Danlei Liu, Ka-Yi Leung, Hoi-Yan Lam, Ruiqi Zhang, Yujing Fan, Xiaochun Xie, Kwok-Hung Chan, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung
BACKGROUND: The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has lasted for three years. Coinfection with seasonal influenza may occur resulting in more severe diseases. The interaction between these two viruses for infection and the effect of antiviral treatment remains unclear. METHODS: A SARS-CoV-2 and influenza H1N1 coinfection model on Calu-3 cell line was established, upon which the simultaneous and sequential coinfection was evaluated by comparing the viral load...
April 13, 2024: Virus Research
Aliona Avižinienė, Indrė Dalgėdienė, Julija Armalytė, Rasa Petraitytė-Burneikienė
Non-infectious virus-like nanoparticles mimic native virus structures and can be modified by inserting foreign protein fragments, making them immunogenic tools for antigen presentation. This study investigated, for the first time, the immunogenicity of long and flexible polytubes formed by yeast-expressed tail tube protein gp39 of bacteriophage vB_EcoS_NBD2 and evaluated their ability to elicit an immune response against the inserted protein fragments. Protein gp39-based polytubes induced humoral immune response in mice, even without the use of adjuvant...
April 11, 2024: Virus Research
Xiao-Jie Xu, Xu-Jie Sun, Chun-Ju Liu, Xiu-Zhai Chen, Qing Zhu, Yan-Ping Tian, Xiang-Dong Li
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is one of the major cash crops in China. Potato virus Y (PVY), a representative member of the genus Potyvirus, greatly reduces the quality and yield of tobacco leaves by inducing veinal necrosis. Mild strain-mediated cross-protection is an attractive method of controlling diseases caused by PVY. Currently, there is a lack of effective and stable attenuated PVY mutants. Potyviral helper component-protease (HC-Pro) is a likely target for the development of mild strains. Our previous studies showed that the residues lysine at positions 124 and 182 (K124 and K182 ) in HC-Pro were involved in PVY virulence, and the conserved KITC motif in HC-Pro was involved in aphid transmission...
April 10, 2024: Virus Research
Vera J E van Vliet, Anuradha De Silva, Brian L Mark, Marjolein Kikkert
Several viruses are now known to code for deubiquitinating proteases in their genomes. Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification of cellular substrates involved in many processes in the cell, including in innate immune signalling. This post-translational modification is regulated by the ubiquitin conjugation machinery, as well as various host deubiquitinating enzymes. The conjugation of ubiquitin chains to several innate immune related factors is often needed to induce downstream signalling, shaping the antiviral response...
April 6, 2024: Virus Research
Raiana S Machado, Fernando N Tavares, Ivanildo P Sousa
Coxsackieviruses-induced infections, particularly in infants and young children, are one of the most important public health issues in low- and middle-income countries, where the surveillance system varies substantially, and these manifestations have been disregarded. They are widespread throughout the world and are responsible for a broad spectrum of human diseases, from mildly symptomatic conditions to severe acute and chronic disorders. Coxsackieviruses (CV) have been found to have 27 identified genotypes, with overlaps in clinical phenotypes between genotypes...
March 30, 2024: Virus Research
Yunling Chen, Zhaoqing Yin, Xiaonan Zhang, Yiwei Zhao, Tinghao Liu, Wei-Yang Lu, Shuanglian Wang
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signals in various non-neuronal cells including hepatocytes and some immune cells. Studies, including ours, show that type A GABA receptors (GABAA Rs)-mediated signaling occurs in macrophages regulating tissue-specific functions. Our recent study reveals that activation of GABAA Rs in liver macrophages promotes their M2-like polarization and increases HBV replication in mice. This short article briefly summarizes the GABA signaling system in macrophages and discusses potential mechanisms by which GABA signaling promotes HBV replication...
March 30, 2024: Virus Research
Krishna Khairnar, Siddharth Singh Tomar
Reading the viral genome through whole genome sequencing (WGS) enables the detection of changes in the viral genome. The rapid changes in the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome may cause immune escape leading to an increase in the pathogenicity or infectivity. Monitoring mutations through genomic surveillance helps understand the amino acid changes resulting from the mutation. These amino acid changes, especially in the spike glycoprotein, may have implications on the pathogenicity of the virus by rendering it immune-escape...
March 23, 2024: Virus Research
Jessica Panajotov, Alexander Falkenhagen, Ashish K Gadicherla, Reimar Johne
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. Whereas HEV genotypes 1-4 of species Paslahepevirus balayani are commonly found in humans, infections with ratHEV (species Rocahepevirus ratti) were previously considered to be restricted to rats. However, several cases of human ratHEV infections have been described recently. To investigate the zoonotic potential of this virus, a genomic clone was constructed here based on sequence data of ratHEV strain pt2, originally identified in a human patient with acute hepatitis from Hongkong...
