Charlotte Kristensen, Lars E Larsen, Ramona Trebbien, Henrik E Jensen
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) originate from wild birds but have on several occasions jumped host barriers and are now also circulating in humans and mammals. The IAV host receptors (glycans with galactose linked to a sialic acid (SA) in an α2,3 or α2,6 linkage) are crucial host factors restricting inter-species transmission. In general, avian-origin IAVs show a preference for SA-α2,3 (avian receptor), whereas IAVs isolated from humans and pigs prefer SA-α2,6 (human receptor). N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) are the two major SAs...
December 22, 2023: Virus Research
Chia-Ming Su, Yu Fan Hung, Junyu Tang, Mingyuan Han, Roger Everett, Dongwan Yoo
Tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins are a family of regulatory proteins that can participate in the induction of antiviral cytokines and antagonize viral replication. Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is known as TRIM19 and is a major scaffold protein organizing the PML nuclear bodies (NBs). PML NBs are membrane-less organelles in the nucleus and play a diverse role in maintaining cellular homeostasis including antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a member virus of the family Arteriviridae, inhibits type I interferon (IFN) response during infection, and nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) of the virus has been identified as a potent IFN antagonist...
December 15, 2023: Virus Research
Andres Ceballos-Garzon, Sophie Comtet-Marre, Pierre Peyret
Although next-generation sequencing technologies are advancing rapidly, many research topics often require selective sequencing of genomic regions of interest. In addition, sequencing low-titre viruses is challenging, especially for coronaviruses, which are the largest RNA viruses. Prior to sequencing, enrichment of viral particles can help to significantly increase target sequence information as well as avoid large sequencing efforts and, consequently, can increase sensitivity and reduce sequencing costs. Targeting nucleic acids using capture by hybridization is another efficient method that can be performed by applying complementary probes (DNA or RNA baits) to directly enrich genetic information of interest while removing background non-target material...
December 13, 2023: Virus Research
Hikaru Fujii, Shuetsu Fukushi, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Noriyo Nagata, Satoshi Taniguchi, Masayuki Shimojima, Souichi Yamada, Hideki Tani, Akihiko Uda, Takahiro Maeki, Shizuko Harada, Takeshi Kurosu, Chang Kweng Lim, Eri Nakayama, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Shumpei Watanabe, Hideki Ebihara, Shigeru Morikawa, Masayuki Saijo
Heartland virus (HRTV) causes generalized symptoms, severe shock, and multiple organ failure. We previously reported that interferon-α/β receptor knockout (IFNAR-/- ) mice infected intraperitoneally with 1 × 107 tissue culture-infective dose (TCID50 ) of HRTV died, while those subcutaneously infected with the same dose of HRTV did not. The pathophysiology of IFNAR-/- mice infected with HRTV and the mechanism underlying the difference in disease severity, which depends on HRTV infection route, were analyzed in this study...
December 12, 2023: Virus Research
Zhiqiang Li, Xueqing Chen, Chang Ma, Xinyu Du, Yuanshu Zhang
ACE2 has been confirmed to be a functional receptor for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but research on animal coronaviruses, especially PEDV, are still unknown. The present study investigated whether ACE2 plays a role in receptor recognition and subsequent infection during PEDV invasion of host cells. IPEC-J2 cells stably expressing porcine ACE2 did not increase the production of PEDV-N but inhibited its expression. Porcine ACE2 knockout cells was generated by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in IPEC-J2 cells. The expression of PEDV-N did not decrease but slightly increased...
December 11, 2023: Virus Research
Ding-Qi Zhang, Qin-Hai Ma, Meng-Chu Yang, Yulia Yu Belyakova, Zi-Feng Yang, Peter S Radulov, Rui-Hong Chen, Li-Jun Yang, Jing-Yuan Wei, Yu-Tong Peng, Wu-Yan Zheng, Ivan A Yaremenko, Alexander O Terent'ev, Paolo Coghi, Vincent Kam Wai Wong
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Host cell invasion is mediated by the interaction of the viral spike protein (S) with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In this work, bio-layer interferometry (BLI) was used to screen a series of fifty-two peroxides, including aminoperoxides and bridged 1,2,4 - trioxolanes (ozonides) classes, with the aim of identifying small molecules that interfere with the RBD-ACE2 interaction...
December 9, 2023: Virus Research
Mikhail Oliveira Leastro, Vicente Pallás, Jesús Ángel Sánchez-Navarro
Brevipalpus-transmitted viruses (BTVs) have a significant negative economic impact on the citrus industry in Central and South America. Until now, only a few studies have explored the intracellular distribution and interaction of BTVs-encoded proteins with host factors, particularly for cileviruses, the main BTV responsible for the Citrus Leprosis (CL) disease. This study describes the nuclear localization of citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) capsid protein (p29) and its interaction with the fibrillarin (Fib2) within the nucleolar compartment and cell cytoplasm...
