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February 15, 2019: Psychopathology
Yaniv Efrati, Pinhas Dannon
BACKGROUND: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) has been linked to psychopathology among adults. Only preliminary research has been conducted on adolescents. In our study, we examined whether CSB is linked to psychopathology among adolescents or whether it is a part of normal sexual development. We also, examined potential risk and resiliency factors that might influence this link. METHODS: The study population included 311 high school students (184 males and 127 females) aged 16-18 years who completed self-report measures regarding CSB, psychopathology, temperament, and attachment orientations...
January 23, 2019: Psychopathology
Alessandra D Apos Agostino, Antonella Aportone, Marica Petrini, Enrica Manganelli, Mario Rossi Monti, Vladan Starcevic
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most puzzling psychiatric disorders. In order to improve its understanding and management, we have recently proposed an interpersonal dysphoria model that emphasizes the key role of the complex emotional state of dysphoria in BPD. The purpose of this study was to test the interpersonal dysphoria model using a structural equation modeling analysis. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 105 patients with BPD and 105 healthy controls...
January 21, 2019: Psychopathology
Yuriy Ignatyev, Stéphanie Baggio, Adrian P Mundt
BACKGROUND: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations. Understanding patterns of comorbidity may be essential for the development of adequate treatment interventions. The present study aimed to assess the underlying structure of comorbidity between mental health and substance use disorders in prison populations. METHODS: Current mental disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview in a cross-sectional observational study of 427 individuals consecutively committed to prison facilities in Santiago, Chile...
January 17, 2019: Psychopathology
Bo Bach, Jill Lobbestael
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) comprises a heterogeneous constellation of problems operationalized in the DSM-5 and the forthcoming ICD-11. In schema therapy, schemas and modes are employed to conceptualize and treat these problems. AIM: The current study investigated whether the 9 diagnostic BPD features are associated with schemas and modes. METHOD: Psychiatric outpatients with predominant BPD features (n = 142; 68% females) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II) and self-report inventories for schemas and modes...
January 9, 2019: Psychopathology
Paul H Lysaker, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Jay A Hamm, Bethany L Leonhardt, Jesse Hochheiser, John T Lysaker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Disturbances in first person experience is a broadly noted feature of schizophrenia, which cannot be reduced to the expression of psychopathology. Yet, though categorically linked with profound suffering, these disturbances are often ignored by most contemporary treatment models. METHODS: In this paper, we present a model, which suggests that deficits in metacognition and their later resolution parsimoniously explain the development of self-disturbance and clarify how persons can later recover...
December 11, 2018: Psychopathology
Elisabeth Åström, Ali Seif, Britt Wiberg, Maria Grazia Carelli
BACKGROUND/AIM: Anxiety disorders are associated with impairments in several aspects of cognitive processing. In this study we investigated three such aspects, i.e., time perspective, repetitive negative thinking (worry and rumination), and executive functioning, in persons with anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls and examined the influence of negative past and negative future time perspective and executive functioning on worry and rumination. METHOD: Thirty-six psychiatric outpatients with anxiety disorders (mean age = 30...
December 6, 2018: Psychopathology
Gareth S Owen, Wayne Martin, Tania Gergel
BACKGROUND: Within psychiatric practice and policy there is considerable controversy surrounding the nature and assessment of impairments of decision-making capacity (DMC) for treatment in persons diagnosed with affective disorders. We identify the problems of "cognitive bias" and "outcome bias" in assessment of DMC for treatment in affective disorder and aim to help resolve these problems with an analysis of how time is experienced in depression and mania. SAMPLING AND METHODS: We conducted purposeful sampling and a qualitative phenomenological analysis of interview data on patients with depression and mania, exploring temporal experience and decision-making regarding treatment...
November 28, 2018: Psychopathology
Mauro Pallagrosi, Laura Fonzi
Despite the development and widespread diffusion of modern nosographic systems, the diagnosis of schizophrenia continues to raise several epistemological issues. To address these issues, a number of researchers are currently pursuing the possibility of an integration between reliable, objective approaches and the intersubjective perspective in the clinical encounter. In the present article, we discuss Rümke's popular concept of praecox feeling, as introduced in 1941 and re-elaborated over the following 20 years...
October 31, 2018: Psychopathology
Johannes Michalak, Ani Chatinyan, Helena Chourib, Tobias Teismann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Basic research on embodiment has demonstrated that manipulating the motoric system has broad effects on cognitive and emotional processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an embodiment manipulation on the affective memory bias and specificity of autobiographic memories of depressed individuals. METHODS: Forty currently depressed patients practiced either an upward-opening Qi Gong movement, which runs counter to the habitual slumped and downward depressive movement style, or a downward-closing Qi Gong movement...
2018: Psychopathology
Roberto Viviani, Jacqueline S Mahler, Julia E Bosch, Lisa Dommes, Julia Eberhardt, Petra Beschoner, Zrinka Sosic-Vasic
BACKGROUND: Increasing recognition is being given to the importance of cognitions observed in posttraumatic conditions. These cognitions may reflect the activation of negative schemas. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of the scrambled-sentences task (SST) to assess individual differences in attributions commonly observed after traumas. Originally developed to assess the tendency to activate negative cognitions in individuals predisposed to depression, the SST is a laboratory task the outcome of which has been shown to predict depression relapse and is associated with depressiveness...
