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Virus Research

Guoqing Chen, Yang Fang, Qing Yan, Pei Li, Lijuan Wu, Guozhong Feng
DNA polymerase (DNApol) is highly conserved in baculovirus and is required for viral DNA replication. However, little is known about gammabaculovirus DNApol. Here DNApol of the gammabaculovirus Neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeleNPV) was cloned into a dnapol-null alphabaculovirus AcMNPV bacmid, creating Bac-GFP-AcΔPol-NlPol. The resulting recombinant bacmid did not spread to neighboring cells, virus growth curve and real-time PCR revealed that NeleNPV dnapol substitution did not rescue AcMNPV DNA replication and virus production...
April 13, 2019: Virus Research
Yan-Gang Sun, Rui Li, Sha Xie, Songlin Qiao, Qingmei Li, Xin-Xin Chen, Ruiguang Deng, Gaiping Zhang
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) collagenase equivalent domain (COE, residues 499-638), a crucial antigenic region within the viral spike (S) glycoprotein, has been widely utilized for the development of subunit vaccines to prevent viral infection. In the current study, we immunized BALB/c mice with recombinant truncated PEDV COE protein and obtained 14 COE-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Based on the reactivity analysis of the mAbs with two prevalent PEDV strains in G2 type and the attenuated CV777 strain in G1 type, 6 mAbs were selected for subsequent identification of COE mAb-binding epitopes...
April 6, 2019: Virus Research
L K Dixon, M Islam, R Nash, A L Reis
African swine fever virus causes a haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and wild boar. The continuing spread in Africa, Europe and Asia threatens the global pig industry. The lack of a vaccine limits disease control. To underpin rational strategies for vaccine development improved knowledge is needed of how the virus interacts with and modulates the host's responses to infection. The virus long double-stranded DNA genome codes for more than 160 proteins of which many are non-essential for replication in cells but can have important roles in evading the host's defences...
April 5, 2019: Virus Research
Jutta Pikalo, Laura Zani, Jane Hühr, Martin Beer, Sandra Blome
Over the last decade, African swine fever (ASF) has changed from an exotic disease of Sub-Saharan Africa to a considerable and serious threat to pig industry in Central Europe and Asia. With the introduction of genotype II strains into the European Union in 2014, the disease has apparently found a fertile breeding ground in the abundant wild boar population. Upon infection with highly virulent ASF virus (ASFV), a haemorrhagic fever like illness with high lethality is seen in naïve domestic pigs and wild boar...
April 3, 2019: Virus Research
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein
In 1936, John Joseph Bittner identified mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), a milk transmitted beta retrovirus, a form of single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. A retrovirus inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell, thus altering the cell's genome. In the current analysis, we searched for MMTV sequences within the human genome. To compare the MMTV genome to the human genome, we used BLAT, the Blast-Like Alignment Tool of the UCSC Genome Browser. BLAT can align a user sequence of 25 bases or more to the genome...
April 2, 2019: Virus Research
Hosni A M Hussein, Mohammad A Alfhili, Pranaya Pakala, Sandra Simon, Jaffer Hussain, James A McCubrey, Shaw M Akula
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman Disease (MCD). Recent mechanistic advances have discerned the importance of microRNAs in the virus-host relationship. KSHV has two modes of replication: lytic and latent phase. KSHV entry into permissive cells, establishment of infection, and maintenance of latency are contingent upon successful modulation of the host miRNA transcriptome. Apart from host cell miRNAs, KSHV also encodes viral miRNAs...
April 2, 2019: Virus Research
Nicolás Bejerman, Debat Humberto, Claudia Nome, Dariel Cabrera-Mederos, Verónica Trucco, Soledad de Breuil, Sergio Lenardon, Fabián Giolitti
In alfalfa samples analyzed by hightroughput sequencing, four de novo assembled contigs encoding gene products showing identities to alphapartitiviruses proteins were found based on BlastX analysis. The predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of two contigs presented 99-100% identity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the capsid protein (CP) of the recently reported medicago sativa alphapartitivirus 1 (MsAPV1). In addition, the remaining two contigs shared only 56% (CP) and 70% (RdRp) pairwise aa identity with the proteins of MsAPV1, suggesting that these samples presented also a novel Alphapartitivirus species...
