Thao Nguyen Vu, Justin Ryan Clark, Eris Jang, Roshan D'Souza, Le Phuong Nguyen, Naina Adren Pinto, Seongjun Yoo, Ricardo Enrique Abadie Saenz, Anthony William Maresso, Dongeun Yong
Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) present significant healthcare challenges due to limited treatment options. Bacteriophage (phage) therapy offers potential as an alternative treatment. However, the high host specificity of phages poses challenges for their therapeutic application. To broaden the phage spectrum, laboratory-based phage training using the Appelmans protocol was employed in this study. As a result, the protocol successfully expanded the host range of a phage cocktail targeting CRAB...
November 17, 2023: Virus Research
Wanda Christ, Jonas Klingström, Janne Tynell
The integrated stress response (ISR) is a eukaryotic cell pathway that triggers translational arrest and the formation of stress granules (SGs) in response to various stress signals, including those caused by viral infections. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein has been shown to disrupt SGs, but SARS-CoV-2 interactions with other components of the pathway remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers the ISR through activation of the eIF2α-kinase PKR while inhibiting a variety of downstream effects...
November 16, 2023: Virus Research
Yao Xiong, Keran Ma, Xiao Zou, Yantao Liang, Kaiyang Zheng, Tiancong Wang, Hong Zhang, Yue Dong, Ziyue Wang, Yundan Liu, Hongbing Shao, Andrew McMinn, Min Wang
Vibrio is a prevalent bacterial genus in aquatic environments and exhibits diverse metabolic capabilities, playing a vital role in marine biogeochemical cycles. This study isolated a novel virus infecting Vibrio cyclitrophicus, vB_VviC_ZQ26, from coastal waters near Qingdao, China. The vB_VviC_ZQ26 comprises a linear double-stranded DNA genome with a length of 42,982 bp and a G+C content of 43.21%, encoding 72 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Transmission electron microscope characterization indicates a siphoviral-morphology of vB_VviC_ZQ26...
November 14, 2023: Virus Research
Mengyao Wang, Di Zhao, Jing Li, Lijie Zhu, Xiaoxiao Duan, Youming Zhang, Yan Li, Fuxiao Liu
Cis-acting replication element (cre) is required for generating a diuridylylated VPg that acts as a protein primer to initiate the synthesis of picornaviral genome or antigenome. The cre is a stem-loop structure, dependent of different picornaviruses, located in different genomic regions. The AAACA motif is highly conserved in the apical loop of cre among several picornaviral members, and plays a key role in synthesizing a diuridylylated VPg. We previously demonstrated that senecavirus A (SVA) also possesses an AAACA-containing cre in its genome...
November 10, 2023: Virus Research
Rui Wang, Qiang Sun, Jinbo Xiao, Congcong Wang, Xiaoliang Li, Jichen Li, Yang Song, Huanhuan Lu, Ying Liu, Shuangli Zhu, Zhijun Liu, Yong Zhang
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by a group of enteroviruses is a global public health problem. In recent years, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has emerged as an important HFMD agent. Previous studies have shown that mutations of glycine 64 in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D polymerase), which is central to viral replication, cause phenotypic changes such as ribavirin resistance, increased replication fidelity, and virulence attenuation in poliovirus and enterovirus A71. In this study, we constructed CVA6 mutants with G64R, G64S, and G64T substitutions by site-directed mutagenesis in full-length cDNA of an infectious CVA6 strain cloned in pCDNA3...
November 8, 2023: Virus Research
Wanling Zhang, Haiyan Yang, Zhengyun Liu, Shengyu Wang, Tianyang Chen, Hong Song, Yunbin Xu, Fajin Li, Guo Luo, Huan Wang
EV71, a significant pathogen causing hand-foot-mouth disease, is associated with severe neurological complications such as brain stem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. While the role of mitochondrial dynamics in regulating the replication of numerous viruses is recognized, its specific involvement in EV71 remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells during EV71 infection. Utilizing laser confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we observed that EV71 infection induced mitochondrial elongation and damage to cristae structures, concurrently accelerating mitochondrial movement...
November 8, 2023: Virus Research
Olivia Wesula Lwande, Jonas Näslund, Andreas Sjödin, Rebecca Lantto, Verah Nafula Luande, Göran Bucht, Clas Ahlm, Bernard Agwanda, Vincent Obanda, Magnus Evander
Surveillance of mosquito vectors is critical for early detection, prevention and control of vector borne diseases. In this study we used advanced molecular tools, such as DNA barcoding in combination with novel sequencing technologies to discover new and already known viruses in genetically identified mosquito species. Mosquitoes were captured using BG sentinel traps in Western Kenya during May and July 2019, and homogenized individually before pooled into groups of ten mosquitoes. The pools and individual samples were then used for molecular analysis and to infect cell cultures...
