journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38941608/innate-immunity-in-protection-and-pathogenesis-during-coronavirus-infections-and-covid-19
#1
REVIEW
R K Subbarao Malireddi, Bhesh Raj Sharma, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
The COVID-19 pandemic was caused by the recently emerged β-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 has had a catastrophic impact, resulting in nearly 7 million fatalities worldwide to date. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infections, including the detection and response to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we discuss the innate immune mechanisms that sense coronaviruses, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2 infection and how these protective responses can become detrimental in severe cases of COVID-19, contributing to cytokine storm, inflammation, long-COVID, and other complications...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38941607/neuroimmune-interactions-in-the-intestine
#2
REVIEW
Antonia Wallrapp, Isaac M Chiu
Recent advances have contributed to a mechanistic understanding of neuroimmune interactions in the intestine and revealed an essential role of this cross talk for gut homeostasis and modulation of inflammatory and infectious intestinal diseases. In this review, we describe the innervation of the intestine by intrinsic and extrinsic neurons and then focus on the bidirectional communication between neurons and immune cells. First, we highlight the contribution of neuronal subtypes to the development of colitis and discuss the different immune and epithelial cell types that are regulated by neurons via the release of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38941606/circadian-rhythms-in-anticancer-immunity-mechanisms-and-treatment-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Robert Pick, Chen Wang, Qun Zeng, Zeynep Melis Gül, Christoph Scheiermann
Circadian rhythms of approximately 24 h have emerged as important modulators of the immune system. These oscillations are important for mounting short-term, innate immune responses, but surprisingly also long-term, adaptive immune responses. Recent data indicate that they play a central role in antitumor immunity, in both mice and humans. In this review, we discuss the evolving literature on circadian antitumor immune responses and the underlying mechanisms that control them. We further provide an overview of circadian treatment regimens-chrono-immunotherapies-that harness time-of-day differences in immunity for optimal efficacy...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38941605/the-multifaceted-role-of-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells
#4
REVIEW
Susan N Christo, Simone L Park, Scott N Mueller, Laura K Mackay
Regionalized immune surveillance relies on the concerted efforts of diverse memory T cell populations. Of these, tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells are strategically positioned in barrier tissues, where they enable efficient frontline defense against infections and cancer. However, the long-term persistence of these cells has been implicated in a variety of immune-mediated pathologies. Consequently, modulating TRM cell populations represents an attractive strategy for novel vaccination and therapeutic interventions against tissue-based diseases...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38941604/poxvirus-immune-evasion
#5
REVIEW
Bruno Hernaez, Antonio Alcamí
Poxviruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms to evade the immune response, and we provide an overview of the different immunomodulatory strategies. Poxviruses prevent the recognition of viral DNA that triggers the immune responses and inhibit signaling pathways within the infected cell. A unique feature of poxviruses is the production of secreted proteins that mimic cytokines and cytokine receptors, acting as decoy receptors to neutralize the activity of cytokines and chemokines. The capacity of these proteins to evade cellular immune responses by inhibiting cytokine activation is complemented by poxviruses' strategies to block natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, often through interfering with antigen presentation pathways...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38941603/ontogeny-and-function-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#6
REVIEW
Nicholas M Adams, Annesa Das, Tae Jin Yun, Boris Reizis
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) represent a unique cell type within the innate immune system. Their defining property is the recognition of pathogen-derived nucleic acids through endosomal Toll-like receptors and the ensuing production of type I interferon and other soluble mediators, which orchestrate innate and adaptive responses. We review several aspects of pDC biology that have recently come to the fore. We discuss emerging questions regarding the lineage affiliation and origin of pDCs and argue that these cells constitute an integral part of the dendritic cell lineage...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38941602/microbial-metabolites-and-gut-immunology
#7
REVIEW
Tadashi Takeuchi, Yumiko Nakanishi, Hiroshi Ohno
The intestine is the largest peripheral lymphoid organ in animals, including humans, and interacts with a vast array of microorganisms called the gut microbiota. Comprehending the symbiotic relationship between the gut microbiota and our immune system is essential not only for the field of immunology but also for understanding the pathogenesis of various systemic diseases, including cancer, cardiometabolic disorders, and extraintestinal autoimmune conditions. Whereas microbe-derived antigens are crucial for activating the intestinal immune system, particularly T and B cells, as environmental cues, microbes and their metabolites play a critical role in directing the differentiation of these immune cells...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38424470/immune-activation-in-alzheimer-disease
#8
REVIEW
Arnaud Mary, Renzo Mancuso, Michael T Heneka
