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Joshua Osowicki, Kristy I Azzopardi, Ciara Baker, Claire S Waddington, Manisha Pandey, Tibor Schuster, Anneke Grobler, Allen C Cheng, Andrew J Pollard, James S McCarthy, Michael F Good, Mark J Walker, James B Dale, Michael R Batzloff, Jonathan R Carapetis, Pierre R Smeesters, Andrew C Steer
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a highly-adapted and human-restricted pathogen responsible for a high global burden of disease across a diverse clinical spectrum. Vaccine development has been impeded by scientific, regulatory, and commercial obstacles. Human infection studies (HIS) are increasingly contributing to drug, diagnostics, and vaccine development, reducing uncertainty at early stages, especially for pathogens with animal models that incompletely reproduce key elements of human disease. We review the small number of historical GAS HIS and present the study protocol for a dose-ranging inpatient study in healthy adults...
May 14, 2019: Vaccine
Eun-Ju Ko, Youri Lee, Young-Tae Lee, Yu-Jin Jung, Vu L Ngo, Min-Chul Kim, Ki-Hye Kim, Bao-Zhong Wang, Andrew T Gewirtz, Sang-Moo Kang
Incorporation of membrane-anchored flagellin molecules into the surfaces of influenza virus-like particles (VLP) was previously reported to promote T helper (Th) 1-biased IgG antibody production and protective efficacy of co-presented vaccine antigens. Herein, we investigated the potential adjuvant effects and mechanisms of flagellin-expressing VLP (FliC-VLP) as an independent component on influenza vaccination in wild-type and mutant mouse models. FliC-VLP adjuvanted influenza vaccination was highly effective in promoting the induction of Th1-biased IgG isotype switched antibodies, enhanced protection, and long-lasting IgG antibody responses in both wild-type and CD4-knockout mice...
May 14, 2019: Vaccine
Varun Kesherwani, Shikha Tarang
In kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) long-term immunosuppression leads to BK virus (BKV) reactivation, with an increased incidence of BKV-associated pathologies and allograft rejection. The current approaches to limit BKV infection include a reduction in immunosuppression and use of anti-BKV drugs, which are clinically sub-optimal and lead to undesirable therapeutic outcomes. Here, we adopted an immune-based approach to augment the endogenous BKV specific T-cells. Using reverse vaccinology based in silico analyses, we designed a peptide-based multi-epitope vaccine for BKV (MVBKV)...
May 13, 2019: Vaccine
Min Zhou, Shujuan Qu, Lindu Zhao, Nan Kong, Kathryn S Campy, Song Wang
BACKGROUND: The public acceptance and implementation of vaccination programs is essential to prevent infectious diseases. However, vaccine adverse events may cause public panic and eventually lead to an increasing number of populations who were hesitant or refuse to participate in these vaccination programs. In 2018, the Changsheng vaccine crisis broke out in mainland China, and 252,600 unqualified DTP vaccines were reported to be used for child vaccination. In this study, we observed media and public reactions toward the vaccine crisis...
May 13, 2019: Vaccine
Hussein Masoud
Adjuvants are substances that enhance adaptive immune response to antigen. Development of a safe and effective immunostimulant adjuvant is essential for the efficacy of a vaccine to protect against infectious pathogens. Purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria exhibited nontoxic natural lipid A variants that are distinct in their chemical structures from that of the Escherichia coli-type lipid A. In this study, the adjuvant efficacy of attenuated lipid A variants and their corresponding lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), derived from purple photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodocyclus tenuis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides) were evaluated...
May 13, 2019: Vaccine
Binhua Liang, Hongzhao Li, Lin Li, Robert Were Omange, Yan Hai, Ma Luo
The macaque simian or simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/SHIV) challenge model has been widely used to inform and guide human vaccine trials. Substantial advances have been made recently in the application of repeated-low-dose challenge (RLD) approach to assess SIV/SHIV vaccine efficacies (VE). Some candidate HIV vaccines have shown protective effects in preclinical studies using the macaque SIV/SHIV model but the model's true predictive value for screening potential HIV vaccine candidates needs to be evaluated further...
May 11, 2019: Vaccine
Priya Sampathkumar, Gregory A Poland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2019: Vaccine
Josephine Davies, Kamalini Lokuge, Kathryn Glass
Lassa fever is an acute viral illness caused by Lassa virus (LASV), a rodent-borne pathogen. LASV is endemic to much of Sub-Saharan West Africa, where seasonal outbreaks cause significant morbidity and mortality. Increased global awareness of LASV has led to development of improved diagnostic tests, treatments and vaccines. As vaccine candidates are trialled, it is essential to assess the potential outcomes of introducing a LASV vaccination program in endemic regions. This study investigates the potential outcomes of routine and pulse vaccination strategies using a deterministic mathematical model that captures seasonal LASV transmission between rodents and humans...