March 29, 2019: Virus Research
José Manuel Reyes-Ruiz, Juan Fidel Osuna-Ramos, Luis Adrián De Jesús-González, Arianna Mahely Hurtado-Monzon, Carlos Noe Farfan-Morales, Margot Cervantes-Salazar, Jeni Bolaños, Oscar E Cigarroa-Mayorga, Eduardo San Martín-Martínez, Fernando Medina, Rogelio Jaime Fragoso-Soriano, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Juan Santiago Salas-Benito, Rosa M Del Angel
Exosomes are endocytic origin small-membrane vesicles secreted to the extracellular space by most cell types. Exosomes released from virus infected-cells can mediate the cell-to-cell communication to promote or modulate viral transmission. Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes bite to humans. Interestingly, the role of exosomes during the DENV infection in mammalian cells has already been described. However, little is known about exosomes derived from infected mosquito cells. Thus, the exosomes released from DENV-infected C6/36 cells were isolated, purified and analyzed using an antibody against the tetraspanin CD9 from human that showed cross-reactivity with the homologs to human CD9 found in Aedes albopictus (AalCD9)...
March 28, 2019: Virus Research
Sue Jones, Wendy McGavin, Stuart MacFarlane
The complete sequence was obtained for two variants of raspberry vein chlorosis virus (RVCV), confirming that this virus is a rhabdovirus most closely related to the cytorhabdoviruses alfalfa dwarf virus and strawberry crinkle virus. The two RVCV variants share only a 68% nucleotide sequence identity so that the previously published RT-PCR diagnostic test for this virus was not able to efficiently detect both variants. Using the new, complete sequence information several new primer sets have been designed that allow a much improved RVCV detection...
March 28, 2019: Virus Research
Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Celia Perales, Esteban Domingo
En Bloc transmission of viruses allow multiple genomes to collectivelly penetrate and initiate infection in the same cell, often resulting in enhanced infectivity. Given the quasispecies (mutant cloud) nature of RNA viruses and many DNA viruses, the multiple genomes provide different starting points in sequence space to initiate adaptive walks. Moreover, en bloc transmission has implications for modulation of viral fitness and for the response of viral populations to lethal mutagenesis. Mechanisms that can enable multiple viral genomes to be transported en bloc among hosts has only recently been gaining attention...
March 27, 2019: Virus Research
Ming-Shou Hsieh, Yuan-Chih Chang, Jie-Long He, Rong-Huay Juang
In our previous study, we produced a monoclonal antibody EB2 that recognized an epitope in the HA1 domain on the hemagglutinin (HA) of H6N1 influenza virus (A/chicken/Taiwan/2838 V/00). The residue Arg-201 (R201) on this epitope was protected by the glycan at Asn-167 (N167) from tryptic digestion; therefore, the infectivity of the virus was retained. R201 was extremely conserved in various subtypes of the influenza virus. To explore the role of R201 and the protecting glycan, we developed a bi-cistronic baculovirus expression system for the production of H6HA1 and H6HA0 (nearly full-length HA), which were glycosylated in insect cells...
March 26, 2019: Virus Research
Elena G Sánchez, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Yolanda Revilla
An outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007 initiated the spread of ASFV through Russia and Eastern Europe, subsequently affecting Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, the Baltic States, the Czech Republic, Moldova, Romania and Bulgaria. The declaration of outbreaks in China and Central Europe in August 2018, definitely confirms the serious threat that the extension of ASF represents for the global swine industry and the environment. Despite the efforts of several groups to generate a vaccine against ASFV, currently only control and eradication measures are available based mainly on the early detection and implementation of strict sanitary procedures, including the mass slaughter of animals, both domestic and wild boar...
March 25, 2019: Virus Research
Wenchao Sun, Shiheng Zhang, Haixin Huang, Wei Wang, Liang Cao, Min Zheng, Yanwen Yin, Hongyun Zhang, Huijun Lu, Ningyi Jin
Bufaviruses are small, nonenveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the subfamily Parvovirinae. Human bufaviruses were first identified in 2012 in fecal samples from children with diarrhea. A new parvovirus of canines that was first detected in various samples from dogs with enteric and respiratory symptoms in Italy between 2014 and 2018 is closely related to the newly described human bufavirus. To explore the prevalence and genetic diversity of CBuV in Chinese dogs, 540 canine parvovirus (CPV)-positive serum and diarrhea samples were collected in Guangxi Province between 2016 and 2018...