March 22, 2024: Virus Research
Alexandra Schäfer, Lisa E Gralinski, Sarah R Leist, Brea K Hampton, Michael A Mooney, Kara L Jensen, Rachel L Graham, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Sophia Jeng, Steven Chamberlin, Timothy A Bell, D Trevor Scobey, Colton L Linnertz, Laura A VanBlargan, Larissa B Thackray, Pablo Hock, Darla R Miller, Ginger D Shaw, Michael S Diamond, Fernando Pardo Manuel de Villena, Shannon K McWeeney, Mark T Heise, Vineet D Menachery, Martin T Ferris, Ralph S Baric
Coronavirus (CoV) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in humans and other mammals, as evidenced by the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory CoV (SARS-CoV) in 2003, Middle East Respiratory CoV (MERS-CoV) in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. Although poorly characterized, natural genetic variation in human and other mammals modulate virus pathogenesis, as reflected by the spectrum of clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infections to lethal disease. Using multiple human epidemic and zoonotic Sarbecoviruses, coupled with murine Collaborative Cross genetic reference populations, we identify several dozen quantitative trait loci that regulate SARS-like group-2B CoV pathogenesis and replication...
March 22, 2024: Virus Research
Timo Schmitz, Dennis Freuer, Yvonne Goßlau, Tobias Dominik Warm, Alexander Hyhlik-Dürr, Jakob Linseisen, Christa Meisinger, Inge Kirchberger
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether specific immune response plasma proteins can predict an elevated risk of developing Long COVID symptoms or fatigue severity after SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This study was based on 257 outpatients with test-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between February 2020 and January 2021. At least 12 weeks after the acute infection, 92 plasma proteins were measured using the Olink Target 96 immune response panel (median time between acute infection and venous blood sampling was 38...
March 22, 2024: Virus Research
Yi-Chen Wu, Hui-Xiang Lai, Ji-Min Li, Kit-Man Fung, Tien-Sheng Tseng
The heightened transmissibility and capacity of African swine fever virus (ASFV) induce fatal diseases in domestic pigs and wild boars, posing significant economic repercussions and global threats. Despite extensive research efforts, the development of potent vaccines or treatments for ASFV remains a persistent challenge. Recently, inhibiting the AsfvPolX, a key DNA repair enzyme, emerges as a feasible strategy to disrupt viral replication and control ASFV infections. In this study, a comprehensive approach involving pharmacophore-based inhibitor screening, coupled with biochemical and biophysical analyses, were implemented to identify, characterize, and validate potential inhibitors targeting AsfvPolX...
March 21, 2024: Virus Research
Mathieu Mahillon, Justine Brodard, Ruben Schoen, Marleen Botermans, Nathalie Dubuis, Raphaël Groux, John R Pannell, Arnaud G Blouin, Olivier Schumpp
We report the characterization of a novel tri-segmented RNA virus infecting Mercurialis annua, a common crop weed and model species in plant science. The virus, named "Mercurialis latent virus" (MeLaV) was first identified in a mixed infection with the recently described Mercurialis orthotospovirus 1 (MerV1) on symptomatic plants grown in glasshouses in Lausanne (Switzerland). Both viruses were found to be transmitted by Thrips tabaci, which presumably help the inoculation of infected pollen in the case of MeLaV...
March 18, 2024: Virus Research
Liaofu Luo, Jun Lv
With the rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2, the emergence of new strains is an intriguing question. This paper presents an evolutionary theory to analyze the mutations of the virus and identify the conditions that lead to the generation of new strains. We represent the virus variants using a 4-letter sequence based on amino acid mutations on the spike protein and employ an n-distance algorithm to derive a variant phylogenetic tree. We show that the theoretically-derived tree aligns with experimental data on virus evolution...
March 18, 2024: Virus Research
Marie Glenet, Anne-Laure Lebreil, Yohan N'Guyen, Ittah Meyer, Stephanie Baud, Laurent Andreoletti
To assess the genetic characteristics of the early emerging SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant strains, we retrospectively analyzed a collection of 150 nasopharyngeal samples taken from a series of outpatient cases tested positive by a referenced qRT-PCR assay during the reported period of Omicron variant emergence in December 2021, in northeastern region of France. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike sequences revealed that only 3 (2%) of these detected strains were Omicron variants, while 147 (98%) were identified as previously described delta variants...
