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General Physiology and Biophysics

Eliyahu Dremencov, Maxim Lapshin, Maria Komelkova, Anatoli Alliluev, Olga Tseilikman, Marina Karpenko, Nina Pestereva, Eugenia Manukhina, H Fred Downey, Vadim Tseilikman
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic predator scent stress (PSS) on monoamine levels in rat thalamus and hypothalamus. Rats were exposed to the PSS (sand containing cat urine) for ten minutes daily for ten days. Control animals were exposed to the sand containing clean water. Fifteen days later, rats' behavior and thalamic and hypothalamic levels of monoamines were analyzed. PSS rats had elevated anxiety, increased thalamic serotonin and decreased hypothalamic dopamine concentrations...
March 1, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Zsuzsanna É Magyar, Gyula Diszházi, Judit Péli-Szabó, Péter Szentesi, Claude Collet, László Csernoch, Péter Nánás, János Almássy
Very recently, the diamide insecticide chlorantraniliprole was shown to induce Ca2+-release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles isolated from mammalian skeletal muscle through the activation of the SR Ca2+ channel ryanodine receptor. As this result raises severe concerns about the safety of this chemical, we aimed to learn more about its action. To this end, single-channel analysis was performed, which showed that chlorantraniliprole induced high-activity bursts of channel opening that accounts for the Ca2+-releasing action described before...
March 1, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Ayhan Tanyeli, Fazile Nur Ekinci Akdemir, Ersen Eraslan, Mustafa Can Güler, Tuncer Nacar
In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of caftaric acid against ulcer produced by indomethacin in gastric mucosa. Female Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into five groups: control (saline group, n = 8), negative control (indomethacin group, n = 8), positive control (omeprazole group, n = 8), low dose therapy (caftaric acid, n = 8), and high dose therapy (caftaric acid, n = 8). At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed and gastric mucosa samples were removed for macroscopic and biochemical analysis...
March 1, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Katarina Ondicova, Noemi Hegedusova, Miroslav Tibensky, Boris Mravec
Ivabradine, a selective inhibitor of the sinoatrial pacemaker, is used in clinical practice to reduce heart rate. However, its potential effect on the neuroendocrine stress response has not been investigated. Therefore, we determined the effect of administering ivabradine to rats on cardiovascular parameters and plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and corticosterone. Ivabradine was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before exposing animals to either handling, restraint, or immobilization stress...
March 1, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Jana Horváthová, Roman Moravčík, Andrej Boháč, Michal Zeman
Activated endothelial cells play a crucial role in the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis, which can underlie the development of several diseases. Different antiangiogenic therapies aimed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the dominant pro-angiogenic cytokine, have been developed. Because the treatment is limited in its efficiency and has side effects, new approaches are currently being evaluated. One of them is aimed at blocking glycolysis, the dominant energetic pathway of activated endothelial cells during vessel sprouting...
March 1, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Nejla Soudani, Mariem Chaâbane, Imen Ghorbel, Awatef Elwej, Tahia Boudawara, Najiba Zeghal
The present work evaluated the possible protective effects of quercetin against glyphosate-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group (C), a glyphosate-treated group (Gly) and a group treated with both glyphosate and quercetin (Gly+QE). During the experimental period (15 days), glyphosate (50 mg/kg b.w.) was administered every two days by intraperitoneal way while quercetin (20 mg/kg b.w./day) was administered daily by gavage. Glyphosate-induced hepatic oxidative stress was evidenced by the increased levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products and protein carbonyls with a significant decrease in enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (non-protein thiols, glutathione, vitamin C) antioxidants...
March 1, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Lubica Lacinova
N-type or CaV 2.2 high-voltage activated calcium channels are distinguished by exclusively neuronal tissue distribution, sensitivity to ω-conotoxins, prominent inhibition by G-proteins, and a unique role in nociception. Most investigated modulatory pathway regulating the CaV 2.2 channels is G-protein-coupled receptor-activated pathway leading to current inhibition by Gβγ subunit of G-protein. Binding of Gβγ dimer to α1 subunit of the CaV 2.2 channel transfers the channel form "willing" to "reluctant" gating state...