March 23, 2019: Virus Research
Xian-De Huang, Le Fang, Qin-Sheng Gu, Yan-Ping Tian, Chao Geng, Xiang-Dong Li
Papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain (PRSV-W) causes huge economic losses to cucurbits production. Here, we constructed an infectious clone of PRSV-W, pCamPRSV-W, which can induce similar symptoms and accumulate to same levels as wild type virus in plants of Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis melo, Citrullus lanatus and Cucumis sativus. The green fluorescence protein gene gfp was cloned into pCamPRSV-W to produce pCamPRSV-W-GFP, which produced strong green fluorescence in systemic leaves of inoculated Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis melo, Citrullus lanatus and Cucumis sativus plants, indicating that pCamPRSV-W can be used to express foreign genes...
March 22, 2019: Virus Research
Sadhana S Kode, Shailesh D Pawar, Sarah S Cherian, Deeksha S Tare, Dipali Bhoye, Sachin S Keng, Jayati Mullick
Identification of amino-acid substitutions in the neuraminidase (NA) of low-pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H9N2 viruses is important to study the susceptibility to NA inhibitors (NAI). To identify mutations under NAI selective pressure, the virus was serially passaged with increasing levels of either oseltamivir or zanamivir in ovo, and the growth of the viruses in the presence and absence of NAI's compared. Mutations R292 K in the presence of oseltamivir and E119D in presence of zanamivir were observed within passage one and two respectively...
March 22, 2019: Virus Research
Jinjin Bai, Xixi Chen, Qingqing Liu, Xin Zhou, Jian-Er Long
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease and severe neural complications in infants and young children. Viral pathogenesis is associated with virus-induced cell death and inflammatory cytokine production, which is usually correlated with the type of programmed cell death. EV71-infected cells were analyzed through microscopy, cell staining, and immunoblotting to determine the characteristics of EV71-induced cell death. Results demonstrated that EV71 infection induced cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, decreased mitochondrial potential, and membrane phosphatidylserine translocation...
March 22, 2019: Virus Research
Kyle D Pedro, Andrew J Henderson, Luis M Agosto
HIV-1 spreads through both the release of cell-free particles and by cell-to-cell transmission. Mounting evidence indicates that cell-to-cell transmission is more efficient than cell-free transmission of particles and likely influences the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. This mode of viral transmission also influences the generation and maintenance of the latent reservoir, which represents the main obstacle for curing the infection. In this review we will discuss general cell contact-dependent mechanisms that HIV-1 utilizes for its spread and the evidence pointing to cell-to-cell transmission as a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of latent infection...
March 21, 2019: Virus Research
Asher Leeks, Rafael Sanjuán, Stuart A West
Viruses frequently spread among cells or hosts in groups, with multiple viral genomes inside the same infectious unit. These collective infectious units can consist of multiple viral genomes inside the same virion, or multiple virions inside a larger structure such as a vesicle. Collective infectious units deliver multiple viral genomes to the same cell simultaneously, which can have important implications for viral pathogenesis, antiviral resistance, and social evolution. However, little is known about why some viruses transmit in collective infectious units, whereas others do not...
March 17, 2019: Virus Research
Masanori Kaido, Hideaki Nagano, Kazunori Omote, Yoshitaka Takano, Kazuyuki Mise, Tetsuro Okuno
Carnation ringspot virus(CRSV) isthe prototype virus of the genus Dianthovirus. Full-length cDNAs of CRSV strainsPV-0097 and PV-21were constructed and the infectivity of in vitro transcripts wasanalyzed. Infectivity of PV-0097 and PV-21 to severalplants wasmarkedly higher than that of 1.30, a previously reported infectious CRSV clone.Overall RNA sequencesof these viruses were similar, but PV-0097 and PV-21 contained additional nucleotides at the 5' end of RNA1.Stem-loop structureswere predicted in the 5'-terminal region of PV-0097and PV-21 RNA1 but not in 1...
March 16, 2019: Virus Research
Alexander T Ciota
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted by hematophagous insects, primarily mosquitoes. The geographic range and prevalence of mosquito-borne viruses and their vectors has dramatically increased over the last 50 years. As a result, the most medically important arboviurses now co-exist in many regions, resulting in an increased frequency of co-infections in hosts and vectors. In addition to concurrent infections with human pathogens, mosquito-only viruses and/or enzootic viruses not associated with human disease are ubiquitous in mosquito populations...
March 14, 2019: Virus Research
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