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Biotechnology Advances

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31095968/microbial-engineering-biotechnologies
#1
EDITORIAL
Brahma N Singh, A S Raghubanshi, Mattheos Koffas, Vijai Kumar Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31095967/microbial-production-of-cyanophycin-from-enzymes-to-biopolymers
#2
REVIEW
Jikun Du, Li Li, Shining Zhou
Cyanophycin is an attractive biopolymer with chemical and material properties that are suitable for industrial applications in the fields of food, medicine, cosmetics, nutrition, and agriculture. For efficient production of cyanophycin, considerable efforts have been exerted to characterize cyanophycin synthetases (CphAs) and optimize fermentations and downstream processes. In this paper, we review the characteristics of diverse CphAs from cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacteria. Furthermore, strategies for cyanophycin production in microbial strains, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Ralstonia eutropha, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heterologously expressing different cphA genes are reviewed...
May 13, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31078628/triterpenoid-biosynthetic-udp-glycosyltransferases-from-plants
#3
REVIEW
Shadi Rahimi, Jaewook Kim, Ivan Mijakovic, Kihong Jung, Giltsu Choi, Sun-Chang Kim, Yu-Jin Kim
Triterpenoid saponins are naturally occurring structurally diverse glycosides of triterpenes that are widely distributed among plant species. Great interest has been expressed by pharmaceutical and agriculture industries for the glycosylation of triterpenes. Such modifications alter their taste and bio-absorbability, affect their intra-/extracellular transport and storage in plants, and induce novel biological activities in the human body. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze glycosylation using UDP sugar donors...
May 9, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31075307/from-lignocellulosic-residues-to-market-production-and-commercial-potential-of-xylooligosaccharides
#4
REVIEW
Cláudia Amorim, Sara C Silvério, Kristala L J Prather, Lígia R Rodrigues
The updated definition of prebiotic expands the range of potential applications in which emerging xylooligosaccharides (XOS) can be used. It has been demonstrated that XOS exhibit prebiotic effects at lower amounts compared to others, making them competitively priced prebiotics. As a result, the industry is focused on developing alternative approaches to improve processes efficiency that can meet the increasing demand while reducing costs. Recent advances have been made towards greener and more efficient processes, by applying process integration strategies to produce XOS from costless lignocellulosic residues and using genetic engineering to create microorganisms that convert these residues to XOS...
May 7, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31075306/a-comparison-between-the-homocyclic-aromatic-metabolic-pathways-from-plant-derived-compounds-by-bacteria-and-fungi
#5
REVIEW
Ronnie J M Lubbers, Adiphol Dilokpimol, Jaap Visser, Miia R Mäkelä, Kristiina S Hildén, Ronald P de Vries
Aromatic compounds derived from lignin are of great interest for renewable biotechnical applications. They can serve in many industries e.g. as biochemical building blocks for bioplastics or biofuels, or as antioxidants, flavor agents or food preservatives. In nature, lignin is degraded by microorganisms, which results in the release of homocyclic aromatic compounds. Homocyclic aromatic compounds can also be linked to polysaccharides, tannins and even found freely in plant biomass. As these compounds are often toxic to microbes already at low concentrations, they need to be degraded or converted to less toxic forms...
May 7, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31071431/soft-and-flexible-material-based-affinity-sensors
#6
REVIEW
Lingyin Meng, Anthony P F Turner, Wing Cheung Mak
Recent advances in biosensors and point-of-care (PoC) devices are poised to change and expand the delivery of diagnostics from conventional lateral-flow assays and test strips that dominate the market currently, to newly emerging wearable and implantable devices that can provide continuous monitoring. Soft and flexible materials are playing a key role in propelling these trends towards real-time and remote health monitoring. Affinity biosensors have the capability to provide for diagnosis and monitoring of cancerous, cardiovascular, infectious and genetic diseases by the detection of biomarkers using affinity interactions...
May 6, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31071430/spotlight-on-biodiversity-of-microbial-cell-factories-for-glycerol-conversion
#7
REVIEW
Hannes Russmayer, Michael Egermeier, Denis Kalemasi, Michael Sauer
Plant oil based industrial oleochemistry leads to a large side stream of crude glycerol, which offers itself as a low price carbon source for microbial chemical production. Compared to sugar, glycerol is more reduced and less microorganisms are able to use it as carbon source. An interesting feature of glycerol conversion is that many organisms cannot use it as carbon source at all, but they readily use it as electron sink under anaerobic conditions. In any case the number of pathways by which glycerol enters the microbial metabolism is quite limited...