2018: Psychopathology
Chao Wu, Chuan Shi, Wentian Dong, Bing Li, Rengang Wu
AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to test the path relations between alexithymia, ego-dystonicity, anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy individuals. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with OCD (mean age 35.5 years) and 54 healthy participants (mean age 33.5 years) completed an assessment via a structured clinical interview. All of them completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Vancouver Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (VOCI), the Self-Consistency and Congruence Scale (SCCS), the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)...
2018: Psychopathology
Lena Listunova, Corinna Roth, Marina Bartolovic, Johanna Kienzle, Claudia Bach, Matthias Weisbrod, Daniela Roesch-Ely
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, with a large global impact on both the individual and the society. In this narrative review, we summarize neurocognitive deficits during acute and (partially) remitted states of depression. Furthermore, we outline the potential negative effect of cognitive impairment (CI) on functional recovery, and discuss the role of several variables in the development of CI for MDD patients. Though there is cumulating evidence regarding persistent CI in unipolar depression, research on treatment options specific for this patient group is still scarce...
2018: Psychopathology
Mark F Lenzenweger, John F Clarkin, Eve Caligor, Nicole M Cain, Otto F Kernberg
BACKGROUND: Normal and pathological narcissism have been the focus of considerable theoretical discussion and empirical research in recent years in personality psychology and psychopathology. Kernberg [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref1">1</xref>-<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref4">4</xref>] has argued that there is a particularly dysfunctional and impairing variant of narcissistic disturbance known as malignant narcissism. This exploratory study sought to develop, using established assessment methods, a dimensional measure of malignant narcissism that incorporates the key features of grandiose narcissism, paranoid propensities, psychopathic features, and proclivity for a sadistic and aggressive interpersonal style...
2018: Psychopathology
Lena Rinnewitz, Julian Koenig, Peter Parzer, Romuald Brunner, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), the intentional, self-directed act of injuring one's own body tissue, is a behavioral phenomenon closely linked to stress and its maladaptive regulation. NSSI is associated with childhood adversity that may underlie altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system response to stress in adolescents engaging in NSSI. Adolescents engaging in NSSI show decreased pain sensitivity and increased psychophysiological response to pain that may underlie the maintenance of the behavior and its stress-regulating function...
2018: Psychopathology
Lorenzo Pelizza, Silvia Azzali, Federica Paterlini, Ilaria Scazza, Sara Garlassi, Luigi Rocco Chiri, Michele Poletti, Simona Pupo, Andrea Raballo
BACKGROUND: The Brief, 21-item version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-B) is a promising screener for psychosis-risk states that could be implemented in routine clinical practice. In this study, we assessed psychometric properties of the Italian version of the PQ-B (iPQ-B) in a sample of 243 help-seekers, aged 13-35 years. SAMPLING AND METHODS: After completing the iPQ-B, participants were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS)...
2018: Psychopathology
Zeno Van Duppen, Rob Sips
BACKGROUND: Experiences of psychosis are often assumed to be strange, bizarre, or incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to offer a new step towards a better understanding of how the psychotic process affects a prereflective background. METHODS: We use concepts from the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein to clarify the first-person perspective on psychosis of one of the authors. RESULTS: We describe the early psychotic process as breaking down the "nest of propositions," shaking the scaffolds of our language games...
2018: Psychopathology
Louis De Page, Jérôme Englebert
In this article, based on literature review, we present an integrated description of heboidophrenia and pseudo-psychopathic schizophrenia. Both diagnostic constructs describe latent psychotic processes inextricably bound with psychopathic features. Although both have been described in different eras and research threads, they are that similar that we could not find divergences. We formulated operational criteria for clinical and research purpose. The recognition of this syndrome improves risk management, treatment, and legal decisions...
2018: Psychopathology
Tabea L K Schweden, Uwe Wolfradt, Sara Jahnke, Juergen Hoyer
BACKGROUND: Based on the assumptions that depersonalization symptoms are relevant for test anxiety maintenance, we examined their frequency, psychological predictors, association with anxiety symptoms, and association with test performance. SAMPLING AND METHODS: In Study 1, 203 students rated their test anxiety severity and depersonalization in their last oral examination. In Study 2, we assessed test anxiety 1 week before an oral examination, depersonalization, safety behaviors, self-focused attention, and negative appraisals of depersonalization directly after the examination, and post-event processing 1 week later among 67 students...
2018: Psychopathology
Ryan Cardinale, Lisa O'Donnell, Jinsoo Chun, Jiyoung Park, Ethan Kross, Masoud Kamali, Melvin McInnis, Patricia Deldin
Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in patients with bipolar I disorder (BPI) and are risk factors for mood episodes. In other populations, central nervous system (CNS) hyperarousal is associated with sleep initiation and maintenance problems, and CNS hypoarousal is associated with increased sleep drive. However, it is unclear whether CNS arousal levels are a useful index of sleep disruption in BPI. This study aimed to investigate daytime CNS arousal levels in relation to perceived sleep quality in BPI...
2018: Psychopathology
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