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British Journal of Developmental Psychology

Rachel F Rodgers, Eleanor H Wertheim, Stephanie R Damiano, Karen J Gregg, Susan J Paxton
This study examined 3- to 5-year-old children's understandings of increases in body size via a qualitative prospective approach. A sample of 259 children (55.2% girls) was interviewed at 3, 4, and 5 years old. Participants were shown an average and a larger size figure of a child of their gender and age. Responses to 'Why do you think the boy/girl got bigger here?' were coded using thematic analysis. Diet was cited as a mechanism for increased body size by almost 50% of children referring to this by age 5...
February 14, 2019: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Christiane Baadte, Bozana Meinhardt-Injac
We tested whether semantic relatedness between to-be-remembered items and item presentation format (pictorial vs. verbal) affects associative recall. Fifty-nine children (11-13 years old) and forty young adults (age 18-30) completed a learning and recall task for semantically related (e.g., padlock-key) and unrelated (e.g., lemon-piano) picture-picture, word-picture, and word-word pairs. The data revealed memory advantage for semantically related item pairs, and for pictures compared to words. A picture superiority effect was found exclusively for pure picture pairs...
February 12, 2019: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Nicole Ferretti, Colleen M Ganley, Michael J Kofler
Parental beliefs about school involvement are key in predicting individual differences in children's academic success. The current study examined unique and interactive relations between parental beliefs and child inattention/hyperactivity symptoms in predicting children's achievement. Participants (N = 348) were caregivers of children aged 8-12. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and their child's inattention/hyperactivity and achievement. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated lower child inattention/hyperactivity and greater parental confidence in their ability to help their child academically predicted better achievement...
February 6, 2019: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Esther Burkitt, Dawn Watling, Hannah Message
This study investigated whether children's expressive drawings of themselves vary as a function of audience authority and familiarity. One hundred and seventy-five children, 85 boys and 90 girls, aged between 8 years 1 months and 9 years 2 months (M = 8 years 5 months) were allocated into seven groups: a reference group (n = 25), where no audience was specified, and six audience groups (n = 25 per group) varying by audience type (policeman vs. teacher vs. man) and familiarity (familiar vs. unfamiliar)...
January 24, 2019: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Amy L Paine, Nina Howe, Gassiaa Karajian, Dale F Hay, Ganie DeHart
Humour is a central feature of social interactions in childhood that has received little attention. In a sample of 86 7-year-old children (M age = 7.82 years, SD = 0.80), we investigated patterns and individual differences in spontaneous humour observed during free play with their older (M age = 9.55 years, SD = 0.88) or their younger sibling (M age = 5.87 years, SD = 0.96). We coded children's instances, categories, and responses to humour. We investigated the nature of children's humour on the dyadic and individual level...
January 9, 2019: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Xiao Pan Ding, Alison M O'Connor, Mengxing Weng, Quan Tang, Genyue Fu, Angela D Evans
Several honesty promotion techniques have been established for children living in Western cultures; however, limited research has examined the effectiveness of these techniques among non-Western children. Recently, inducing self-awareness (by looking at oneself in a mirror) was found to be effective in promoting young Western children's honesty. The present investigation compared the effectiveness of this self-awareness technique to a novel other-awareness technique (looking at a photograph of a peer) in promoting young Chinese children's honesty...
December 30, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Luke McGuire, Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen, Adam Rutland
Children's and adolescents' resource allocation was examined in a context of inequality between schools and a peer group norm of either equality or equity. Participants (N = 257; children, 7-11 years old and adolescents, 13-16 years old) were inducted into groups with either a lot (advantaged) or few (disadvantaged) art resources, in the context of an art competition. Participants were prescribed an equality (equal distribution) or equity (more resources for disadvantaged groups) norm, before allocating resources between groups...
December 12, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Trine Flensborg-Madsen, Erik Lykke Mortensen
Individual differences in early language skills have been found to be associated with other cognitive outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, research is limited on whether these associations persist into adulthood. In this study, we examined potential associations of the timing of early language milestones with cognitive ability in a prospective cohort study of 938 singletons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (CPC), who participated in a 50-year follow-up examination in 2009-2011. Later attainment of a number of milestones was associated with lower midlife IQ with the strongest associations found for 'Naming objects/animals in pictures', 'Forming a sentence', and 'Sharing experiences'...
November 21, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Deniz Tahiroglu, Marjorie Taylor
In two studies, we investigated the correlates of anthropomorphism, the attribution of unobservable mental states to inanimate entities and non-human animals. In Study 1, we investigated the relations between anthropomorphism, social understanding, empathy, prosocial attitudes, and history of childhood imaginary companions in a college sample (N = 264; Mage  = 19 years, 2 months). In Study 2, we explored the relations between two different measures of anthropomorphism, theory of mind, imaginary companions, and social preferences in 73 children (Mage  = 5 years, 5 months)...
