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International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience

Maryam Sulaiman Alsaadi
DAPK (death-associated protein kinase) is a calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) regulated serine/threonine kinase. Structurally, it assumes a multi-domain structure and participates in various apoptotic systems which imply that it may interact with a wide range of intracellular components to exert its action. DAPK plays vital roles in pro-apoptotic, apoptotic and autophagic pathways. In addition, it plays important roles in many diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia and epilepsy. Although a novel protein, DAPK's various cellular signal transduction pathways proves that it can be a target for a potential future therapeutic effects...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Ivana Restovic, Ivana Bocina, Katarina Vukojevic, Darko Kero, Natalija Filipović, Janja Raonić, Jelena Vučinić, Filip Vukmirović, Ljiljana Vučković, Mirna Saraga-Babic
The aim of this study was to examine the spatio-temporal appearance of different neuronal cell subtypes by analyzing expression patterns of several neuronal markers (calretinin, neurofilament 200 (NF200), vanilloid receptor 1(VR1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)) of the embryonic human spinal cord (SC). Developing human SCs from 11 human conceptuses beetwen 5-10 developmental weeks (DW) were examined by light and electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Light and electron microscopy revealed different embryonic stages of recognizable structure of the SC...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Ravena Carolina de Carvalho, Lara Prado, Naynne Cristina Rissardo Oliveira, Fabiana Cardosos Vilela Giusti, Jádina Santos Vieira, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Josie Resende Torres da Silva, Marcelo Lourenço da Silva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Newborn infants are vulnerable to procedural stress and pain exposure on the first weeks of life that represents a critical period for the development of nociceptive, sensory, emotional, and social functions. We evaluated the nociceptive behavior of adult male and female rats that were submitted to nociceptive experience in the neonatal period and the maternal behavior in the postnatal period. METHODS: The animals were submitted to repetitive needle pricking from the second to the fifteenth postnatal day (PND2-15)...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Martina Pitzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Stefan Gingele, Lukas Merkel, Chittappen K Prajeeth, Jessica Kronenberg, Friederike Freiin von Hoevel, Thomas Skripuletz, Viktoria Gudi, Martin Stangel
Microglia can adopt different activation patterns, ranging from a pro-inflammatory M1- to an anti-inflammatory M2-like phenotype in which they play crucial roles in various neuroinflammatory diseases. M2-like microglia are described to drive remyelination, whereas detrimental effects have been attributed to M1-like microglia. How polarized microglia might act on oligodendrocyte lineage cells indirectly by influencing astrocytes has not been studied in detail. In this study, conditioned media from polarized murine microglia were used to treat astrocytes and astrocytic gene expression was analyzed by microarray for genes known to influence oligodendrocyte lineage cells...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Mariko Saito, Mitsuo Saito, Bhaskar C Das
Microglial activation followed by neuroinflammation is a defense mechanism of the brain to eliminate harmful endogenous and exogenous materials including pathogens and damaged tissues, while excessive or chronic neuroinflammation may cause or exacerbate neurodegeneration observed in brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Depending on conditions/environments during activation, microglia acquire distinct phenotypes, such as pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and disease-associated phenotypes, and show their ability to phagocytose various objects and produce pro-and anti-inflammatory mediators...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Tadashi Shiohama, Jacob Levman, Emi Takahashi
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare congenital disorder which in most cases (95%) is caused by methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) mutations. RTT is characterized by regression in global development, epilepsy, autistic features, acquired microcephaly, habitual hand clapping, loss of purposeful hand skills, and autonomic dysfunctions. Although the literature has demonstrated decreased volumes of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and the caudate nucleus in RTT patients, surface-based brain morphology including cortical thickness and cortical gyrification analyses are lacking in RTT...
January 25, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Robert Spaull, Bryony McPherson, Andriana Gialeli, Aled Clayton, James Uney, Axel Heep, Óscar Cordero-Llana
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk of germinal matrix haemorrhage-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH) which leads to post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in 30% of infants; this is associated with moderate-severe neurodevelopmental impairment and confers significant risk of cerebral palsy. There are however no predictive indicators of the severity or long-term outcome after GMH-IVH. In recent years, endosome-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes have been isolated from biofluids and shown to mediate intercellular communication via selective enrichment in proteins and micro-RNAs...
January 9, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Hoda Khoshdel-Sarkarizi, Javad Hami, Abbas Mohammadipour, Ariane Sadr-Nabavi, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Hamed Kheradmand, Mostafa Peyvandi, Esmail Nourmohammadi, Hossein Haghir
GABA is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain. However, in the developing brain it acts as an excitatory transmitter causing depolarization. Thereby, activates calcium-dependent processes that are crucial for brain development. Accordingly, GABA receptors have the great role in the brain development, especially in the area with persisting neurogenesis such as hippocampus. The present study investigated the development and lateralization of two important subunits of GABA receptors, GABAAα1 and GABAB1 , in the developing rat hippocampus during the neurogenesis-active period, at the first two postnatal weeks...
January 7, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Nadia Kafui Adotevi, Beulah Leitch
Childhood absence epilepsy has been associated with poor academic performance, behavioural difficulties, as well as increased risk of physical injury in some affected children. The frequent episodes of 'absence' arise from corticothalamocortical network dysfunction, with multifactorial mechanisms potentially involved in genetically different patients. Aberrations in glutamatergic neurotransmission has been implicated in some seizure models, and we have recently reported that reduced cortical AMPA receptor (AMPAR) expression (predominantly GluA4- containing AMPARs) in parvalbumin-containing (PV+ ) inhibitory interneurons, could underlie seizure generation in the stargazer mutant mouse...