December 7, 2023: Virus Research
Daisymara Priscila de Almeida Marques, Luis Adan Flores Andrade, Erik Vinicius Sousa Reis, Felipe Alves Clarindo, Thaís de Fátima Silva Moraes, Karine Lima Lourenço, Wellington Alves De Barros, Nathália Evelyn Morais Costa, Lídia Maria de Andrade, Ágata Lopes-Ribeiro, Mariella Sousa Coêlho Maciel, Laura Cardoso Corrêa-Dias, Isabela Neves de Almeida, Thalita Souza Arantes, Vivian Costa Vasconcelos Litwinski, Leonardo Camilo de Oliveira, Mateus Sá Magalhães Serafim, Vinicius Gonçalves Maltarollo, Silvia Cristina Guatimosim Fonseca, Mário Morais Silva, Moriya Tsuji, Rafaela Salgado Ferreira, Luiza Valença Barreto, Edel Figueiredo Barbosa-Stancioli, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Ângelo de Fátima, Jordana Grazziela Alves Coelho Dos Reis
Here, the antiviral activity of aminoadamantane derivatives were evaluated against SARS-CoV-2. The compounds exhibited low cytotoxicity to Vero, HEK293 and CALU-3 cells up to a concentration of 1,000 µM. The inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of aminoadamantane was 39.71 µM in Vero CCL-81 cells and the derivatives showed significantly lower IC50 values, especially for compounds 3F4 (0.32 µM), 3F5 (0.44 µM) and 3E10 (1.28 µM). Additionally, derivatives 3F5 and 3E10 statistically reduced the fluorescence intensity of SARS-CoV-2 protein S from Vero cells at 10 µM...
December 6, 2023: Virus Research
Ping Li, Mangmang Shen, Wenjie Ma, Xin Zhou, Jiayin Shen
The prevalence of multidrug-resistant highly virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-hvKP) requires the development of new therapeutic agents. Herein, a novel lytic phage vB_KpnS_ZX4 against MDR-hvKP was discovered in hospital sewage. Phage vB_KpnS_ZX4 had a short latent period (5 min) and a large burst size (230 PFU/cell). It can rapidly reduce the number of bacteria in vitro and improve survival rates of bacteremic mice in vivo from 0 to 80% with a single injection of 108 PFU. LysZX4, an endolysin derived from vB_KpnS_ZX4, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity in vitro in combination with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
December 6, 2023: Virus Research
Kenji Ota, Hironori Sakai, Daisuke Sasaki, Fujiko Mitsumoto-Kaseida, Kei Sakamoto, Kosuke Kosai, Hiroo Hasegawa, Takahiro Takazono, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Kouichi Morita, Katsunori Yanagihara
Saliva is a key component of mucosal immunity, which protects the oral cavity from viral infections. However, salivary immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in terms of immunoglobulin dynamics and recognition, have not been investigated sufficiently. In this study, saliva samples were collected from individuals that received SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA against whole spike protein and S1 protein were measured. IgA against whole spike protein increased significantly following vaccination, while IgA against S1 protein did not...
December 4, 2023: Virus Research
Annette Choi, Ekaterina D Kots, Deanndria T Singleton, Harel Weinstein, Gary R Whittaker
We analyzed the spike protein S1/S2 cleavage of selected strains of a prototype coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) by the cellular protease furin, in order to understand the structural requirements underlying the sequence selectivity of the scissile segment. The probability of cleavage of selected MHV strains was first evaluated from furin cleavage scores predicted by the ProP computer software, and then cleavage was measured experimentally with a fluorogenic peptide cleavage assay consisting of S1/S2 peptide mimics and purified furin...
December 1, 2023: Virus Research
Yan-Jie Zhao, Tsuyoshi Hosoya, Syunichi Urayama, Daisuke Hagiwara
Mycoviruses have been described in all major fungal taxonomic groups. There has been much focus on commercially cultivated basidiomycetous macrofungi, while attention to viruses from ascomycetous macrofungi is lacking. Therefore, in this study, we conducted viral screening against fungal mycelia that were regenerated from ascomycetous macrofungi using agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) and fragmented and primer-ligated dsRNA sequencing (FLDS). Among the 57 isolates, four isolates were detected with virus-like bands through screening with AGE, and subsequent FLDS analyses determined the viral sequences...
December 1, 2023: Virus Research
Tao-Tao Han, Jia-Xuan Tang, Miao Fang, Peng Zhang, Pei- Yu Han, Zhen-Ni Yin, Yu Ma, Jian Zhang, Quan-You Lu
Mulberry crinkle leaf virus (MCLV) is a member of the genus Mulcrilevirus, family Geminiviridae. The expression and functions of the V4 and V5 genes encoded by the MCLV genome remain unknown. Here, we confirmed the expression of V4 and V5 by analyzing the V4 and V5 mRNAs and the promoter activity of individual ORFs upstream sequences. The functions of V4 and V5 were investigated by constructing Agrobacterium-mediated infectious clones of wild-type MCLV variant П (MCLV vII), MCLVwt and MCLV vП mutants, such as MCLVmV4 (start codon of V4 ORF mutated), MCLVdV4 (5'-end partial deletion of V4 ORF sequence) and MCLVmV5 (V5 ORF start codon mutated)...