May 11, 2019: Vaccine
Katia J Bruxvoort, Anna S Liang, Rafael Harpaz, Lei Qian, Lina S Sy, Philip LaRussa, D Scott Schmid, Yi Luo, Harpreet Takhar, Hung Fu Tseng
INTRODUCTION: Pain following herpes zoster (HZ) can persist for months and negatively impact quality of life. To evaluate the effect of zoster vaccine live (ZVL) on progression of pain following HZ, we conducted a prospective cohort study of HZ cases at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. METHODS: ZVL vaccinated and unvaccinated members aged ≥60 years with laboratory-confirmed HZ from January 18, 2012 to February 26, 2015 were followed up within 5 days of HZ diagnosis, and at 30, 60, and 90 days after diagnosis...
May 11, 2019: Vaccine
Anne M Hause, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Maurizio L Maccato, Phillip M Pinell, Nanette Bond, Patricia Santarcangelo, Laura Ferlic-Stark, Xunyan Ye, Obinna Iwuchukwu, Lauren Maurer, Letisha Aideyan, Kelly Dao, Trevor McBride, Pedro A Piedra, Flor M Munoz
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and laboratory diagnosis of pregnant women with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. METHODS: Pregnant women in their second and third trimester were enrolled during the course of routine prenatal care visits when they were asymptomatic within the preceding two weeks (healthy controls) or when they reported symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) of ≤7 days of duration (cases). Clinical outcomes were assessed at enrollment and two weeks after...
May 10, 2019: Vaccine
Ignacio Fernandez-Sainz, Tyler D Gavitt, Marla Koster, Elizabeth Ramirez-Medina, Yelitza Y Rodriguez, Ping Wu, Lawrence K Silbart, Teresa de Los Santos, Steven M Szczepanek
Foot and Mouth Disease is a highly contagious and economically important disease of livestock. While vaccination is often effective at controlling viral spread, failures can occur due to strain mismatch or viral mutation. Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) possesses a hypervariable region within the G-H Loop of VP1, a capsid protein commonly associated with virus neutralization. Here, we investigate the effect of replacement of the G-H loop hypervariable epitope with a xenoepitope from PRRS virus on the immunogenicity and efficacy of an adenovirus vectored FMDV vaccine (Ad5-FMD)...
May 10, 2019: Vaccine
Robert A Feldman, Rainard Fuhr, Igor Smolenov, Amilcar Mick Ribeiro, Lori Panther, Mike Watson, Joseph J Senn, Mike Smith, Ӧrn Almarsson, Hari S Pujar, Michael E Laska, James Thompson, Tal Zaks, Giuseppe Ciaramella
BACKGROUND: We evaluated safety and immunogenicity of the first mRNA vaccines against potentially pandemic avian H10N8 and H7N9 influenza viruses. METHODS: Two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1 clinical trials enrolled participants between December 2015 and August 2017 at single centers in Germany (H10N8) and USA (H7N9). Healthy adults (ages 18-64 years for H10N8 study; 18-49 years for H7N9 study) participated. Participants received vaccine or placebo in a 2-dose vaccination series 3 weeks apart...
May 9, 2019: Vaccine
Nina B Masters, Abram L Wagner, Yaxing Ding, Ying Zhang, Matthew L Boulton
Despite increasing global measles vaccination coverage, progress toward measles elimination has slowed in recent years. In China, children receive a measles-containing vaccine (MCV) at 8 months, 18-24 months, and some urban areas offer a third dose at age 4-6 years. However, substantial measles cases in Tianjin, China, occur among individuals who have received multiple MCV doses. This study describes the vaccination history of measles cases 8 months - 19 years old. Data came from measles cases in Tianjin's reportable disease surveillance system (2009-2013), and from a case control study (2011-2015)...
May 8, 2019: Vaccine
Lilan Xie, Junjie Zai, Kai Yi, Yaoming Li
Accumulating literature revealed that human mucosa was likely one of the important routes for EBOV attachment and further infection. Therefore inducing effective mucosal immune responses play key role in preventing the virus infection. Vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VV) was a remarkably attenuated poxvirus, which has been broadly exploited as a multifunctional vector during the development of genetically recombinant vaccine and cancer therapeutic agent. In this study, we generated a recombinant VV harboring EBOV gp (VV-Egp ) that was used to immunize mice, followed by assessing immune responses, particularly the mucosal immune responses to EBOV GP...