March 14, 2024: Virus Research
Maria Kuzikov, Jeanette Reinshagen, Krzysztof Wycisk, Angela Corona, Francesca Esposito, Paolo Malune, Candida Manelfi, Daniela Iaconis, Andrea Beccari, Enzo Tramontano, Marcin Nowotny, Björn Windshügel, Philip Gribbon, Andrea Zaliani
Coronaviruses contain one of the largest genomes among the RNA viruses, coding for 14-16 non-structural proteins (nsp) that are involved in proteolytic processing, genome replication and transcription, and four structural proteins that build the core of the mature virion. Due to conservation across coronaviruses, nsps form a group of promising drug targets as their inhibition directly affects viral replication and, therefore, progression of infection. A minimal but fully functional replication and transcription complex was shown to be formed by one RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), one nsp7, two nsp8 accessory subunits, and two helicase (nsp13) enzymes...
March 13, 2024: Virus Research
Haifa Khemiri, Iolanda Mangone, Mariem Gdoura, Khawla Mefteh, Anissa Chouikha, Wasfi Fares, Alessio Lorusso, Massimo Ancora, Adriano Di Pasquale, Cesare Cammà, Samar Ben Halima, Henda Krichen, Hanen Smaoui, Ilhem Boutiba Ben Boubaker, Olfa Bahri, Henda Touzi, Amel Sadraoui, Zina Meddeb, Nahed Hogga, Mouna Safer, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Henda Triki, Sondes Haddad-Boubaker
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has led to several cases among children. However, limited information is available from North African countries. This study describes the SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in Tunisian pediatric population during successive waves. A total of 447 complete sequences were obtained from individuals aged from 13 days to 18 years, between March 2020 and September 2022: 369 sequences generated during this study and 78 ones, available in GISAID, previously obtained from Tunisian pediatric patients...
March 13, 2024: Virus Research
Yujie Sun, Duo Shi, Jiting Sun, Yan Zhang, Wen Liu, Bing Luo
This study aims to explore the role and regulatory mechanism of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) in the development of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC). Here we showed that EBV can upregulate the expression and activity of YAP1 protein through its encoded latent products EBV-encoded small RNA 1 (EBER1) and latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), enhancing the malignant characteristics of EBVaGC cells. In addition, we also showed that overexpression of YAP1 induced the expression of EBV encoding latent and lytic phase genes and proteins in the epithelial cell line AGS-EBV infected with EBV, and increased the copy number of the EBV genome, while loss of YAP1 expression reduced the aforementioned indicators...
March 11, 2024: Virus Research
Imen Larbi, Arbi Marwa, Oussama Souai, Halima Tougorti, Gary David Butcher, Jihene Nsiri, Chaima Badr, Imen El Behi, Jihene Lachhab, Abdeljelil Ghram
Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 is endemic in commercial poultry in Tunisia. This subtype affects poultry and wild birds in Tunisia and poses a potential zoonotic risk. Tunisian H9N2 strains carry, in their hemagglutinins, the human-like marker 226L that is most influential in avian-to-human viral transmission. For a better understanding of how ecological aspects of the H9N2 virus and its circulation in poultry, migratory birds and environment shapes the spread of the dissemination of H9N2 in Tunisia, herein, we investigate the epidemiological, evolutionary and zoonotic potential of seven H9N2 poultry isolates and sequence their whole genome...
March 9, 2024: Virus Research
Sidra Hassan, Urayama Syun-Ichi, Saba Shabeer, Tahseen Ali Kiran, Chien-Fu Wu, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Robert H A Coutts, Ioly Kotta Loizou, Atif Jamal
Talaromyces spp. have a worldwide distribution, are ecologically diverse and have been isolated from numerous different substrates. Talaromyces spp. are considered biotechnologically important due to their ability to produce a range of enzymes and pigments. Talaromyces pinophilus, belonging to genus Talaromyces and family Trichocomaceae, is known for producing several important bioactive metabolites. Here we report the isolation and characterisation of a partitivirus from T. pinophilus which we have nominated Talaromyces pinophilus partitivirus-1 (TpPV-1)...
March 5, 2024: Virus Research
Siming Zhu, Xin Chen, Dalin He, Meijuan Zhang, Xinhong Man, Yi Tang, Youxiang Diao
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a type of RNA with a length greater than 200 nt and lacking coding ability. In recent years, a considerable number of lncRNAs have been found to have important functions. The lncRNA plays an important role in growth and development, body metabolism, immune function, and regulation of viral replication. A lncRNA, MSTRG8505.2, was screened and named lncRNA DLY6E, which was a new duck-derived lncRNA. The lncRNADLY6E in this study has a complex secondary structure, specifically distributed in the heart, liver and other organs...
March 2, 2024: Virus Research
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