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Pharmaceutical Research

Shraddha S Rane, Rebecca J Dearman, Ian Kimber, Shahid Uddin, Stephen Bishop, Maryam Shah, Adrian Podmore, Alain Pluen, Jeremy P Derrick
PURPOSE: Anti-drug antibodies can impair the efficacy of therapeutic proteins and, in some circumstances, induce adverse health effects. Immunogenicity can be promoted by aggregation; here we examined the ability of recombinant mouse heat shock protein 70 (rmHSP70) - a common host cell impurity - to modulate the immune responses to aggregates of two therapeutic mAbs in mice. METHODS: Heat and shaking stress methods were used to generate aggregates in the sub-micron size range from two human mAbs, and immunogenicity assessed by intraperitoneal exposure in BALB/c mice...
February 15, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Christina M Payne, Liam P Burke, Brenton Cavanagh, Daniel O'Toole, Sally-Ann Cryan, Helena M Kelly
PURPOSE: To investigate two potential strategies aimed at targeting the inflammatory pathogenesis of COPD: a small molecule, all trans retinoic acid (atRA) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). METHODS: atRA was formulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) via the emulsification-ultrasonication method, and these SLNs were characterised physicochemically. Assessment of the immunomodulatory effects of atRA-SLNs on A549 cells in vitro was determined using ELISA...
February 13, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Jonas Kildegaard, Stephen T Buckley, Rasmus H Nielsen, Gro K Povlsen, Torben Seested, Ulla Ribel, Helle B Olsen, Svend Ludvigsen, Claus B Jeppesen, Hanne H F Refsgaard, Kristian M Bendtsen, Niels R Kristensen, Susanne Hostrup, Jeppe Sturis
PURPOSE: Fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is a novel formulation of insulin aspart containing two additional excipients: niacinamide, to increase early absorption, and L-arginine, to optimize stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of niacinamide on insulin aspart absorption and to investigate the mechanism of action underlying the accelerated absorption. METHODS: The impact of niacinamide was assessed in pharmacokinetic analyses in pigs and humans, small angle X-ray scattering experiments, trans-endothelial transport assays, vascular tension measurements, and subcutaneous blood flow imaging...
February 11, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Jeffrey L Woodhead, Kyunghee Yang, David Oldach, Chris MacLauchlin, Prabhavathi Fernandes, Paul B Watkins, Scott Q Siler, Brett A Howell
PURPOSE: Macrolide antibiotics are commonly prescribed treatments for drug-resistant bacterial infections; however, many macrolides have been shown to cause liver enzyme elevations and one macrolide, telithromycin, has been pulled from the market by its provider due to liver toxicity. This work seeks to assess the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of macrolide antibiotics. METHODS: Five macrolides were assessed in in vitro systems designed to test for bile acid transporter inhibition, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress...
February 7, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Jerome Egli, Tilman Schlothauer, Christian Spick, Stefan Seeber, Thomas Singer, Alex Odermatt, Antonio Iglesias
PURPOSE: The Göttingen minipig is a relevant non-rodent species for regulatory toxicological studies. Yet, its use with therapeutic antibodies has been limited by the unknown binding properties of human immunoglobulins (huIgG) to porcine Fc gamma receptors (poFcγR) influencing safety and efficacy readouts. Therefore, knowing IgG-FcγR interactions in the animal model is a prerequisite for the use of minipigs in preclinical safety and efficacy studies with therapeutic antibodies. METHODS: Here, we describe the cloning and expression of poFcγRs and their interactions with free and complexed human therapeutic IgG1 by surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometry...
February 5, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Jaber Javidi, Azadeh Haeri, Fatemeh Nowroozi, Simin Dadashzadeh
PURPOSE: We systematically investigated the effects of injection dose, particle size and surface charge on the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of Ag2 S quantum dots (Qds) in rats and mice. METHODS: Three different doses of Ag2 S Qds with similar size and composition were administrated to rats and mice. The effect of size and surface charge was investigated with the injection of three sizes (5, 15 and 25 nm) of Ag2 S Qds possessing similar surface charge, as well as 5 nm Qds with a positive surface charge...
February 4, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Tong Lu, Xu Zhu, Shansen Xu, Mingming Zhao, Xueshi Huang, Zhanyou Wang, Limei Zhao
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to merge genetic and non-genetic factors of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics to establish a more stable population pharmacokinetic model for individualized dosage regimen in Chinese nephrotic syndrome patients. METHODS: Nephrotic syndrome patients (>16 years old) treated with tacrolimus were included in the study. The population pharmacokinetic approach was analyzed using NONMEM version 7.3.0 software. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to optimize the dosage according to the population pharmacokinetic parameters of tacrolimus...
February 4, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Hilliard L Kutscher, Gene D Morse, Paras N Prasad, Jessica L Reynolds
PURPOSE: An in vitro dynamic pharmacokinetic (PK) cell culture system was developed to more precisely simulate physiologic nanoparticle/drug exposure. METHODS: A dynamic PK cell culture system was developed to more closely reflect physiologic nanoparticle/drug concentrations that are changing with time. Macrophages were cultured in standard static and PK cell culture systems with rifampin (RIF; 5 μg/ml) or β-glucan, chitosan coated, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (GLU-CS-PLGA) nanoparticles (RIF equivalent 5 μg/ml) for 6 h...
February 1, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Hui Wang, David S Nobes, Reinhard Vehring
PURPOSE: The effects of particle size and particle surface roughness on the colloidal stability of pressurized pharmaceutical suspensions were investigated using monodisperse spray-dried particles. METHODS: The colloidal stability of multiple suspensions in the propellant HFA227ea was characterized using a shadowgraphic imaging technique and quantitatively compared using an instability index. Model suspensions of monodisperse spray-dried trehalose particles of narrow distributions (GSD < 1...