November 7, 2023: Virus Research
Mikhail Oliveira Leastro, Elliot Watanabe Kitajima, Vicente Pallás, Jesús Angel Sánchez-Navarro
Reverse genetics systems represent an important tool for studying the molecular and functional processes of viral infection. Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) (genus cilevirus, family Kitaviridae) is the main pathogen responsible for the citrus leprosis (CL) disease in Latin America, one of the most economically important diseases of the citrus industry. Molecular studies of this pathosystem are limited due to the lack of infectious clones. Here, we report the construction and validation of a CiLV-C infectious cDNA clone based on an agroinfection system...
November 7, 2023: Virus Research
M Joubert, N van den Berg, J Theron, V Swart
Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) is the type species of the family Avsunviroidae and the causal agent of avocado sunblotch disease. The disease is characterised by the presence of chlorotic lesions on avocado fruit, leaves and/or stems. Infected trees may remain without chlorosis for extended periods of time, though distorted growth and reduced yield has been observed in these cases. The molecular effects of ASBVd on avocado, and members of the Avsunviroidae on their respective hosts in general, remain poorly understood...
November 6, 2023: Virus Research
Siyuan Liu, Wei Chen, Raphael Nyaruaba, Shunlong Wang, Cihan Yang, Qun Wu, Ying Liu, Puyu Liu, Fei Wang, Jingling Wang, Zhiming Yuan, Dingwei Sun, Han Xia
OBJECTIVES: Oya virus (OYAV) and Ebinur lake virus (EBIV) belong to the genus Orthobunyavirus within the Peribunyaviridae family, and both are recognized as the novel virus with potential threat to the animal or public health. Given their potential to cause outbreaks and their detection in diverse samples across different regions, the need for a reliable and efficient molecular detection method for OYAV and EBIV becomes imperative. METHODS: The S-segment of OYAV and EBIV was used for designing specific primer and probe sets, which were employed in a real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay...
November 6, 2023: Virus Research
Cecilia Di Genova, Gabrielle Sutton, Romain Paillot, Nigel Temperton, Stéphane Pronost, Simon D Scott
Infection with equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), a DNA virus of the Herpesviridae family represents a significant welfare issue in horses and a great impact on the equine industry. During EHV-1 infection, entry of the virus into different cell types is complex due to the presence of twelve glycoproteins (GPs) on the viral envelope. To investigate virus entry mechanisms, specific combinations of GPs were pseudotyped onto lentiviral vectors. Pseudotyped virus (PV) particles bearing gB, gD, gH and gL were able to transduce several target cell lines (HEK293T/17, RK13, CHO-K1, FHK-Tcl3, MDCK I & II), demonstrating that these four EHV-1 glycoproteins are both essential and sufficient for cell entry...
November 4, 2023: Virus Research
Martin Faye, Modeste Name Faye, Babacar Ndiaye, Moussa Moïse Diagne, Safietou Sankhe, Ndeye Marième Top, Amadou Diallo, Cheikh Loucoubar, Ndongo Dia, Amadou Alpha Sall, Ousmane Faye
In Senegal, since its first detection in early March 2020, genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 isolates has led to the identification of the emergence of the Omicron BA.4 and BA.5 sublineages from early June 2022. To investigate the origin of a cluster of cases in Northern Senegal on July 2022, isolates were analysed using Next-generation sequencing and phylogeny. Our data provided evidence of the origin of the cluster of BA.4 cases from a XAS recombinant, that is to date, the first reported sequence of this variant from Senegal...
November 3, 2023: Virus Research
Bingxu Qian, Yongxin Hu, Cong Liu, Dongxia Zheng, Xiuju Han, Mingxia Gong, Yanli Zou, Dexin Zeng, Kai Liao, Yurun Miao, Xiaodong Wu, Jianjun Dai, Zhiliang Wang, Feng Xue
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) infection causes an acute and highly contagious disease in swine, resulting in significant economic losses and societal harm worldwide. Currently, there are no effective vaccines or antiviral drugs available for ASFV. Tetrandrine (TET) is extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Stephania tetrandrae, possesses diverse biological functions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities. The study comprehensively evaluated the anti-ASFV effect of TET and validated it through biological assays...
November 1, 2023: Virus Research
Shreya Banerjee, Rakesh Sarkar, Arpita Mukherjee, Suvrotoa Mitra, Animesh Gope, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar
Rotavirus (RV) is the primary etiological agent of virus-associated gastroenteritis in infants, causing 200,000 childhood death annually. Despite the availability of vaccines, rotaviral diarrhea continues to be a severe issue in underdeveloped nations in Asia and Africa. The situation demands continual studies on host-rotavirus interactions to understand disease pathogenesis and develop effective antiviral therapeutics. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are a subset of non-coding RNAs of more than 200 nucleotides in length, are reported to play a regulatory function in numerous viral infections...