May 6, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31051208/synthetic-genetic-circuits-for-programmable-biological-functionalities
#8
REVIEW
Peng-Fei Xia, Hua Ling, Jee Loon Foo, Matthew Wook Chang
Living organisms evolve complex genetic networks to interact with the environment. Due to the rapid development of synthetic biology, various modularized genetic parts and units have been identified from these networks. They have been employed to construct synthetic genetic circuits, including toggle switches, oscillators, feedback loops and Boolean logic gates. Building on these circuits, complex genetic machines with capabilities in programmable decision-making could be created. Consequently, these accomplishments have led to novel applications, such as dynamic and autonomous modulation of metabolic networks, directed evolution of biological units, remote and targeted diagnostics and therapies, as well as biological containment methods to prevent release of engineered microorganisms and genetic materials...
April 30, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31034961/sensing-and-transduction-of-nutritional-and-chemical-signals-in-filamentous-fungi-impact-on-cell-development-and-secondary-metabolites-biosynthesis
#9
REVIEW
J F Martín, M A van den Berg, E Ver Loren van Themaat, P Liras
Filamentous fungi respond to hundreds of nutritional, chemical and environmental signals that affect expression of primary metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. These signals are sensed at the membrane level by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs contain usually seven transmembrane domains, an external amino terminal fragment that interacts with the ligand, and an internal carboxy terminal end interacting with the intracellular G protein. There is a great variety of GPCRs in filamentous fungi involved in sensing of sugars, amino acids, cellulose, cell-wall components, sex pheromones, oxylipins, calcium ions and other ligands...
April 26, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31034960/rnai-therapeutic-and-its-innovative-biotechnological-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Yuhua Weng, Haihua Xiao, Jinchao Zhang, Xing-Jie Liang, Yuanyu Huang
Recently, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission (EC) approved Alnylam Pharmaceuticals' RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic, ONPATTRO™ (Patisiran), for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis in adults. This is the first RNAi therapeutic all over the world, as well as the first FDA-approved treatment for this indication. As a milestone event in RNAi pharmaceutical industry, it means, for the first time, people have broken through all development processes for RNAi drugs from research to clinic...
April 26, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31028788/editorial-for-special-issue-of-biorefinery
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31028787/microbial-production-of-sialic-acid-and-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharides-advances-and-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Xiaolong Zhang, Yanfeng Liu, Long Liu, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen
Sialic acids (SAs) are important functional sugars, and monomers of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (sialylated HMOs or sialyllactoses), which are crucial for improving infant development and can facilitate infant brain development, maintain brain health, and enhance immunity. The most common form of SA is N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), and the main forms of sialyllactoses are 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) and 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL). As functional food additive, the demand for NeuAc and sialyllactoses will continuously increase due to their wide and important fields of application...
April 24, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31026496/engineering-enzyme-access-tunnels
#13
REVIEW
Piia Kokkonen, David Bednar, Gaspar Pinto, Zbynek Prokop, Jiri Damborsky
Enzymes are efficient and specific catalysts for many essential reactions in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. Many times, the natural enzymes do not display the catalytic efficiency, stability or specificity required for these industrial processes. The current enzyme engineering methods offer solutions to this problem, but they mainly target the buried active site where the chemical reaction takes place. Despite being many times ignored, the tunnels and channels connecting the environment with the active site are equally important for the catalytic properties of enzymes...
April 23, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31022532/biotechnological-potential-of-engineering-pathogen-effector-proteins-for-use-in-plant-disease-management
#14
REVIEW
Angela P Van de Wouw, Alexander Idnurm
A key component in the management of many diseases of crops is the use of plant disease resistance genes. However, the discovery and then sequence identification of these plant genes is challenging, whereas the characterization of the molecules that they recognize, the effector/avirulence products in pathogens, is often considerably more straight forward. Effectors are small proteins secreted by pathogens that can play major roles in modulating a plant's defense against attack. Effectors can be used to guide breeding of resistance genes, to trigger defense responses, and are part of integrated disease management strategies for crop protection...