January 30, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Dionysios Douroumis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Karin H Hoogendoorn, Christopher A Bravery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Mitalee Tamhane, Sara Cabrera-Ghayouri, Grigor Abelian, Veena Viswanath
Biomarkers provide a powerful and dynamic approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ocular diseases with applications in diagnosis, disease modulation or for predicting and monitoring of clinical response to treatment. Defined as measurable indicator of normal or pathological processes, biomarker evaluation has been used extensively in drug development within clinical settings to better comprehend effectiveness of treatment in ocular diseases. Biomarkers in the eye have the advantage of access to multiple ocular matrices via minimally invasive methods...
January 23, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
E M Tosca, M C Pigatto, T Dalla Costa, P Magni
PURPOSE: This work aimed to develop a population PK/PD tumor-in-host model able to describe etoposide effects on both tumor cells and host in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. METHODS: Etoposide was investigated on thirty-eight Wistar rats randomized in five arms: two groups of tumor-free animals receiving either placebo or etoposide (10 mg/kg bolus for 4 days) and three groups of tumor-bearing animals receiving either placebo or etoposide (5 or 10 mg/kg bolus for 8 or 4 days, respectively)...
January 11, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Shingo Ito, Gentaro Honda, Yu Fujino, Seiryo Ogata, Mio Hirayama-Kurogi, Sumio Ohtsuki
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to investigate the roles of solute carrier family 22 member 18 (SLC22A18) in lipid metabolism and in establishing the tumor phenotype of HepG2 cells. METHODS: SLC22A18-knockdown HepG2 cells were established by stable transfection with shRNA. Protein expression levels were measured by quantitative proteomics and Western blot analysis. Cell growth was examined by cell counting kit. Accumulation of triglyceride-rich lipid droplets was measured by Oil-Red O staining...
January 11, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Kaushik Thanki, Simon Papai, Abhijeet Lokras, Fabrice Rose, Emily Falkenberg, Henrik Franzyk, Camilla Foged
BACKGROUND: Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are promising therapeutics for specific modulation of cellular RNA function. However, ASO efficacy is compromised by inefficient intracellular delivery. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) are attractive mediators of intracellular ASO delivery due to favorable colloidal stability and sustained release properties. METHODS: LPNs composed of cationic lipidoid 5 (L5 ) and poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were studied for delivery of an ASO mediating splice correction of a luciferase gene transcript (Luc-ASO)...
January 9, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Abhirup Mandal, Vrinda Gote, Dhananjay Pal, Abayomi Ogundele, Ashim K Mitra
Cequa®, a unique and first-in-class preservative free cyclosporine-A (CsA) nanomicellar topical formulation was recently approved by US FDA for treatment of dry eye disease or keratoconjuntivitis sicca (KCS). Being highly hydrophobic, CsA is currently available as an oil based emulsion, which has its own shortcomings. Developing an aqueous and clear formulation of CsA is imperative yet a challenging need in the quest for a safe and better drug product. In this regard, a novel, clear, aqueous nanomicellar solution of CsA was developed which has the potential to deliver therapeutic concentrations of CsA with minimal discomfort to patients...
January 7, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Tuyen Ong, Mark E Pennesi, David G Birch, Byron L Lam, Stephen H Tsang
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a group of rare, heterogenous eye disorders caused by gene mutations that result in degeneration of the retina. There are currently limited treatment options for IRDs; however, retinal gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of different forms of inherited blindness. One such IRD for which gene therapy has shown positive initial results is choroideremia, a rare, X-linked degenerative disorder of the retina and choroid. Mutation of the CHM gene leads to an absence of functional Rab escort protein 1 (REP1), which causes retinal pigment epithelium cell death and photoreceptor degeneration...
January 7, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Marie-Rose B S Crombag, Aurelia H M de Vries Schultink, Stijn L W Koolen, Sophie Wijngaard, Markus Joerger, Jan H M Schellens, Thomas P C Dorlo, Nielka P van Erp, Ron H J Mathijssen, Jos H Beijnen, Alwin D R Huitema
PURPOSE: Limited available data suggest that older patients are more prone to develop paclitaxel-induced toxicity than their younger peers. It remains unclear whether this is related to age-dependent pharmacokinetics (PK) of paclitaxel. Primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of older age on the PK of paclitaxel. METHODS: PK data of patients aged ≥70 years who received paclitaxel intravenously at the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) and the Radboud University Medical Center between September 2012 and May 2017 were collected...
January 7, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Peter Bloomingdale, Donald E Mager
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse side effect of cancer chemotherapy that can be life debilitating and cause extreme pain. The multifactorial and poorly understood mechanisms of toxicity have impeded the identification of novel treatment strategies. Computational models of drug neurotoxicity could be implemented in early drug discovery to screen for high-risk compounds and select safer drug candidates for further development. METHODS: Quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) models were developed to predict the incidence of PN...
January 7, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
Wei-Ching Chen, Pei-Wei Huang, Wan-Ling Yang, Yen-Lun Chen, Ying-Ning Shih, Hong-Jaan Wang
PURPOSE: Various blood collection methods were developed and used in the pharmacokinetic evaluation of drugs. However, the influence of different blood sampling methods on plasma drug concentrations has not been clarified. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the plasma concentration of a target drug changes based on the collection site and elucidate the mechanism responsible for this change. METHODS: We compared three blood sampling methods commonly used in small animals...
January 2, 2019: Pharmaceutical Research
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