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Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development

Sarah Ostadabbas, Stephen N Housley, Nordine Sebkhi, Kimberly Richards, David Wu, Zhenxuan Zhang, Maria Garcia Rodriguez, Lindsey Warthen, Crystal Yarbrough, Samir Belagaje, Andrew J Butler, Maysam Ghovanloo
Stroke survivors with severe upper limb (UL) impairment face years of therapy to recover function. Robot-assisted therapy (RT) is increasingly used in the field for goal-oriented rehabilitation as a means to improve function in ULs. To be used effectively for wrist and hand therapy, the current RT systems require the patient to have a minimal active range of movement in the UL, and those that do not have active voluntary movement cannot use these systems. We have overcome this limitation by harnessing tongue motion to allow patients to control a robot using synchronous tongue and hand movement...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Martin Baruch, Jeffrey T Barth, David Cifu, Martin Leibman
This was a preliminary validation study of a multimodal concussion assessment battery incorporating eye-tracking, balance, and neurocognitive tests on a new hardware platform, the Computerized Brain Injury Assessment System. Using receiver-operating characteristics analyses, (1) we identified a subset of the most discriminating neurophysiological assessment tests involving smooth pursuit eye movement tracking errors, corrective saccade counts, a balance score ratio sensitive to vestibular balance performance, and two neurocognitive tests of response speed and memory/incidental learning; (2) we demonstrated the enhancement in discriminatory capability of detecting concussion-related deficits through the combination of the identified subset of assessments; and (3) we demonstrated the effectiveness of a robust and readily implemented global scoring approach was demonstrated for both eye track and balance assessment tests...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Teresa Paolucci, Giulia Piccinini, Marco Iosa, Cristina Piermattei, Simona de Angelis, Maria Rosaria Grasso, Federico Zangrando, Vincenzo Maria Saraceni
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of an extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in decreasing chronic pain in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Thirty-seven females were recruited and randomized into two groups: one group was first exposed to systemic ELF-MF therapy (100 microtesla, 1 to 80 Hz) and then to sham therapy, and the other group received the opposite sequence of intervention. Pain, FM-related symptoms, and the ability to perform daily tasks were measured using the Visual Analog Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Fibromyalgia Assessment Scale (FAS), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) at baseline, end of first treatment cycle, beginning of second treatment cycle (after 1 mo washout), end of second treatment cycle, and end of 1 mo follow-up...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Rene Zepeda, Franco Chan, Bonita Sawatzky
This study proposes a way to reduce energy losses in the form of rolling resistance friction during manual wheelchair propulsion by increasing the size of the front caster wheels and adjusting the weight distribution. Drag tests were conducted using a treadmill and a force transducer. Three different casters diameter (4 in., 5 in., and 6 in.) and six different mass distribution combinations (based on percentage of total weight on the caster wheels) were studied. A two-way analysis of variance test was performed to compare caster size and weight distribution contribution with drag force of an ultralight wheelchair...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Kevin M Foglyano, John R Schnellenberger, Rudi Kobetic, Lisa Lombardo, Gilles Pinault, Stephen Selkirk, Nathaniel S Makowski, Ronald J Triolo
Electrical activation of paralyzed musculature can generate or augment joint movements required for walking after central nervous system trauma. Proper timing of stimulation relative to residual volitional control is critical to usefully affecting ambulation. This study evaluates three-dimensional accelerometers and customized algorithms to detect the intent to step from voluntary movements to trigger stimulation during walking in individuals with significantly different etiologies, mobility limitations, manual dexterities, and walking aids...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Sunghoon I Lee, Alex Huang, Bobak Mortazavi, Charles Li, Haydn A Hoffman, Jordan Garst, Derek S Lu, Ruth Getachew, Marie Espinal, Mehrdad Razaghy, Nima Ghalehsari, Brian H Paak, Amir A Ghavam, Marwa Afridi, Arsha Ostowari, Hassan Ghasemzadeh, Daniel C Lu, Majid Sarrafzadeh
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a chronic spinal disorder in the neck region. Its prevalence is growing rapidly in developed nations, creating a need for an objective assessment tool. This article introduces a system for quantifying hand motor function using a handgrip device and target tracking test. In those with CSM, hand motor impairment often interferes with essential daily activities. The analytic method applied machine learning techniques to investigate the efficacy of the system in (1) detecting the presence of impairments in hand motor function, (2) estimating the perceived motor deficits of CSM patients using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and (3) detecting changes in physical condition after surgery, all of which were performed while ensuring test-retest reliability...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Michael Schwenk, Marwan Sabbagh, Ivy Lin, Pharah Morgan, Gurtej S Grewal, Jane Mohler, David W Coon, Bijan Najafi