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and with no efficient curative treatment available, its medical, social, and economic burdens are expected to dramatically increase. AD is historically characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles, but over the last 25 years chronic immune activation has been identified as an important factor contributing to AD pathogenesis. In this article, we review recent and important advances in our understanding of the significance of immune activation in the development of AD...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38382538/beyond-the-barrier-unraveling-the-mechanisms-of-immunotherapy-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Hannah N Bell, Weiping Zou
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) induces a remarkable and durable response in a subset of cancer patients. However, most patients exhibit either primary or acquired resistance to ICB. This resistance arises from a complex interplay of diverse dynamic mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment (TME). These mechanisms include genetic, epigenetic, and metabolic alterations that prevent T cell trafficking to the tumor site, induce immune cell dysfunction, interfere with antigen presentation, drive heightened expression of coinhibitory molecules, and promote tumor survival after immune attack...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38360547/aire-in-autoimmunity
#10
REVIEW
Corey N Miller, Michael R Waterfield, James M Gardner, Mark S Anderson
The role of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) in central immune tolerance and thymic self-representation was first described more than 20 years ago, but fascinating new insights into its biology continue to emerge, particularly in the era of advanced single-cell genomics. We briefly describe the role of human genetics in the discovery of Aire, as well as insights into its function gained from genotype-phenotype correlations and the spectrum of Aire-associated autoimmunity-including insights from patients with Aire mutations with broad and diverse implications for human health...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38277692/systemic-immune-modulation-by-gastrointestinal-nematodes
#11
REVIEW
Darshan N Kasal, Lindsey M Warner, Astra S Bryant, Elia Tait Wojno, Jakob von Moltke
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection has applied significant evolutionary pressure to the mammalian immune system and remains a global economic and human health burden. Upon infection, type 2 immune sentinels activate a common antihelminth response that mobilizes and remodels the intestinal tissue for effector function; however, there is growing appreciation of the impact GIN infection also has on the distal tissue immune state. Indeed, this effect is observed even in tissues through which GINs never transit...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38277691/intraepithelial-lymphocytes-of-the-intestine
#12
REVIEW
Ainsley Lockhart, Daniel Mucida, Angelina M Bilate
The intestinal epithelium, which segregates the highly stimulatory lumen from the underlying tissue, harbors one of the largest lymphocyte populations in the body, intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). IELs must balance tolerance, resistance, and tissue protection to maintain epithelial homeostasis and barrier integrity. This review discusses the ontogeny, environmental imprinting, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, and function of intestinal IELs. Despite distinct developmental pathways, IEL subsets share core traits including an epithelium-adapted profile, innate-like properties, cytotoxic potential, and limited TCR diversity...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38211945/immunology-of-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Orestes Foresto-Neto, Luísa Menezes-Silva, Jefferson Antônio Leite, Magaiver Andrade-Silva, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
The immune system and the kidneys are closely related. Immune components mediate acute kidney disease and are crucial to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Beyond its pathogenic functions, the immune system supports immunological homeostasis in healthy kidneys. The kidneys help maintain immune equilibrium by removing metabolic waste products and toxins, thereby limiting local and systemic inflammation. In this review, we describe the close relationship between the immune system and the kidneys. We discuss how the imbalance in the immune response can be deleterious to the kidneys and how immunomodulation can be important in preventing end-stage renal disease...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38166256/t-cell-exhaustion
#14
REVIEW
Andrew Baessler, Dario A A Vignali
T cell responses must be balanced to ensure adequate protection against malignant transformation and an array of pathogens while also limiting damage to healthy cells and preventing autoimmunity. T cell exhaustion serves as a regulatory mechanism to limit the activity and effector function of T cells undergoing chronic antigen stimulation. Exhausted T cells exhibit poor proliferative potential; high inhibitory receptor expression; altered transcriptome, epigenome, and metabolism; and, most importantly, reduced effector function...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38060987/t-follicular-helper-cell-heterogeneity
#15
REVIEW
Wenzhi Song, Joe Craft
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells specialize in helping B cells and are therefore critical contributors to the generation of humoral immunity. Tfh cells aid immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and support the germinal center response, thereby promoting immunoglobulin affinity maturation and the generation of humoral immune memory. Although their primary function is to promote B cell responses, Tfh cells also display phenotypic and functional diversity determined by the immunological and spatial contexts from which they emerge...
