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Cognitive Neuropsychology

Nazbanou Nozari
According to most models of language production, to name a picture one must first map semantic features onto lexical items. Even if both sets of representations are intact, problems in mapping semantic to lexical representations can impair production. Individuals with this problem, sometimes referred to as "access deficit", often demonstrate evidence of preserved semantic knowledge (e.g., good comprehension), increased rate of lexical (usually semantic) errors in production, and inconsistent accuracy on naming the same picture on different occasions...
March 8, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Royce Anders, F-Xavier Alario
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Marina Laganaro, Caroline Bonnans, Raphael Fargier
Although speakers can go on producing utterances while doing concurrent tasks, language planning is affected in conditions of divided attention. It is however unclear whether a concurrent task impacts only lexical selection, or if post-lexical processing is also impacted. To elucidate this question, we reasoned that if an encoding process is under attentional control, this should be even more the case when the planning process is disrupted due to brain damage: increased error rates in left-hemisphere damaged participants under dual-task conditions should therefore shed light on which encoding processes need attentional resources...
February 27, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Gary M Oppenheim, Evangelia Balatsou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Manon Couvignou, Isabelle Peretz, Franck Ramus
This study investigated whether there is a co-occurrence between developmental dyslexia and congenital amusia in adults. First, a database of online musical tests on 18,000 participants was analysed. Self-reported dyslexic participants performed significantly lower on melodic skills than matched controls, suggesting a possible link between reading and musical disorders. In order to test this relationship more directly, we evaluated 20 participants diagnosed with dyslexia, 16 participants diagnosed with amusia, and their matched controls, with a whole battery of literacy (reading, fluency, spelling), phonological (verbal working memory, phonological awareness) and musical tests (melody, rhythm and metre perception, incidental memory)...
February 20, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Alissa Melinger, Rasha Abdel Rahman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Elisabeth Huberle, Peter Brugger
Space, numbers and time share similar processing mechanisms mediated by parietal cortex. In parallel to the spatial representation of numbers along a horizontal line, temporal information is mapped on a horizontal axis with short intervals (and the past) represented to the left of long intervals (and the future). Little is known about the representation of time in the presence of visuo-spatial deficits. We here report two experiments on the comparative judgment of time. Experiment 1 required patients with left-sided neglect to indicate which of two consecutively presented silent intervals was longer...
November 29, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Michael McCloskey, Caroline Reilhac, Teresa Schubert
Post-graphemic writing processes transform abstract letter representations into representations of writing movements. We describe an individual with an acquired post-graphemic writing deficit. NGN is normal in spelling words aloud, but impaired in writing words to dictation, with most errors involving letter substitutions (e.g., RUMOR written as BUMOR). NGN's deficit affects graphic motor plans, which specify the writing strokes for producing letters. Analyses of writing speed, fluency, and stroke patterns suggest that NGN's errors result from incomplete motor-plan activation...
November 19, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Albert Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Emily K Prentiss, Colleen L Schneider, Zoë R Williams, Bogachan Sahin, Bradford Z Mahon
The division of labour between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways is well established. The ventral stream supports object identification, while the dorsal stream supports online processing of visual information in the service of visually guided actions. Here, we report a case of an individual with a right inferior quadrantanopia who exhibited accurate spontaneous rotation of his wrist when grasping a target object in his blind visual field. His accurate wrist orientation was observed despite the fact that he exhibited no sensitivity to the orientation of the handle in a perceptual matching task...
October 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Christian Gerlach, Randi Starrfelt
In previous studies we have shown that a group of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP): (i) were impaired at recognizing objects when presented as silhouettes or fragmented forms; stimuli which place particular demands on global shape processing, (ii) that these impairments correlated with their face recognition deficit, (iii) that they showed a reduced global precedence effect in Navon's paradigm, and (iv) that the magnitude of their global precedence effect correlated with their face and object recognition performance...
September 11, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Simon Fischer-Baum, Rachel Mis, Heather Dial
We describe the performance of an aphasic individual, K.A., who showed a selective impairment affecting his ability to perceive spoken language, while largely sparing his ability to perceive written language and to produce spoken language. His spoken perception impairment left him unable to distinguish words or nonwords that differed on a single phoneme and he was no better than chance at auditory lexical decision or single spoken word and single picture matching with phonological foils. Strikingly, despite this profound impairment, K...