November 20, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Monique Robinson, Dorota A Doherty, Jeffrey Cannon, Martha Hickey, Susan L Rosenthal, Jennifer L Marino, S Rachel Skinner
Adolescent and parent reports of adolescent mental health problems often correlate poorly, and understanding this discrepancy has clinical importance. Yet contextual factors have only been inconsistently explained. At the 14- and 17-year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, 1,596 parent-child dyads completed the parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the adolescent-rated Youth Self-Report (YSR). Maternal, family, adolescent, and parent factors were examined as potential predictors of discrepancies...
November 5, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Jess M Kingsford, David J Hawes, Marc de Rosnay
Research into moral identity has provided much support for its role in mature moral functioning, yet the developmental course of this construct remains poorly understood. In this review, we examine the dominant developmental model of moral identity, which emphasizes its key relation with the moral self of early childhood. In reviewing evidence for the model, the assumption of correspondence between the moral self of early childhood and moral identity in adolescence is challenged, in terms of both the moral component and the sense-of-self entailed in both constructs...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Mitchell Green, James N Kirby, Mark Nielsen
Children engage in prosocial behaviour from an early age. Whether children will reliably provide compassionate help to a suffering individual is unclear. To investigate this, 73 4-years-olds were presented with three novel tasks in which they and a puppet had opportunity to win stickers by completing respective versions of the same tasks. In all cases, the puppets were unable to complete their tasks. The puppets 'reacted' by being either upset or not upset. While children provided help when it did not cost them, their inclination to do so was significantly diminished when it incurred a personal cost...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Kimberly E Vanderbilt, Karlena D Ochoa, Jayd Heilbrun
The present research investigated whether young children link the accuracy of text-based information to the accuracy of its author. Across three experiments, three- and four-year-olds (N = 231) received information about object labels from accurate and inaccurate sources who provided information both in text and verbally. Of primary interest was whether young children would selectively rely on information provided by more accurate sources, regardless of the form in which the information was communicated. Experiment 1 tested children's trust in text-based information (e...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Joanna Joo Kyung Chae, Hyun-Joo Song
This study investigated 6- and 10-month-old infants' abilities to infer others' preferences based on social interactions using looking time and choice measures. Infants were randomly assigned to either a helping/neutral or hindering/neutral condition. Those in the helping/neutral condition were first familiarized with a helping event, in which an agent helped a circle climb a hill, and a neutral event, in which another agent followed the same path as the helping agent but had no interaction with the circle...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Kahl Hellmer, Gunilla Stenberg, Christine Fawcett
Previous studies on conformity have primarily focused on factors that moderate conformity rates overall and paid little attention to explaining the individual differences. In this study, we investigate five-factor model personality traits of both parents and children and experimentally elicited conformity in 3.5-year-olds (N = 59) using an Asch-like paradigm with which we measure both overt conformity (public responses) and covert opinions (private beliefs after conformist responses): A correct covert opinion after an incorrect conformist response results from a socially normative motivation, whereas an incorrect covert opinion results from an informational motivation...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Lucy Amelia James, Claire Louise Fox
Whilst a multitude of studies have examined links between different styles of humour and aspects of adjustment, longitudinal research is noticeably lacking. Following a study which identified bidirectional associations between humour styles and psychosocial adjustment in older children, the current research aimed to investigate these associations in younger children. In total, 413 children aged 8-11 years completed the humour styles questionnaire for younger children (HSQ-Y) alongside measures of psychosocial adjustment in both the autumn and the summer over the course of a school year...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Ruth Van der Hallen, Julie Reusens, Kris Evers, Lee de-Wit, Johan Wagemans
Developmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect of both age and grouping type, indicating that 9- to 21-year-olds are sensitive to both connection-based and object-based grouping interference, and tracking ability increases with age...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Lamprini Psychogiou, Selina Nath, Angeliki Kallitsoglou, Konstantinos Dimatis, Elizabeth Parry, Abigail Emma Russell, Merve Yilmaz, Willem Kuyken, Nicholas J Moberly
Although attachment plays a key role in children's socio-emotional development, little attention has been paid to the role of children's attachment to their father. This study examined whether insecure attachment to each parent was associated with reduced emotion understanding in children and whether children showed consistent attachments to their mother and father. We measured children's attachment to each parent using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task and child emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension (children's Mage  = 5...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Shoko Otake, Rebecca Treiman, Li Yin
According to the differentiation hypothesis, young children's attempts to write show characteristics common to all writing systems, such as linearity. Characteristics that are specific to the writing system of the child's culture emerge only later. We tested this hypothesis by presenting adults who knew both Chinese and English with written productions of Chinese and United States 2- to 5-year-olds and asking them to judge the nationality of the writer. Adults performed significantly above the level expected by chance even with the productions of 2- and 3-year-olds, suggesting that knowledge of language-specific characteristics emerges earlier than previously thought...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Angela Callear, Shane T Harvey, David Bimler, Nicholas Catto
Callear, Harvey, and Bimler (2016, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41, 456) organized children's emotion regulation behaviours into a coherent structure. However, further investigation is needed to identify core patterns of these emotion regulation behaviours. To identify clusters and prototypal constellations of emotion regulation behaviours, the 85 behavioural items comprising the Children's Emotion Regulation Inventory (ChERI) were ranked by 151 parents in order of applicability, using an ordinal sorting procedure (Method of Successive Sorts)...
November 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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