November 1, 2023: Virus Research
Huan Chen, Pu Zhao, Caisheng Zhang, Xin Ming, Chaofeng Zhang, Yong-Sam Jung, Yingjuan Qian
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a contagious intestinal disease caused by α-coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). At present, no effective vaccine is available to prevent the disease. Therefore, research for novel antivirals is important. This study aimed to identify the antiviral mechanism of Veratramine (VAM), which actively inhibits PEDV replication with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of ∼ 5 µM. Upon VAM treatment, both PEDV-nucleocapsid (N) protein level and virus titer decreased significantly...
November 1, 2023: Virus Research
Huiwei Deng, Guangyi Cong, Hongfeng Wang, Zedong Hu, Da Shi, Hongyan Shi, Changyou Xia, Fang Fu, Li Feng
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a pathogen of infectious reproductive disease, which can cause stillbirth, mummification, embryo death, and infertility (SMEDI) syndrome in pigs. The objective of this study was to gain new insights into the evolution and phylogeny of the PPV1 genome. In this study, we isolated two new PPV1 (HLJ202108-Y and SDLC202109) from northern China and sequenced their whole genomes. The new isolates were found to have three amino acid substitutions (K195R, K562R, and S578P) in nonstructural protein 1...
November 1, 2023: Virus Research
Peng Wang, Shouhui Pan, Yun Zheng, Xin Pan, Zhongnan Gao, Xuan Zhou, Fei Dai, Zhanbiao Li, Qingchao Deng, Shouguo Fang, Haoran Wang, Songbai Zhang
Endornaviruses are known to occur widely in plants, fungi, and oomycetes, but our understanding of their diversity and distribution is limited. In this study, we report the discovery of four endornaviruses tentatively named Setosphaeria turcica endornavirus 1 (StEV1), Setosphaeria turcica endornavirus 2 (StEV2), Bipolaris maydis endornavirus 1 (BmEV1), and Bipolaris maydis endornavirus 2 (BmEV2). StEV1 and StEV2 infect Exserohilum turcicum, while BmEV1 and BmEV2 infect Bipolaris maydis. The four viruses encode a polyprotein with less than 40% amino acid sequence identity to other known endornaviruses, indicating that they are novel, previously undescribed endornaviruses...
October 26, 2023: Virus Research
Zeqiong Cai, Han Bai, Doudou Ren, Biyun Xue, Yijia Liu, Tian Gong, Xuan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Junsheng Zhu, Binyin Shi, Chengsheng Zhang
Integrins have been suggested to be involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate how integrins facilitate the ACE2-mediated cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2. We first tested the susceptibility of a panel of human cell lines to SARS-CoV-2 infection using the spike protein pseudotyped virus assay and examined the expression levels of integrins in these cell lines by qPCR, western blot and flow cytometry. We found that integrin αvβ1 was highly enriched in the SARS-CoV-2 susceptible cell lines...
October 24, 2023: Virus Research
Feng He, Zhuo Liu, Miao Feng, Zonghui Xiao, Xiaoyu Yi, Jianxin Wu, Zhewei Liu, Gaoyu Wang, Le Li, Hailan Yao
Evidence is emerging on the roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as regulatory factors in a variety of viral infection processes, but the mechanisms underlying their functions in coxsackievirus group B type3 (CVB3)-induced acute viral myocarditis have not been explicitly delineated. We previously demonstrated that CVB3 infection decreases miRNA-21 expression; however, lncRNAs that regulate the miRNA-21-dependent CVB3 disease process have yet to be identified. To evaluate lncRNAs upstream of miRNA-21, differentially expressed lncRNAs in CVB3-infected mouse hearts were identified by microarray analysis and lncRNA/miRNA-21 interactions were predicted bioinformatically...
October 19, 2023: Virus Research
Jeong-Min Hong, Ali Newaz Munna, Ji-Hong Moon, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae-Won Seol, Seong-Kug Eo, Sang-Youel Park
Flaviviruses are a major cause of viral diseases worldwide, for which effective treatments have yet to be discovered. The prion protein (PrPc) is abundantly expressed in brain cells and has been shown to play a variety of roles, including neuroprotection, cell homeostasis, and regulation of cellular signaling. However, it is still unclear whether PrPc can protect against flaviviruses. In this study, we investigated the role of PrPc in regulating autophagy flux and its potential antiviral activity during Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection...
October 17, 2023: Virus Research
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