Some individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) experience not only cognitive deficits but also a decline in motor function, including postural balance. This pilot study sought to estimate the feasibility, user experience, and effects of a novel sensor-based balance training program. Patients with amnestic MCI (mean age 78.2 yr) were randomized to an intervention group (IG, n = 12) or control group (CG, n = 10). The IG underwent balance training (4 wk, twice a week) that included weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Erik Renz, Madeleine Hackney, Courtney Hall
Intraocular lenses (IOLs) provide distance and near refraction and are becoming the standard for cataract surgery. Multifocal glasses increase variability of toe clearance in older adults navigating stairs and increase fall risk; however, little is known about the biomechanics of stair navigation in individuals with multifocal IOLs. This study compared clearance while ascending and descending stairs in individuals with monofocal versus multifocal IOLs. Eight participants with multifocal IOLs (4 men, 4 women; mean age = 66...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Sharon Barak, Nuria Mendoza-Laiz, Maria Teresa Gutierrez Fuentes, Maria Rubiera, Yeshayahu Huyzler
People with severe physical disabilities may experience psychosocial problems. Boccia is one sport that athletes with severe disability can engage in, but no information on the effects of Boccia on psychosocial outcomes for participants with severe disability is available. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of Boccia on psychosocial outcomes in persons with severe disabilities. The study included two competitive Boccia groups: independent competitive (IC) (n = 9) and nonindependent competitive (NIC) (n = 7), as well as a recreational Boccia group (n = 14) and control subjects (n = 13) (mean age = 46...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Rachel Milgrom, Matthew Foreman, John Standeven, Jack R Engsberg, Kerri A Morgan
Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the Microsoft Kinect in quantification of manual wheelchair propulsion were examined. Data were collected from five manual wheelchair users on a roller system. Three Kinect sensors were used to assess test-retest reliability with a still pose. Three systems were used to assess concurrent validity of the Kinect to measure propulsion kinematics (joint angles, push loop characteristics): Kinect, Motion Analysis, and Dartfish ProSuite (Dartfish joint angles were limited to shoulder and elbow flexion)...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Heather M MacKenzie, Danielle B Rice, C Michele Sealy, Peter D Cox, A Barry Deathe, Michael W C Payne
We performed a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients discharged from an inpatient amputee rehabilitation program over a 2 yr period (January 2010-December 2011). Our objective was to determine barriers to the completion of a standardized maximum walk test (MWT) at discharge. Over the study period, there were 190 discharges. The sample had a mean age of 63.5 yr (standard deviation [SD] +/- 14.2 yr), was 71.6% male, and had a majority of transtibial amputation (67%). The average length of inpatient stay was 28...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Cameron Rink, Matthew M Wernke, Heather M Powell, Surya Gynawali, Ryan M Schroeder, Jayne Y Kim, Jeffrey A Denune, Gayle M Gordillo, James M Colvin, Chandan K Sen
A growing number of clinical trials and case reports support qualitative claims that use of an elevated vacuum suspension (EVS) prosthesis improves residual-limb health on the basis of self-reported questionnaires, clinical outcomes scales, and wound closure studies. Here, we report first efforts to quantitatively assess residual-limb circulation in response to EVS. Residual-limb skin health and perfusion of people with lower-limb amputation (N = 10) were assessed during a randomized crossover study comparing EVS with nonelevated vacuum suspension (control) over a 32 wk period using noninvasive probes (transepidermal water loss, laser speckle imaging, transcutaneous oxygen measurement) and functional hyperspectral imaging approaches...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Loek van der Heide, Luc de Witte
Dynamic arm supports are provided to assist with activities of daily living (ADLs) in people with limited upper-limb function. However, the perceived functional benefit of these devices in daily life is unknown. Insight into the functional benefit may give direction to the development of new devices and may affect the factors that patients and their health care providers consider during the selection process of a device. A cross-sectional study involving 23 Dutch experienced dynamic arm support users was performed in the Netherlands...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Daniel B Seegmiller, Dennis L Eggett, Steven K Charles
