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Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology

Nadia Krieger, Glauco Silva Dias, Robson Carlos Alnoch, David Alexander Mitchell
We review the application of dry fermented solids (DFS) containing naturally immobilized enzymes as catalysts in synthesis and in hydrolysis reactions. The most studied application is the use of DFS containing lipases in the synthesis of biodiesel esters, by transesterification of oils or by esterification of fatty acids with short-chain alcohols in solvent-free reaction media. Other applications of DFS that have been studied include the use of DFS containing pectinases to liberate D-galacturonic acid from pectin and the production of high-value compounds by DFS containing lipases, such as the synthesis of sugar esters and the production of pure enantiomers by resolution of racemic mixtures...
February 19, 2019: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Franz Glombitza, Rene Kermer, Susan Reichel
This chapter highlights the huge and manifold possibilities of reactions which result from the interactions between microorganisms and the geosphere and which are used for mining, mineral processing, and metal recycling. Besides the introduction (Sect. 1) the contribution is divided into five different sections describing the mobilization (Sect. 2) and immobilization (Sect. 3) of valuable substances, the processes of biosorption and bioaccumulation (Sect. 4), as well as transformation of metals into metal organic compounds (Sect...
February 19, 2019: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Chul-Woong Cho, Myung-Hee Song, Thi Phuong Thuy Pham, Yeoung-Sang Yun
Ionic liquids provide challenges and opportunities for sustainable industrial developments. However, the toxic impacts of ionic liquids reported by many researchers cannot be overlooked. Therefore, in this chapter, we introduce the antimicrobial activities of ionic liquids in bioprocesses and, in greater detail, we discuss their environmental impacts, including the toxicity, biodegradability, bioaccumulation, and mobility of ionic liquids. We believe that this presented information will support colleagues engaged in ionic liquid-related fields...
February 2, 2019: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Karsten Schürrle
The past 150 years have seen remarkable discoveries, rapidly growing biological knowledge, and giant technological leaps providing biotechnological solutions for healthcare, food production, and other societal needs. Genetic engineering, miniaturization, and ever-increasing computing power, in particular, have been key technological drivers for the past few decades. Looking ahead, the eventual transition from fossil resources to biomass and CO2 demands a shift toward a 'bio-economy' based on novel production processes and engineered organisms...
January 23, 2019: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Ngoc Lan Mai, Yoon-Mo Koo
The use of whole-cell biocatalysis in ionic liquid (IL)-containing systems has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Compared to bioreactions catalyzed by isolated enzymes, the major advantage of using whole cells in biocatalytic processes is that the cells provide a natural intracellular environment for the enzymes to function with in situ cofactor regeneration. To date, the applications of whole-cell biocatalysis in IL-containing systems have focused on the production of valuable compounds, mainly through reduction, oxidation, hydrolysis, and transesterification reactions...
November 29, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Hans-Josef Endres
The number of newly developed bioplastics has increased sharply in recent years and innovative polymer materials are increasingly present on the plastics market. Bioplastics are not, however, a completely new kind of material, but rather a rediscovered class of materials within the familiar group of materials known as plastics. Therefore, existing knowledge from the plastics sector can and should be transferred to bioplastics in order to further increase their performance, material diversity and market penetration...
2019: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Toyonobu Usuki, Masahiro Yoshizawa-Fujita
Plants contain many kinds of natural organic compounds, and their compounds possess many useful properties. Natural organic compounds are important for the development of medicines, pesticides, fragrances, cosmetics, and synthetic chemicals. In this chapter, we introduce efficient methods for extraction and isolation of valuable natural organic compounds from various plant leaves by using cellulose-dissolving ionic liquids. High-polarity ionic liquids, which can dissolve cellulose, contribute to the extraction of natural organic compounds from plant leaves probably by breaking down plant cell walls, which are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin...
November 16, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Charlot De Wachter, Linde Van Landuyt, Nico Callewaert
Yeasts are valuable hosts for recombinant protein production, as these unicellular eukaryotes are easy to handle, grow rapidly to a high cell density on cost-effective defined media, often offer a high space-time yield, and are able to perform posttranslational modifications. However, a key difference between yeasts and mammalian cells involves the type of glycosylation structures, which hampers the use of yeasts for the production of many biopharmaceuticals. Glycosylation is not only important for the folding process of most recombinant proteins; it has a large impact on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the therapeutic proteins as well...
November 7, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Daniel Pleissner, Klaus Kümmerer
Sustainable chemistry is a broad framework that starts with the function that a chemical product is offering. Not only chemical but also economic and ethical aspects come into focus throughout the complete lifecycle of chemical products. Green chemistry is an important building block for sustainable chemistry and addresses the issue of greener synthesis and, to a certain degree, the more benign properties of chemicals. The principles of green chemistry clearly aim at making chemical reactions and processes more environmentally friendly...
October 1, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Dirk Holtmann, Falk Harnisch
Electrobiotechnology has come a long way and has gained much interest among researchers all over the world. In the previous chapters of this book, an abundance of successful developments of lab-scale electrobiosynthesis and their underlying fundamentals are described. Thereby the individual needs and lines of research are highlighted. In this final chapter we will try to shed light on the overall performance of electrobiosynthetic processes with regard to their technological maturity, as well as the potential ecological and economic incentives for their industrial implementation...
