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Trends in Biotechnology | Page 2

Jing Su, Jiajia Fu, Carla Silva, Artur Cavaco-Paulo
Laccase is a promiscuous enzyme that catalyzes the polymerization of a wide range of phenolic substrates. Diverse poly(catechol) products can be obtained depending on the reactor employed and modifications of the laccase enzyme. The generation of these different reaction products may be attributed to changes in the geometry of the enzyme active site induced by different environmental conditions.
March 26, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Jinhui Li
Global electronic waste management is emerging as a critical issue, especially in developing countries. Collective societal effort and scientific innovation are required along with interdisciplinary approaches to the development of sustainable technologies for recycling precious metals. Bioprospecting of electronic waste is a promising approach to provide economic, environmental, and public health benefits.
March 26, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Mafalda D Neto, Mariana B Oliveira, João F Mano
For several decades microparticles have been exclusively and extensively explored as spherical drug delivery vehicles and large-scale cell expansion carriers. More recently, microparticulate structures gained interest in broader bioengineering fields, integrating myriad strategies that include bottom-up tissue engineering, 3D bioprinting, and the development of tissue/disease models. The concept of bulk spherical micrometric particles as adequate supports for cell cultivation has been challenged, and systems with finely tuned geometric designs and (bio)chemical/physical features are current key players in impacting technologies...
March 19, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Shady S Hassan, Gwilym A Williams, Amit K Jaiswal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Wouter De Coster, Christine Van Broeckhoven
A substantial amount of structural variation in the human genome remains uninvestigated due to the limitations of existing technologies, the presence of repetitive sequences, and the complexity of a diploid genome. New technologies have been developed, increasing resolution and appreciation of structural variation and how it affects human diversity and disease. The genetic etiology of most patients with complex disorders such as neurodegenerative brain diseases is not yet elucidated, complicating disease diagnosis, genetic counseling, and understanding of underlying pathological mechanisms needed to develop therapeutic interventions...
March 19, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Jae Seong Lee, Helene Faustrup Kildegaard, Nathan E Lewis, Gyun Min Lee
Mammalian expression platforms are primary production systems for therapeutic proteins that require complex post-translational modifications. Current processes used for developing recombinant mammalian cell lines generate clonal cell lines with high phenotypic heterogeneity, which has puzzled researchers that use mammalian cell culture systems for a long time. Advances in mammalian genome-editing technologies and systems biotechnology have shed light on clonal variation and enabled rational cell engineering in a targeted manner...
March 18, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Feng-Chi Chen, Pin-Shen Lee
Inter Partes review (IPR) can efficiently invalidate drug patents and potentially convey strategic advantages to follow-on drug makers. However, recent changes in the IPR system foretell a tectonic shift in the landscape. Here we summarize these major changes and discuss the implications for the biopharmaceutical community.
March 16, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Danielle Baptista, Liliana Teixeira, Clemens van Blitterswijk, Stefan Giselbrecht, Roman Truckenmüller
In biological systems, form and function are inherently correlated. Despite this strong interdependence, the biological effect of curvature has been largely overlooked or underestimated, and consequently it has rarely been considered in the design of new cell-material interfaces. This review summarizes current understanding of the interplay between the curvature of a cell substrate and the related morphological and functional cellular response. In this context, we also discuss what is currently known about how, in the process of such a response, cells recognize curvature and accordingly reshape their membrane...
March 15, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Saketh Gudipati, Ke Zhang, Jessica L Rouge
Nanoscale structures of therapeutic nucleic acids have shown enormous potential to help clinicians realize the promise of personaliz ed medicine using gene-specific treatments. With the advent of better sequencing through bioinformatic approaches and advancements in nucleic acid stabilization chemistries, the field of synthetic nucleic acid nanomaterials has advanced tremendously. This review focuses on an emerging strategy geared at gene silencing without the use of traditional polycation-based transfection agents and discusses how such nanostructures are being chemically tailored to navigate biological systems to improve their circulation time and biodistribution...
March 14, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Juan Xia, Yongfu Yang, Chen-Guang Liu, Shihui Yang, Feng-Wu Bai
Great effort has been devoted to engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae with pentose metabolism through the oxido-reductase pathway for cellulosic ethanol production, but intrinsic cofactor imbalance is observed, which substantially compromises ethanol yield. Zymomonas mobilis not only can be engineered for pentose metabolism through the isomerase pathway without cofactor imbalance but also metabolizes sugar through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway with less ATP and biomass produced for more sugar to be used for ethanol production...
March 13, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Marwa M El-Dalatony, Shouvik Saha, Sanjay P Govindwar, Reda A I Abou-Shanab, Byong-Hun Jeon
'Higher' alcohols, which contain more than two carbons, have a higher boiling point, higher cetane number, and higher energy density than ethanol. Blends of biodiesel and higher alcohols can be used in internal combustion engines as next-generation biofuels without any modification and are minimally corrosive over extensive use. Producing higher alcohols from biomass involves fermenting and metabolizing amino acids. In this review, we describe the pathways and regulatory mechanisms involved in amino acid bioprocessing to produce higher alcohols and the effects of amino acid supplementation as a nitrogen source for higher alcohol production...