December 26, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Ellen I Dixon, Robert N Hughes
From 30 days after birth until the completion of the study, male and female rats were caged in same-sexed twos or threes either with (enriched cages, EC) or without several objects for them to explore (standard cages, SC). From 41 to 50 days of age (late adolescence), they received a daily intraperitoneal injection of saline, or 10 or 20 mg/kg of the monoaminergic agonist drug of abuse, 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP). Ten days later (PND60+), their behavior was observed over several days in an open field, an elevated plus maze, a light-dark box and (to assess short-term memory) a Y maze in which one of the arms had been changed in brightness between two trials...
December 24, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Felipe Schmitz, Moses V Chao, Angela T S Wyse
The exponential increase in methylphenidate (MPH) prescriptions in recent years has worried researchers about its misuse among individuals who do not meet the full diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as young children and students in search of cognitive improvement or for recreational reasons. The action of MPH is based mainly on inhibition of dopamine transporter, but the complete cellular effects are still unknown. Based upon prior studies, we attempted to determine whether the treatment with MPH (1µM) influences protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling pathways (Akt-mTOR), including translation repressor protein (4E-BP1) and mitogen activated protein kinase (S6K), in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12), a well characterized cellular model, in a long or short term...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Melina Rapacioli, Sara Fiszer de Plazas, Vladimir Flores
The present article summarizes the main events involved in the isthmic organizer and optic tectum determination and analyses how optic tectum patterning is translated, by the organized operation of several specific cell behaviors, into the terminally differentiated optic tectum. The paper proposes that this assembling of temporally/spatially organized cell behaviors could be incorporated into a wider notion of patterning and that, given the asymmetric organization of the developing optic tectum, the notion of "sensitive period" does not capture the whole complexity of midbrain development and the pathogenesis of congenital disorders...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Amrita Jha Kumar, Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Silvia Honda Takada, Vitor Yonamine Lee, Aline Vilar Machado-Nils, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Maria Inês Nogueira
Neonatal anoxia induces long-term brain injury that may underlie neurobehavioral deficits at adolescence. Neonatal anoxia, induced by exposure of 30-hour old pups to 100% nitrogen, represents a non-invasive and global stimulus, which simulates clinical conditions of human pre-term babies (around 6 gestational months). Previous studies showed that neonatal anoxia induced impairments of spatial memory and altered anxiety-like behaviors in male rats tested at adult age. This study evaluated if neonatal anoxia induces similar behavioral effects in female rats, as compared to males, by testing the animals at adolescence, and also searched for possible cell losses in hippocampal subfields...
December 15, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Sara Izadi-Najafabadi, Shie Rinat, Jill G Zwicker
AIM: The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence about rehabilitation-induced neuroplasticity measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. METHOD: The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Two independent reviewers screened articles according to inclusion criteria: (1) peer-review study published in a scientific journal; (2) studies that evaluated a rehabilitation-based intervention; (3) participants aged less than 19 years with a neurodevelopmental disorder; (4) studies that used at least one MRI modality as an outcome measure...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Zineb Ibn Lahmar Andaloussi, Khalid Taghzouti, Oualid Abboussi
Chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence in male rats induces chronic cognitive and emotional impairments. However, the impact of this form of exposure on offspring vulnerability to stress is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioural and epigenetic effects of stress in the offspring of male rats whose fathers were exposed to cannabinoids during adolescence. Male adolescent offspring of Win55,212-2 (1.2 mg/kg) treated rats were exposed during one week to variable stressors and subjected to behavioural tests of anxiety and episodic-like memory, followed by an assessment of global DNA methylation and expression of DNA methyltransferases enzymes DNMT1 and DNMT3a mRNA in the prefrontal cortex...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Pilani Nkomozepi, Pedzisai Mazengenya, Amadi O Ihunwo
Several studies have identified age as one of the strongest regulators of neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. However, previous age-related studies focused mainly on changes in neurogenesis during different stages of adulthood and did not describe changes in neurogenesis through the different life history stages of the animal. The aim of this study was therefore to determine time course changes in neurogenesis in the male BALB/c mouse brain at postnatal ages 1 week to 12 weeks, spanning juvenile, sub adult and adult life history stages...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Consuelo Guerri, María Pascual
Evidence obtained in recent decades has demonstrated that the brain still matures in adolescence. Changes in neural connectivity occur in different regions, including cortical and subcortical structures, which undergo modifications in white and gray matter densities. These alterations concomitantly occur in some neurotransmitter systems and hormone secretion, which markedly influence the refinement of certain brain areas and neural circuits. The immaturity of the adolescent brain makes it more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drug abuse, whose use can trigger long-term behavioral dysfunction...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Andrea G Edlow, Ruthy M Glass, Caroline J Smith, Phuong Kim Tran, Kaitlyn James, Staci Bilbo
Fetal placental macrophages and microglia (resident brain macrophages) have a common origin in the fetal yolk sac. Yolk-sac-derived macrophages comprise the permanent pool of brain microglia throughout an individual's lifetime. Inappropriate fetal microglial priming may therefore have lifelong neurodevelopmental consequences, but direct evaluation of microglial function in a living fetus or neonate is impossible. We sought to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity would prime both placental macrophages and fetal brain microglia to overrespond to an immune challenge, thus providing a window into microglial function using placental cells...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Philemon Dauda Shallie, Thajasvarie Naicker
BACKGROUND: During development, the placenta can be said to be the most important organ, however, the most poorly researched. There is currently a broader understanding of how specific insults during development affect the fetal brain, and also the importance of placental signaling in neurodevelopmental programming. Epigenetic responses to maternal and fetal signals are an obvious candidate for transforming early life inputs into long-term programmatic outcomes. As a mediator of maternal and environmental signals to the developing fetus, epigenetic processes within the placenta are particularly powerful such that alterations of placental gene expression, downstream function, and signalling during foetal development have the potential for dramatic changes in developmental programming...
April 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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