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37788477/peeking-into-the-black-box-of-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Arthur Weiss
I have spent more than the last 40 years at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), studying T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. I was blessed with supportive mentors, an exceptionally talented group of trainees, and wonderful collaborators and colleagues during my journey who have enabled me to make significant contributions to our understanding of how the TCR initiates signaling. TCR signaling events contribute to T cell development as well as to mature T cell activation and differentiation.
June 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38424658/multilayered-immunity-by-tissue-resident-lymphocytes-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Ming O Li, Jing Zhang, Zijian Xu, Xian Zhang, Peng Li, Andrew E Cornish
Lymphocytes spanning the entire innate-adaptive spectrum can stably reside in tissues and constitute an integral component of the local defense network against immunological challenges. In tight interactions with the epithelium and endothelium, tissue-resident lymphocytes sense antigens and alarmins elicited by infectious microbes and abiotic stresses at barrier sites and mount effector responses to restore tissue homeostasis. Of note, such a host cell-directed immune defense system has been recently demonstrated to surveil epithelial cell transformation and carcinoma development, as well as cancer cell metastasis, at selected distant organs and thus represents a primordial cancer immune defense module...
February 29, 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38360546/tet-enzymes-in-the-immune-system-from-dna-demethylation-to-immunotherapy-inflammation-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Isaac F López-Moyado, Myunggon Ko, Patrick G Hogan, Anjana Rao
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are iron-dependent and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that sequentially oxidize the methyl group of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). All three epigenetic modifications are intermediates in DNA demethylation. TET proteins are recruited by transcription factors and by RNA polymerase II to modify 5mC at enhancers and gene bodies, thereby regulating gene expression during development, cell lineage specification, and cell activation...
February 15, 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38360545/priming-and-maintenance-of-adaptive-immunity-in-the-liver
#19
REVIEW
Keigo Kawashima, Francesco Andreata, Cristian Gabriel Beccaria, Matteo Iannacone
The liver's unique characteristics have a profound impact on the priming and maintenance of adaptive immunity. This review delves into the cellular circuits that regulate adaptive immune responses in the liver, with a specific focus on hepatitis B virus infection as an illustrative example. A key aspect highlighted is the liver's specialized role in priming CD8+ T cells, leading to a distinct state of immune hyporesponsiveness. Additionally, the influence of the liver's hemodynamics and anatomical features, particularly during liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, on the differentiation and function of adaptive immune cells is discussed...
February 15, 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38360544/the-immunobiology-and-treatment-of-food-allergy
#20
REVIEW
Suzanne Barshow, Jyothi Tirumalasetty, Vanitha Sampath, Xiaoying Zhou, Hana Seastedt, Jackson Schuetz, Kari Nadeau
IgE-mediated food allergy (IgE-FA) occurs due to a breakdown in immune tolerance that leads to a detrimental type 2 helper T cell (TH 2) adaptive immune response. While the processes governing this loss of tolerance are incompletely understood, several host-related and environmental factors impacting the risk of IgE-FA development have been identified. Mounting evidence supports the role of an impaired epithelial barrier in the development of IgE-FA, with exposure of allergens through damaged skin and gut epithelium leading to the aberrant production of alarmins and activation of TH 2-type allergic inflammation...
February 15, 2024: Annual Review of Immunology
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