December 1, 2023: Virus Research
Yaima Burgher-Pulgaron, Chantale Provost, Fernando Alvarez, Europa Meza-Serrano, Marie-Jeanne Pesant, Christopher A Price, Carl A Gagnon
The effects of porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) co-infection in epithelial cells of the swine respiratory tract is unknown. In the present study, the newborn pig trachea cell line NPTr-CD163, which is permissive to both viruses, was persistently infected with PCV2b and then with PRRSV. Viral replication, cell viability, cytokines' mRNA expression, and modulation of cellular genes expression were evaluated in infected cells. In NPTr-CD163 co-infection model, PCV2b replication was enhanced while PRRSV replication was suppressed...
December 1, 2023: Virus Research
Qianlin Li, Jun Dai, Yongxia Shi, Qiang Deng, Conghui Liao, Jicheng Huang, Jiahai Lu
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) are vector-borne diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus that pose a significant threat to global public health. Cases of acute Chikungunya fever often present similar clinical symptoms to other vector-borne diseases such as Dengue fever. In regions where multiple vector-borne diseases coexist, CHIKV is often overlooked or misdiagnosed as Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus or other viral infections, which delays its prevention and control...
November 30, 2023: Virus Research
Chi-Chong Chio, Hio-Wai Chan, Shih-Hsiang Chen, Hsing-I Huang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) primarily spreads through the respiratory tract and causes respiratory symptoms in children and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). Type III interferons (IFNs) play a critical role in inhibiting viral growth in respiratory epithelial cells. However, the mechanism by which EV-D68 induces type III IFN production is not yet fully understood. In this study, we show that EV-D68 infection stimulates Calu-3 cells to secrete IFN-λ. The transfection of EV-D68 viral RNA (vRNA) stimulated IFN-λ via MDA5...
November 29, 2023: Virus Research
Ibrahim Al Kodsi, Douaa El Rayes, Jad Koweyes, Charbel Al Khoury, Kelven Rahy, Sergio Thoumi, Marc Chamoun, Hoda Haddad, Jacques Mokhbat, Sima Tokajian
BACKGROUND: Early SARS-CoV-2 variant detection relies on testing and genomic surveillance. The Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has quickly become the dominant type among the previous circulating variants worldwide. Several subvariants have emerged exhibiting greater infectivity and immune evasion. In this study we aimed at studying the prevalence of the Omicron subvariants during the flu season and beyond in Lebanon through genomic screening and at determining the overall standing and trajectory of the pandemic in the country...
November 28, 2023: Virus Research
Xu Wen, Dian Li, Peng Chen, Ming Tan, Hui Zhang, Yuting Liu, Jihua Ren, Shengtao Cheng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Current antiviral drugs, including nucleoside analogs and interferon, fail to eliminate the HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), which serves as a transcript template in infected hepatocytes. Silencing the HBV X protein, which plays a crucial role in cccDNA transcription, is a promising approach to inhibit HBV replication. Therefore, the identification of novel compounds that can inhibit HBx-mediated cccDNA transcription is critical. METHODS: Initially, a compound library consisting of 715 monomers derived from traditional Chinese medicines known for their liver-protecting properties was established...
November 27, 2023: Virus Research
Cloé Desmet, Bruna Coelho-Cruz, Dora Mehn, Pascal Colpo, Ana Ruiz-Moreno
African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly contagious and deadly infectious disease. It is a threat to animal health with major potential economic and societal impact. Despite decades of ASF vaccine research, still some gaps in knowledge are hindering the development of a functional vaccine. Worth mentioning are gaps in understanding the mechanism of ASF infection and immunity, as well as the fact that - in case of this disease - virus proteins, so-called protective antigens, responsible for inducing protective immune responses in pigs are not identified yet...
November 27, 2023: Virus Research
Marvi Guerrero, Juan Hernández, Luis Gomez, Carlos Guerrero
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the impact of oxidative stress and extracellular matrix integrity on rotavirus infection in various cancer cells, including breast cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and melanoma. METHODS: We induced oxidative stress using ROS-inducing drugs (cisplatin, metronidazole, melatonin, valproic acid, doxorubicin, losartan, nitrofurantoin, and DHA) and investigated the effects on viral infection in MCF-7, Reh, A375, B16-F1, and SK-MEL-28 cells and the generation of virions from infected cells by harvesting the supernatants every two hours, reinfecting other cells, and analyzing cell viability and DNA fragmentation...
November 27, 2023: Virus Research
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