September 29, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Chao Chen, Genserik Reniers
Risk assessment has been used extensively as the main approach to prevent accidents in the chemical and process industry. Industrial biotechnology has many of the same hazards as chemical technology, but also encounters biological hazards related to biological agents. Employees in the biotechnology industry are susceptible to health risks because of different types of exposure to harmful agents. The external environment may also be affected by these agents in cases of accidental release. This chapter first presents several traditional risk assessment methods that may be used in industrial biotechnology after comparing differences between industrial biotechnology and chemical technology...
September 23, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Saerom Park, Kyeong Keun Oh, Sang Hyun Lee
Biopolymer-based composite materials have many potential applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical, environmental, biocatalytic, and bioelectronic fields, owing to their inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability. When used as solvents, ionic liquids can be used to fabricate biopolymers such as polysaccharides and proteins into various forms, including molded shapes, films, fibers, and beads. This article summarizes the processes for preparing biopolymer-based composite materials using ionic liquids. The processes include biopolymer dissolution using ionic liquids, regeneration of the biopolymer by an anti-solvent, formation of shapes, and drying of the regenerated biopolymer...
September 22, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Tyler D Moeller, Kevin B Weyant, Matthew P DeLisa
Bacterial infections are a serious health concern and are responsible for millions of illnesses and deaths each year in communities around the world. Vaccination is an important public health measure for reducing and eliminating this burden, and regions with comprehensive vaccination programs have achieved significant reductions in infection and mortality. This is often accomplished by immunization with bacteria-derived carbohydrates, typically in conjunction with other biomolecules, which induce immunological memory and durable protection against bacterial human pathogens...
August 25, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Laura E Yates, Dominic C Mills, Matthew P DeLisa
Bacteria have garnered increased interest in recent years as a platform for the biosynthesis of a variety of glycomolecules such as soluble oligosaccharides, surface-exposed carbohydrates, and glycoproteins. The ability to engineer commonly used laboratory species such as Escherichia coli to efficiently synthesize non-native sugar structures by recombinant expression of enzymes from various carbohydrate biosynthesis pathways has allowed for the facile generation of important products such as conjugate vaccines, glycosylated outer membrane vesicles, and a variety of other research reagents for studying and understanding the role of glycans in living systems...
August 12, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Hiroyuki Ohno
In this chapter, preparation, basic properties, and some applications of ionic liquids composed of naturally-derived ions are summarized. There are many candidate ions in nature suitable for ionic liquid preparation. Physicochemical properties and preparation of some ionic liquids based on carboxylate anions, cholinium cation, and even amino acids are mentioned. Some interesting applications based on these ionic liquids composed of naturally-derived ions are also briefly introduced. Graphical Abstract.
August 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Rainer Fischer, Tanja Holland, Markus Sack, Stefan Schillberg, Eva Stoger, Richard M Twyman, Johannes F Buyel
Most secreted proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated, and after a number of common biosynthesis steps the glycan structures mature in a species-dependent manner. Therefore, human therapeutic proteins produced in plants often carry plant-like rather than human-like glycans, which can affect protein stability, biological function, and immunogenicity. The glyco-engineering of plant-based expression systems began as a strategy to eliminate plant-like glycans and produce human proteins with authentic or at least compatible glycan structures...
August 2, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Gunter Festel
Industrial biotechnology is a key tool in the switch from a petro-based to a bio-based economy. For biotechnological processes to compete competitively in cost with chemical synthesis, the best available state-of-the-art technologies are necessary. In the last few years, industrial biotechnology has undergone fast technological development, resulting in a high number of basic technologies emanating from research efforts at universities and research institutions. Academic spin-offs have great importance in technological development because of their innovation from academic backgrounds...
July 26, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Kyoko Fujita
This chapter focuses on recent advances in the use of ionic liquids as additives and solvents in protein applications. The solvent properties of ionic liquids can be tuned by the appropriate selection of cation and anion. The effects of different kinds of ionic liquids on protein stability and refolding behavior have been investigated and reported. The ionic liquid properties affect the intermolecular interactions of proteins, inducing different formations and folding behavior. These effects also vary with the concentration of ionic liquids...
July 13, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Nils Tippkötter, Sophie Möhring, Jasmine Roth, Helene Wulfhorst
In comparison to crude oil, biorefinery raw materials are challenging in concerns of transport and storage. The plant raw materials are more voluminous, so that shredding and compacting usually are necessary before transport. These mechanical processes can have a negative influence on the subsequent biotechnological processing and shelf life of the raw materials. Various approaches and their effects on renewable raw materials are shown. In addition, aspects of decentralized pretreatment steps are discussed...
June 23, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Laura A Palomares, Indresh K Srivastava, Octavio T Ramírez, Manon M J Cox
The insect cell-baculovirus expression system technology (BEST) has a prominent role in producing recombinant proteins to be used as research and diagnostic reagents and vaccines. The glycosylation profile of proteins produced by the BEST is composed predominantly of terminal mannose glycans, and, in Trichoplusia ni cell lines, core α3 fucosylation, a profile different to that in mammals. Insects contain all the enzymatic activities needed for complex N- and O-glycosylation and sialylation, although few reports of complex glycosylation and sialylation by the BEST exist...
June 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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