April 22, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31014935/nanoengineered-cellulosic-biohydrogen-production-via-dark-fermentation-a-novel-approach
#15
REVIEW
Neha Srivastava, Manish Srivastava, Bansi D Malhotra, Vijai K Gupta, P W Ramteke, Roberto N Silva, Pratyoosh Shukla, Kashyap Kumar Dubey, P K Mishra
The insights of nanotechnology for cellulosic biohydrogen production through dark fermentation are reviewed. Lignocellulosic biomass to sugar generation is a complex process and covers the most expensive part of cellulose to sugar production technology. In this context, the impacts of nanomaterial on lignocellulosic biomass to biohydrogen production process have been reviewed. In addition, the feasibility of nanomaterials to implement in each step of the cellulosic biohydrogen production is discussed for economic viability of the process...
April 20, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31004736/anti-cancer-effects-of-polyphenols-via-targeting-p53-signaling-pathway-updates-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Haroon Khan, Marcella Reale, Hammad Ullah, Antoni Sureda, Silvia Tejada, Ying Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang, Jianbo Xiao
The anticancer effects of polyphenols are ascribed to several signaling pathways including the tumor suppressor gene tumor protein 53 (p53). Expression of endogenous p53 is silent in various types of cancers. A number of polyphenols from a wide variety of dietary sources could upregulate p53 expression in several cancer cell lines through distinct mechanisms of action. The aim of this review is to focus the significance of p53 signaling pathways and to provide molecular intuitions of dietary polyphenols in chemoprevention by monitoring p53 expression that have a prominent role in tumor suppression...
April 17, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30978387/progress-and-perspective-on-cyanobacterial-glycogen-metabolism-engineering
#17
REVIEW
Guodong Luan, Shanshan Zhang, Min Wang, Xuefeng Lu
As important oxygenic photoautotrophs, cyanobacteria are also generally considered as one of the most promising microbial chassis for photosynthetic biomanufacturing. Diverse synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches have been developed to enable the efficient harnessing of carbon and energy flow toward the synthesis of desired metabolites in cyanobacterial cell factories. Glycogen metabolism works as the most important natural carbon sink mechanism and reserve carbon source, storing a large portion of carbon and energy from the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, and thus is traditionally recognized as a promising engineering target to optimize the efficacy of cyanobacterial cell factories...
April 9, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30978386/advances-in-phytochemical-delivery-systems-for-improved-anticancer-activity
#18
REVIEW
Ricardo Lagoa, João Silva, Joaquim Rui Rodrigues, Anupam Bishayee
Natural compounds have significant anticancer pharmacological activities, but often suffer from low bioavailability and selectivity that limit therapeutic use. The present work critically analyzes the latest advances on drug delivery systems designed to enhance pharmacokinetics, targeting, cellular uptake and efficacy of anticancer phytoconstituents. Various phytochemicals, including flavonoids, resveratrol, celastrol, curcumin, berberine and camptothecins, carried by liposomes, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions and films showed promising results...
April 9, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30974154/immobilization-of-lipases-on-hydrophobic-supports-immobilization-mechanism-advantages-problems-and-solutions
#19
REVIEW
Rafael C Rodrigues, Jose J Virgen-Ortíz, José C S Dos Santos, Ángel Berenguer-Murcia, Andres R Alcantara, Oveimar Barbosa, Claudia Ortiz, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente
Lipases are the most widely used enzymes in biocatalysis, and the most utilized method for enzyme immobilization is using hydrophobic supports at low ionic strength. This method allows the one step immobilization, purification, stabilization, and hyperactivation of lipases, and that is the main cause of their popularity. This review focuses on these lipase immobilization supports. First, the advantages of these supports for lipase immobilization will be presented and the likeliest immobilization mechanism (interfacial activation on the support surface) will be revised...
April 8, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30959173/a-field-of-dreams-lignin-valorization-into-chemicals-materials-fuels-and-health-care-products
#20
REVIEW
Judith Becker, Christoph Wittmann
Lignin is one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth and is readily produced as a sidestream during biomass fractioning. So far, these large quantities of lignin have been severely underutilized, thereby wasting this valuable renewable. Recent technological advances in lignin recovery, breakdown, and conversion have now started forming the first sustainable value chains to take advantage of lignin. Microbial cell factories, inspired by nature's miscellaneous set of lignin-degrading microbes, are at the heart of these novel processes...
April 5, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
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