May 7, 2019: Vaccine
Evanson Z Sambala, Alison B Wiyeh, Ntombenhle Ngcobo, Shingai Machingaidze, Charles S Wiysonge
Vaccines are excellent investments with far-reaching rewards beyond individual and population health, but their introduction into national programs has been historically slow in Africa. We provide an overview of the introduction of new and underutilized vaccines in countries of the WHO African Region by 2017, using data from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. By 2017, all 47 countries had introduced vaccines containing hepatitis B (compared to 11% in 2000 and 98% in 2010) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (compared to 4% in 2000 and 91% in 2010)...
May 7, 2019: Vaccine
Jackie Kleynhans, Cheryl Cohen, Meredith McMorrow, Stefano Tempia, Penny Crowther-Gibson, Vanessa Quan, Linda de Gouveia, Anne von Gottberg
INTRODUCTION: South Africa introduced seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009 and PCV13 in 2011. We aimed to compare the estimated impact of PCV on pneumococcal meningitis (PM) to impact of PCV on total invasive pneumococcal disease (tIPD) based on risk reduction after PCV introduction. METHODS: We conducted national, laboratory-based surveillance for tIPD during 2005-2016. We estimated and compared rates of PCV13 and non-PCV13 serotype disease among tIPD and PM in individuals aged <5 years and ≥5 years, and compared these rates between the 2005-2008 pre-PCV introduction period and two time points after PCV introduction, 2012 and 2016...
May 7, 2019: Vaccine
Li Wang, Xuan Zhang, Qian Zhang, Sheng Zhang
The qualitative study aims to understand and conceptualize Chinese medical students' practices and perceptions towards vaccination. Focus groups (n = 5) were conducted through convenience sampling in a medical university in October 2016 in Anhui, China. Two years later, 6 participants among them were follow-up interviewed. All the interviews were audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using constant comparative method. Opinions of 22 participants (13 females, 9 males) were collected. Results revealed that hepatitis B vaccination was discussed the most frequently, and most of participants were vaccinated against (or had documented immunity to) hepatitis B before or during their clinical internship...
May 7, 2019: Vaccine
Irina Tretyakova, Alexander Tibbens, Jenny D Jokinen, Dylan M Johnson, Igor S Lukashevich, Peter Pushko
Novel live-attenuated V4020 vaccine was prepared for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. The genome of V4020 virus was rearranged, with the capsid gene expressed using a duplicate subgenomic promoter downstream from the glycoprotein genes. V4020 also included both attenuating mutations from the TC83 VEEV vaccine secured by mutagenesis to prevent reversion mutations. The full-length infectious RNA of V4020 vaccine virus was expressed from pMG4020 plasmid downstream from the CMV promoter and launched replication of live-attenuated V4020 in vitro or in vivo...
May 6, 2019: Vaccine
Laurence Torcel-Pagnon, Vincent Bauchau, Patrick Mahy, Myint Tin Tin Htar, Marianne van der Sande, Cédric Mahé, Tyra Grove Krause, Anne Charrat, François Simondon, Xavier Kurz
INTRODUCTION: The 2009 influenza pandemic highlighted challenges for vaccine post-marketing monitoring in Europe, particularly the need to have appropriate infrastructures to strengthen public-private collaborations (PPCs) with suitable processes to improve stakeholder interactions and collection and analysis of safety and effectiveness data. The ADVANCE consortium comprises public and private stakeholders who have worked together to build and test new system components for vaccine post-marketing projects, one component being a governance framework for efficient, transparent and trustworthy PPCs...
May 6, 2019: Vaccine
Samah Awad, Nour Abdo, Dawood Yusef, Afnan Jawarneh, Ahmad Babaa, Deya' Alwady, Haitham Al-Bawayeh, Ismail Kasrawi, Mohamad Amaireh, Motaz Obeidat, Nama' Bany Amer, Saad Alonze
BACKGROUND: Influenza infection is associated with a significant health burden in children, especially in developing countries. The influenza vaccine is an important preventive strategy for flu illness. Aim of this study to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) related to influenza illness and vaccination in children in the Jordanian population and to study the effect of awareness campaigns on changing the attitudes of parents toward vaccinating their children against influenza...
May 6, 2019: Vaccine
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