Martin Blay, Marie-Aude Cham, Miguel Duarte, Elsa Ronningstam
INTRODUCTION: Pathological narcissism (PN) can be defined as the compromised and fluctuating ability to regulate self-esteem, the latter depending on external validation, admiration, or enhancement, all resulting in grandiose (e.g., self-enhancement, aggressiveness, manipulation) or vulnerable (e.g., depression, anxiety, self-criticism, avoidance) dysfunctional reactions when confronting with self-esteem threats. A link has been suggested between PN and emotion dysregulation (ED), but to date, no systematic review has been conducted...
June 13, 2024: Psychopathology
Jani Kajanoja, Jussi Valtonen
INTRODUCTION: Psychiatric diagnoses are descriptive in nature, but the lay public commonly misconceives them as causal explanations. It is not known whether this logical error, a form of circular reasoning, can sometimes be mistakenly reinforced by health authorities themselves. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of misleading causal descriptions of depression in the information provided by authoritative mental health organizations on widely accessed internet sites. METHODS: We searched for popular websites managed by leading mental health organizations and conducted a content analysis to evaluate whether they presented depression accurately as a description of symptoms, or inaccurately as a causal explanation...
June 12, 2024: Psychopathology
Massimiliano Aragona, Federica Ferrari, Marcella Cavallo, Silvia Pierconti, Chiara Pajno, Paola Coletta, Giulia Barbarossa, Gianluca Nicolella, Giovanna Laurendi
INTRODUCTION: Somatization in immigrants is frequent but standard studies do not differentiate between various forms of somatization. In this qualitative study, we used an idealtypical approach with the aim of phenomenologically differentiating between different forms of somatization in immigrants. METHODS: The clinical description of the ideal types was based on seven levels: medical examination; description of somatization symptoms; the patients' own interpretation of their somatic experience; concomitant psychopathological phenomena; genetic understanding; clinician's interpretation; and course and treatment...
June 4, 2024: Psychopathology
Milena Mancini, Cecilia Maria Esposito, Andrés Estradé, René Rosfort, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Giovanni Stanghellini
INTRODUCTION: Abnormal self-experiences are a common feature of major depression despite their absence from current diagnostic manuals. Current diagnostic criteria leave us with an impoverished conception of depressive disorders, and they fail to exploit the diverse experiential alterations that might be useful for understanding and diagnosing patients, and last but not least for explaining the aetiology of these disorders. Although some phenomenological descriptions of abnormal self-experiences in major depression are available, further research is needed to validate these through detailed clinical interviews...
May 22, 2024: Psychopathology
Victor Monteiro, Lucas Bloc, Guilherme Messas
INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is no scientific consensus on the concept of alcohol addiction recovery beyond substance use control. This conceptual issue challenges the implementation of therapeutic strategies and mental health policies that are unrestricted to symptomatic remission. Aiming to contribute to its definition, this study aimed to examine the recovery experience of individuals with alcohol addiction using dialectical phenomenological psychopathology (DPP) as a theoretical and methodological framework...
May 16, 2024: Psychopathology
Jan Stirnberg, Jürgen Margraf, Lena-Marie Precht, Julia Brailovskaia
INTRODUCTION: In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated whether reasons for smartphone use are similar to those of social media use. Also, we explored links between reasons of smartphone use and mental health variables (problematic smartphone use, FOMO, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction) in Germany during the COVID-19 lockdown period. METHODS: Overall, 571 smartphone users (Mage = 31.60, SDage = 12.73) provided their reasons for smartphone use...
April 26, 2024: Psychopathology
Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Sarah Becker, Georg Juckel
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a tremendous psychiatric illness with a variety of severe symptoms. Feelings of shame and guilt are universal social emotions that fundamentally shape the way people interact with each other. Mental illness is therefore often related to pronounced feelings of shame and guilt in a maladaptive form. METHODS: A total of 62 participants (38 women and 24 men) were clinically and psychometrically investigated. RESULTS: The OCD patients (n = 31) showed a maladaptive guilt and shame profile, characterized by increased interpersonal feelings of guilt accompanied by a stronger tendency to self-criticism and increased punitive sense of guilt with a simultaneous prevailing tendency to perfectionism, as well as an increased concern for the suffering of others...
