchen Zhao, Xinxin Zhang
As a newly emerging environmental contaminant, tributyl phosphate (TBP) is an additive flame retardant of high production volume that is frequently detected in biota and the environment. Despite evidence that TBP is a potential threat to marine organisms, ecotoxicology data for TBP in marine organisms at low trophic levels are scarce. In this study, the acute toxicological effect of TBP on the marine phytoplankton Phaeodactylum tricornutum was thoroughly investigated, and the possible mechanism was explored...
January 15, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Katalin Bakos, Robert Kovacs, Erna Balogh, Dora Kanaine Sipos, Marta Reining, Orsolya Gyomorei-Neuberger, Adrienn Balazs, Balazs Kriszt, Dora Bencsik, Andrea Csepeli, Gyongyi Gazsi, Yavor Hadzhiev, Bela Urbanyi, Ferenc Mueller, Balazs Kovacs, Zsolt Csenki
Environmental estrogens are a serious concern worldwide due to their ubiquity and adverse ecotoxicological and health effects. Chemical structure of these substances is highly diverse, therefore estrogenicity cannot be predicted on the basis of molecular structure. Furthermore, estimation of estrogenicity of environmental samples based on chemical analytics of suspects is difficult given the complex interaction of chemicals and the impact on estrogenicity. The full estrogenic impact of an environmental sample can thus only be revealed by a series of sensitive in vitro and in vivo ecotoxicological tests...
January 15, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
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