Wrist orthoses (also known as splints, braces, or supports) are commonly used to support or restrict the motion of a weak or injured wrist. These orthoses generally function by stiffening the wrist joint. Therefore, choosing the proper orthosis (or improving orthoses) requires that we understand their stiffness properties. In this study, we present a method for measuring the stiffness of wrist orthoses, and we apply this method to 12 of the most common wrist orthoses. We found similarities and differences between these orthoses, indicating that different orthoses have different effects on the wrist joint and, presumably, on wrist behavior...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Ted Melcer, Jay Pyo, Jay Walker, Kimberly Quinn, Martin Lebedda, Kamaran Neises, Christina Nguyen, Michael Galarneau
This clinical report describes the outpatient rehabilitation program for patients with multiple limb amputations enrolled in the Comprehensive Combat and Complex Casualty Care facility at the Naval Medical Center San Diego. Injury-specific data for 29 of these patients wounded by blast weaponry in Afghanistan in 2010 or 2011 were captured by the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database at the Naval Health Research Center and were reviewed for this report. Their median Injury Severity Score was 27 (N = 29; range, 11-54)...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Brian J Loyd, Thomas T Fields, Ryan O Stephenson, Jennifer Stevens-Lapsley, Cory L Christiansen
Little evidence exists to support the presence of differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters and ambulation ability between those individuals with traumatic and nontraumatic lower-limb amputation (LLA). We conducted an exploratory study of 81 male Veterans with unilateral amputation to quantify differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters and ambulatory mobility between Veterans with traumatic and nontraumatic LLA. Furthermore, we identified variables that significantly contributed to the explanation of variability in modified 2-min walk test distance...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Sara R Koehler-McNicholas, Robert D Lipschutz, Steven A Gard
Prosthetic alignment is an important factor in the overall fit and performance of a lower-limb prosthesis. However, the association between prosthetic alignment and control strategies used by persons with transfemoral amputation to coordinate the movement of a passive prosthetic knee is poorly understood. This study investigated the biomechanical response of persons with transfemoral amputation to systematic perturbations in knee joint alignment during a level walking task. Quantitative gait data were collected for three alignment conditions: bench alignment, 2 cm anterior knee translation (ANT), and 2 cm posterior knee translation (POST)...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
James Gardiner, Abu Zeeshan Bari, David Howard, Laurence Kenney
Energy storage and return (ESR) feet have long been assumed to promote metabolically efficient amputee gait. However, despite being prescribed for approximately 30 yr, there is limited evidence that they achieve this desired function. Here, we report a meta-analysis of data from 10 studies that met our selection criteria to determine whether amputee walking with ESR feet is more efficient than with conventional solid ankle cushioned heel (SACH) feet. Additionally, the data were tested for a relationship with walking speed since it has been suggested ESR feet might perform better at higher speeds...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Roger J Paxton, Amanda M Murray, Jennifer E Stevens-Lapsley, Kyle A Sherk, Cory L Christiansen
We characterized physical activity (PA) and its relation to physical function and number of comorbidities in people with diabetes and transtibial amputation (AMP), people with diabetes without AMP, and nondisabled adults without diabetes or AMP. Twenty-two individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and transtibial amputation (DM+AMP), 11 people with DM, and 13 nondisabled participants were recruited for this cross-sectional cohort study. Measures included PA volume and intensity, a Timed Up and Go test, a 2-min walk test, and number of comorbidities...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Matthew R Williams, Hugh Herr, Susan D'Andrea
A transfemoral amputation has a significant effect on walking. Though current prosthetic knee options serve to restore mobility, as do purely passive devices, they do not fully restore nondisabled gait. Persons with transfemoral amputation incur a higher metabolic cost during walking than persons without amputation and as a result walk slower and for a shorter distance before tiring. An original variable-impedance transmission prosthetic knee (VI Knee) was tested with five study participants with unilateral transfemoral amputation at two steady-state walking speeds, one below and one above their preferred walking speed...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
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