March 11, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Pradip Das, Parisa Fatehbasharzad, Miriam Colombo, Luisa Fiandra, Davide Prosperi
The integration of multiple imaging and therapeutic agents into a customizable nanoplatform for accurate identification and rapid prevention of cancer is attracting great attention. Among the available theranostic nanosystems, magnetic gold nanoparticles are particularly promising as they exhibit unique physicochemical properties that can support multiple functions, including cancer diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography, Raman and photoacoustic imaging, drug delivery, and plasmonic photothermal and photodynamic therapies...
March 9, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Julia E Mück, Barış Ünal, Haider Butt, Ali K Yetisen
Wearable medical devices (WMDs) will advance point-of-care diagnostics and therapeutics. This article analyses the market and patents for wearable devices. Activity monitors have the largest market share, and the intellectual property landscape is dominated by electronics corporations. However, the majority of these patents have not been realized in commercial products.
March 6, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Su Bin Moon, Do Yon Kim, Jeong-Heon Ko, Jin-Soo Kim, Yong-Sam Kim
CRISPR technology is a two-component gene editing system in which the effector protein induces genetic alterations with the aid of a gene targeting guide RNA. Guide RNA can be produced through chemical synthesis, in vitro transcription, or intracellular transcription. Guide RNAs can be engineered to have chemical modifications, alterations in the spacer length, sequence modifications, fusion of RNA or DNA components, and incorporation of deoxynucleotides. Engineered guide RNA can improve genome editing efficiency and target specificity, regulation of biological toxicity, sensitive and specific molecular imaging, multiplexing, and editing flexibility...
March 4, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Suping Li, Qiao Jiang, Baoquan Ding, Guangjun Nie
Pharmaceutical uses of cancer therapeutics, such as intravenous thrombin to elicit blood coagulation, have been hampered by lack of tumor specificity. Based on rapid progress in DNA origami-based machines capable of transporting molecular payloads, DNA nanorobots have been constructed to specifically deliver therapeutic agents into tumor vessels.
February 27, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Terrence H Bell, Laura M Kaminsky, Beth K Gugino, John E Carlson, Rondy J Malik, Kevin L Hockett, Ryan V Trexler
There are many paths toward effective microbial inoculants for agriculture. Considering what is practical for the present day technological and farming landscape should not limit our creativity in developing innovative technologies. However, factors including production costs, practicality of implementation, and technology adoption by farmers will drive the success of new management approaches.
June 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Ashutosh Awasthi
Kaminsky et al. (Trends Biotechnol. 2019:37;140-151) discuss the conflicts in developing microbial inoculants for agriculture. The authors affirm that microbial inoculants should perform across a wide range of environments but rule out the feasibility of personalized inoculants for individual fields. Here, I propose customized microbial consortia for specific field environments.
June 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Elizabeth Skellam
Fungi are a prolific source of bioactive compounds, some of which have been developed as essential medicines and life-enhancing drugs. Genome sequencing has revealed that fungi have the potential to produce considerably more natural products (NPs) than are typically observed in the laboratory. Recently, there have been significant advances in the identification, understanding, and engineering of fungal biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). This review briefly describes examples of the engineering of fungal NP biosynthesis at the global, pathway, and enzyme level using in vivo and in vitro approaches and refers to the range and scale of heterologous expression systems available, developments in combinatorial biosynthesis, progress in understanding how fungal BGCs are regulated, and the applications of these novel biosynthetic enzymes as biocatalysts...
April 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Jason Riordon, Dušan Sovilj, Scott Sanner, David Sinton, Edmond W K Young
Advances in high-throughput and multiplexed microfluidics have rewarded biotechnology researchers with vast amounts of data but not necessarily the ability to analyze complex data effectively. Over the past few years, deep artificial neural networks (ANNs) leveraging modern graphics processing units (GPUs) have enabled the rapid analysis of structured input data - sequences, images, videos - to predict complex outputs with unprecedented accuracy. While there have been early successes in flow cytometry, for example, the extensive potential of pairing microfluidics (to acquire data) and deep learning (to analyze data) to tackle biotechnology challenges remains largely untapped...
March 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
Antonio Del Sol, Satoshi Okawa, Srikanth Ravichandran
The field of regenerative medicine has blossomed in recent decades. However, the ultimate goal of tissue regeneration - replacing damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells - still faces a number of challenges. In particular, better understanding of the role of the cellular niche in shaping stem cell phenotype and conversion would aid in improving current protocols for stem cell therapies. In this regard, the implementation of novel computational approaches that consider the niche effect on stem cells would be valuable...
February 16, 2019: Trends in Biotechnology
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