March 1, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Nur G Kulhan, Mehmet Kulhan, Can Turkler, Nahit Ata, Tunay Kiremitli, Sevil Kiremitli, Ferda Keskin Cimen, Halis Suleyman, Veysel Toprak
The anti-cancer drugs, particularly those used in reproductive period, may cause several complications such as ovarian insufficiency and infertility. The mechanism of action of cisplatin toxicity on the ovaries is not fully described. However, further production of free oxygen radicals and reduced production of antioxidants are thought to have an effect on the occurrence of cisplatin toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lycopene on cisplatin-induced ovary-damage, oxidative stres and histological changes in rats...
February 26, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Yung Hyun Choi
Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside mainly found in the root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is known to possess various pharmacological effects. Here, we investigated its inhibitory potential against inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. Our results showed that catalpol significantly suppressed LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2. Consistent with these results, catalpol downregulated LPS-stimulated expression of their regulatory enzymes, such as inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2...
February 26, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Dana Strouhalova, Lucia Toporova, Marketa Lastovickova, Dana Macejova, Janette Bobalova, Julius Brtko
Trialkyltins and triaryltins function as nuclear retinoid X receptors (RXR) agonists due to their affinity to the ligand-binding domain of RXR subtypes and function as transcriptional activators. We present the data on combined effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligand and tributyltin chloride or triphenyltin chloride (RXR ligands) on protein pattern in MDA-MB-231 cells. Proteomic strategies based on bottom-up method were applied in this study. The total cell proteins were extracted, separated on 2D SDS-PAGE and their characterization was achieved by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS...
February 26, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Cigdem Velioglu, Mehmet E Erdemli, Mehmet Gul, Zeynep Erdeml, Emrah Zayman, Harika G Bag, Eyup Altinoz
The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the protective effect of crocin on the adverse effects of tartrazine on liver. Crocin is a carotenoid and a strong free radical scavenger. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10). The first group was the control group (C) and saline solution was administered to this group. The second group (Cr) was administered 50 mg/kg crocin. The third group (T) was administered 500 mg/kg tartrazine. The fourth group (T+Cr) was administered the same doses of both crocin and tartrazine as the previous groups for 21 days...
January 18, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Erdal Ince, Fatma Curabeyoğlu, Sibel Akyol
Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol under chronic conditions using the gavage method to assess the complement activation and effects of oxidative stress on fetus lymphoid organs and liver. The effects were monitored on both the 10th (G10) and the 30th (G30) day of the offspring of alcoholic mother rats. Maternal ethanol caused a significant decrease in the glutathione level, whereas malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels increased in the liver and lymphoid tissues. Na+,K+-ATPase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in these organs also decreased...
January 18, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Lei Zhao, Qun Huang, Shoujin Tian, Jianfei Ge, Hongyan Zhu, Qirong Dong
Kinase-targeted therapy is a new and promising approach to disease treatment. However, some kinase inhibitors have been observed to cause an off-target adverse risk for skeletal system by influencing the growth of osteoblasts. It is known that the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts are essentially regulated by MAPK signaling pathway, and many off-target events are considered to influence this pathway. Here, the unexpected MAPK-inhibitor interactions in mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells were investigated in detail using an integrative protocol...
January 18, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Heba A Abdel-Hamid, Nagwa M Zenhom, Nisreen Dm Toni
Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, plays a crucial role in regulation of neuroendocrine and defensive functions, free radicals neutralization, and suppresses angiogenesis, proliferation and cancer. The purpose of designing our study is to assess the effect of estradiol benzoate and its combination with melatonin on uteri of female albino rats. For 4 weeks, the present study was conducted on thirty six female rats separated into 3 groups: Control group (rats received the vehicle), EB group (rats were treated by estradiol benzoate (600 μg/kg intramuscular) for induction of endometrial hyperplasia), and EB+Mel group (rats were treated with estradiol benzoate (600 μg/kg) plus melatonin (50 µg/ml) added to drinking water...