April 24, 2024: Psychopathology
Lisa Van Hove, Imke Baetens, Steven Vanderstichelen
INTRODUCTION: Fewer studies thus far have focused on self-harm and its specific forms among older adults. Moreover, the limited available literature applies varying terminology. The categorization of self-harm used in younger populations may not be as appropriate for this population. This means that less is known about this phenomenon in older adults. The current study aimed to reduce this gap. METHODS: Nine Flemish psychogeriatric experts participated in a semi-structured interview...
April 10, 2024: Psychopathology
Koki Takagaki, Satoshi Yokoyama
INTRODUCTION: Depression is highly prevalent among university students. While behavioral activation has been shown to be an effective psychotherapy for depression, there is a lack of research regarding the behavioral activation mechanism. Furthermore, although self-compassion seems to be a factor in promoting behavioral activation, no studies have attempted to validate a behavioral activation model that includes positive self-compassion. In addition, mechanistic studies have lacked consideration in longitudinal studies of behavioral activation...
April 8, 2024: Psychopathology
Asala Halaj, George Konstantakopoulos, Nassir S Ghaemi, Anthony S David
BACKGROUND: The exploration of metacognition in relation to anxiety has received considerable attention in recent decades. Research indicates that it plays a role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders while also providing benefits, including the ability to assess situations, modify behaviors, and make informed decisions. SUMMARY: We propose that having an awareness of a disorder, also known as insight, is related to metacognition in anxiety. This relationship stems from the ability it provides individuals to recognize their mental state through reflection on personal experiences...
March 27, 2024: Psychopathology
Flávio Guimarães-Fernandes, Laelia Benoit, Luiza Magalhães de Oliveira, Paulo Chenaud Neto, Débora Chou Feniman, Aline Villalobo Correia, Nathaly de Oliveira Bosoni, Daniela Medina Macaya, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Daniela Ceron-Litvoc, Gustavo Bonini Castellana
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic had significant repercussions for the everyday life and public health of society. Healthcare professionals were particularly vulnerable. Here, we interviewed medical residents about their lived experiences during the pandemic to offer a phenomenological analysis. To this end, we discuss their pandemic experiences considering Jaspers' "limit situation" concept - that is, a radical shift from their everyday experiences, to one causing them to question the basis of their very existence...
March 11, 2024: Psychopathology
Fiamma Rinaldi, Silvia Sacchetto, Antonio Di Francia, Alberto Siracusano, Cinzia Niolu, Flavia di Michele
BACKGROUND: Hysteria in its most severe expression may reach psychotic manifestations. Such symptomatology has been occasionally described by various authors starting from the 19th century and defined as "hysterical psychosis" (HP) by Hollender and Hirsch in 1964. Currently, diagnostic psychiatric manuals such as DSM and ICD do not include the diagnosis of HP, although this term is commonly used in clinical practice. This raises a well-known problem with case definition due to an inconsistent use of terminology...
March 5, 2024: Psychopathology
Maria Triola, Jesus Cobo, Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Lourdes Nieto, Susana Ochoa, Judith Usall, Carles García-Ribera, Iris Baños, Beatriz González, Ariadna Solanilla, Carmina Massons, Isabel Ruiz, Ada I Ruiz, Joan Carles Oliva, Esther Pousa
INTRODUCTION: Insight in psychosis has been conceptualized as a continuous, dynamic, and multidimensional phenomenon. This study aims to determine the impact of delusions and hallucinations in different dimensions of clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter study including 516 patients (336 men) diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Based on dichotomized scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items P1 (delusions) and P3 (hallucinations), patients were assigned to four groups according to current clear presence of delusions (scores 4 or above 4 in PANSS item P1) and/or hallucinations (scores 4 or above 4 in PANNS item P3)...