September 3, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Dustin Kai-Yan Lau, Karen Hau-Wan Ma
This study investigated the sublexical route in writing Chinese characters. Using a writing-to-dictation task, we compared neurotypical participants' performance on writing a set of 40 characters with homophones sharing different phonetic radicals and another set of 40 characters with homophones sharing the same phonetic radicals. The first set of stimuli was regarded as both syllable-to-character and syllable-to-radical inconsistent, while the second set of stimuli was considered syllable-to-radical consistent but syllable-to-character inconsistent...
August 26, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Victoria P Shuster, Michele Miozzo
We report on an English-speaking, aphasic individual (RB) with a spelling deficit more severely affecting orthographically irregular words for which phonologically plausible errors (PPEs) were produced. PPEs were observed for all word forms, with the exception of inflectional suffixes, despite the irregular sound-print mappings of many inflectional suffixes (e.g., walked → /wɔkt/). RB's pattern replicates that reported in Badecker, Rapp, and Caramazza (Badecker, W., Rapp, B., & Caramazza, A. (1996)...
August 2, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Michele Miozzo, Victoria P Shuster, Simon Fischer-Baum
Writing has long been considered to be dependent on speaking. However, modality-specific dissociations between written and spoken word production imply that word production is supported by distinct neural mechanisms in writing, which can be impaired or spared regardless of the intactness of spoken word production. Rapp et al. (2015). Modality and morphology: What we write may not be what we say. Psychological Science, 26, 892-902 documented a double dissociation where problems with regular inflections were selectively restricted to writing or speaking...
July 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Cristina Rosazza, Valeria Isella, Ildebrando Appollonio, Tim Shallice
Individuals with pure alexia often have visual field defects such as right homonymous hemianopia. Relatively few attempts have been made to develop criteria to differentiate pure alexia from hemianopic alexia. In this Commentary we provide concrete suggestions to distinguish the two disorders. We also report on additional assessments with two previously reported cases for whom the diagnosis of pure alexia was called into question and an alternative proposal was offered that the reading deficits were instead due to hemianopia...
July 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Adrià Rofes, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Vânia de Aguiar, Brenda Rapp, Kyrana Tsapkini, Gabriele Miceli
Electrical Stimulation (ES) is a neurostimulation technique that is used to localize language functions in the brain of people with intractable epilepsy and/or brain tumors. We reviewed 25 ES articles published between 1984 and 2018 and interpreted them from a cognitive neuropsychological perspective. Our aim was to highlight ES as a tool to further our understanding of cognitive models of language. We focused on associations and dissociations between cognitive functions within the framework of two non-neuroanatomically specified models of language...
July 12, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
J Richard Hanley, Andreas Sotiropoulos
The case is reported of an individual (N.K.) with a developmental spelling impairment (dysgraphia) who has no apparent problems in reading. His performance therefore provides further evidence of a classical dissociation between impaired spelling and preserved reading in individuals with developmental literacy problems. The dissociation is observed when N.K. is asked to read and spell in either his first (Greek) or his second language (English). An investigation of his spelling performance revealed that his impairment was more selective than that of P...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Lilach Khentov-Kraus, Naama Friedmann
This research describes vowel letter dyslexia, a new type of dyslexia characterized by impaired reading of vowel letters. We report a multiple case study of 23 Hebrew readers with vowel letter dyslexia (1 acquired, 22 developmental). They made vowel-letter migrations, omissions, and additions in reading, with significantly fewer errors on consonants, and without vowel errors in speech production. Based on 24 tests that examined various components and the analysis of errors in reading 33,483 words, we ruled out deficits in the orthographic-visual analysis and phonological-output stages, as well as visual, morphological, and auditory deficits...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Jorge Almeida, Lénia Amaral, Frank E Garcea, Diana Aguiar de Sousa, Shan Xu, Bradford Z Mahon, Isabel Pavão Martins
A major principle of organization of the visual system is between a dorsal stream that processes visuomotor information and a ventral stream that supports object recognition. Most research has focused on dissociating processing across these two streams. Here we focus on how the two streams interact. We tested neurologically-intact and impaired participants in an object categorization task over two classes of objects that depend on processing within both streams-hands and tools. We measured how unconscious processing of images from one of these categories (e...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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