January 18, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Oľga Uličná, Oľga Vančová, Jarmila Kucharská, Pavol Janega, Iveta Waczulíková
The rooibos tea (RT) is a source of valuable dietary dihydrochalcones  aspalathin, and nothofagin and other polyphenols. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that RT flavonoids have strong antioxidant effect and significantly reduce oxidative stress. We investigated the antioxidant activity and protective effect of an aqueous extract of RT on the liver mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced (CCl4-induced) liver damage. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production was determined amperometrically using a Clark-type oxygen electrode...
January 18, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Boris Djindjic, Tanja Dzopalic, Momir Dunjic, Dejan Krstic, Zoran Radovanovic, Jelena Milenkovic, Natasa Djindjic, Biljana Bozic-Nedeljkovic
Immunomodulating effect of silica-rich water represents a novel field for research, especially regarding its features toward environmental pollutants. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of silica-rich water intake on systemic and peritoneal inflammation in rats that were chronically exposed to the low-level microwave (MW) radiation from mobile phones. Wistar Albino rats were exposed to 900 MHz MW radiation for 3 months. The four-treatment model involved rats with standard water (SW) or experimental silica-rich water intake (EW)...
January 18, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Hanna V Danylovych, Yuriy V Danylovych, Maria O Gulina, Tatyana V Bohach, Sergiy O Kosterin
Information about the catalytic and kinetic properties of mitochondria NO-synthase from uterus smooth muscle is missing currently. According to the data on MitoTracker Orange CM-H2TMRos and 4-аmino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorescein, diaminofluorescein-FM (DAF-FM) dye co-localization in uterine smooth muscle cells, presented in this paper, NO can be synthesized in their mitochondria. High activity of NO synthase requires the presence of substrates of respiration, L-arginine, Ca2+ and NADPH. It is established that the dependence of NO production on the concentration of L-arginine has a bell-shaped character with a maximum of 75 μM, and the apparent affinity constant for L-arginine is 28...
January 18, 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Noha I Hussien, Hend S El-Wakeel, Safwa M Souror, Inas A Ahmed
Chronic stress is associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These mechanisms promote adverse cardiovascular events. Though many experimental studies have reported a protective effect of vitamin D (VitD) on cardiovascular system, its effect on cardiovascular system in case of chronic stress is not studied yet. The present study aimed to detect the effects of VitD treatment against chronic immobilization stress (CIS)-induced cardiac dysfunction, focusing mainly on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in rats...
January 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Firouzeh Gholampour, Nadimeh Saki
Iron is a vitally important element for the maintenance of health in living organisms. But, iron overload can be toxic. This study investigated the protective efficacy of quercetin against ferrous sulfate-induced oxidative stress, hepato- and nephrotoxicity in rats. There were five experimental groups (n = 7): Sham (distilled water, 1 ml/day for 14 days, i.p.), Quer (quercetin, 50 mg/kg/day for 14 days, i.p.), DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide 1%, 1 ml i.p.), Fe (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days, i.p.), Fe+Quer (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; quercetin, 50 mg/kg/day for 11 days from fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection)...
January 2019: General Physiology and Biophysics
Hanan Waly, Sohair Mm Ragab, Khaled Ma Hassanein, Nasser S Abou Khalil, Emad A Ahmed
Uranyl acetate (UA), a commercial stock from depleted uranium (DU), has a combined effect of chemical toxicity and mild radioactivity. Here, we investigated the potential antioxidant, antiapoptotic and cytoprotective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against UA-induced testicular damage in rats. UA reduced testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) levels relative to the control group. Interestingly, the testicular SOD activity and NO and GSH levels of UA/TQ- and UA/NAC-treated groups were also significantly lower relative to the control...
December 14, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
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