March 5, 2024: Psychopathology
Qin Xiang Ng, Dawn Yi Xin Lee, Chun En Yau, Ming Xuan Han, Jacqueline Jin Li Liew, Seth En Teoh, Clarence Ong, Clyve Yu Leon Yaow, Kuan Tsee Chee
INTRODUCTION: Orthorexia nervosa (ON), characterized by a pathological preoccupation with "extreme dietary purity," is increasingly observed as a mental health condition among young adults and the general population. However, its diagnosis is not formally recognized and has remained contentious. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we attempt to overview previous reviews on ON, focusing on the methodological and conceptual issues with ON. This would serve both as a summary and a way to highlight gaps in earlier research...
March 1, 2024: Psychopathology
Jessica Szu-Chi Cheng, Elissa Khalil, Masoud Salehi, Lauren Mulcahy, Isabella Yiru Xie, Hasti Hadizadeh, Marco A Grados
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS) are often concurrent. This study explores the temperament profile of complex OCD phenotypes. METHODS: A clinical registry recorded demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, and temperament traits, including novelty seeking (exploratory behaviors), harm avoidance (fear of uncertainty), reward dependence (sentimentality), and persistence (perseverance)...
January 29, 2024: Psychopathology
Qian Wang, Zirong Li, Jie Zhong
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the structure of the borderline personality features (BPFs) network and the most central BPF in adolescence. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report data from 4,866 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.96, SD = 1.64; 61.3% girls) were included in the network analysis models. BPFs were assessed with the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder. RESULTS: Identity disturbance and affective instability emerged as the most central BPF in the current adolescent sample...
January 16, 2024: Psychopathology
Hannah Klusmann, Claudia Kapp, Sinha Engel, Tabea Schumacher, Elise Bücklein, Christine Knaevelsrud, Sarah Schumacher
BACKGROUND: Menstrual cycle regularity is an important marker of reproductive health and associated with physiological and psychological illnesses, as well as experiencing stress. We hypothesized that individuals with irregular menstrual cycles report higher depressive symptom severity, after controlling for stress occurrence. METHODS: The hypothesis was examined through two measurement approaches: a cross-sectional and a prospective, longitudinal study. In the cross-sectional study, participants (n = 394) reported depressive symptoms and their overall menstrual cycle regularity...
January 9, 2024: Psychopathology
Valerio Ricci, Giuseppe Maina, Giovanni Martinotti
BACKGROUND: The state of twilight consciousness is marked by a focused narrowing of awareness, maintaining vigilance and attention while simultaneously experiencing perceptual shifts in the surrounding environment. It is crucial to recognize that this twilight state represents not just a contraction but also an expansion of conscious experience. SUMMARY: Substances of abuse, particularly new psychoactive substances, play a significant role in inducing this twilight state...
2024: Psychopathology
Cecilia Maria Esposito, Giovanni Stanghellini
BACKGROUND: Phenomenological literature has recently given much attention to the concept of atmosphere, which is the pre-individual affective tonality of the intersubjective space. The importance of atmospheres in psychopathology has been described for various disorders, but little is known about the interaction with hysteria. The aim of the present paper was to describe the psychopathology of hysteria from the angle of the phenomenon of atmosphere, focussing on the hysterical person's peculiar "affective permeability"...
2024: Psychopathology
Franziska Binder, Rea Mehl, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess, Julian Koenig
INTRODUCTION: Recently, acceptance- and commitment therapy (ACT) gained increasing interest. Studies show good efficacy in the treatment of patients presenting with several psychologic and somatic complaints. The present systematic review and meta-analysis addresses effectiveness of ACT-based interventions to reduce stress in children, adolescents, and young adults compared to control conditions. METHODS: The meta-analysis was pre-registered at PROSPERO (CRD42019117440)...
December 21, 2023: Psychopathology
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