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Cancer Investigation

Tugba Orhan, Peter Böhm Nielsen, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid, Andreas Weinberger Rosen, Ismail Gögenür
Increasing evidence indicates that disruption of circadian rhythms may be directly linked to cancer. Here we report that the expression levels of the core clock genes Per1 and Per3 measured by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction are significantly decreased in tumour tissue from 16 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery compared to paired normal mucosa. No differences were observed in the expression of Per2, Bmal1, and Clock. In conclusion, abnormal expression levels of the clock genes Per1 and Per3 in CRC tissue may be related to tumourigenesis and may provide future diagnostic and prognostic information...
February 7, 2019: Cancer Investigation
Dina Rahkola, Joel Laitala, Hanna Siiskonen, Jukka Pelkonen, Ilkka T Harvima
By using immunohistochemistry and antibodies that identify complement C3c (in C3 and C3b) or CD11b receptor, we report that the proportion C3c+ mast cells and the number of CD11b+ cells are increased in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Instead, only CD11b+ cells are increased in squamous cell carcinoma/Bowen's disease, and only slightly so in actinic keratosis. Only C3c+ mast cells are increased in psoriasis. Furthermore, C3c+ mast cells correlated positively with CD11b+ cells, and iC3b immunoreactivity was detected around tryptase+ mast cells...
January 28, 2019: Cancer Investigation
Diane M Korngiebel, Jennifer M Zech, Amelia Chappelle, Wylie Burke, Jan D Carline, Thomas H Gallagher, Stephanie M Fullerton
Genetic test use in oncology is growing, yet providers' experiences with evolving testing norms and their implications for patient care remain under-explored. In interviews with oncologists and cancer genetics professionals, 22 key informants described the increasing importance of germline results for therapeutic decision-making, preference for ordering tests directly rather than referring, and rapid adoption of cancer gene panels for testing. Implications for informed consent, result interpretation, and patient management were identified...
January 24, 2019: Cancer Investigation
Mauro Loi, Ariane Dunant, Sahar Ghith, Almudena Maria Cascales-Garcia, Chafika Mazouni, Barbara Pistilli, Marie-Christine Mathieu, Eric Deutsch, Rodrigo Arriagada, Sofia Rivera
PURPOSE: To assess predictors of outcome in a cohort of Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) patients receiving induction chemotherapy followed by local treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 95 non-metastatic IBC patient files. RESULTS: Complete clinical response (cCR) was obtained in 15 (16%) patients. Median follow up was 13.4 years (IC95%: 10.4-14.6). Loco-regional control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 85%, 41%, and 55%, respectively; cCR was associated with better DFS and OS in multivariate analyses adjusted for age (p = 0...
January 18, 2019: Cancer Investigation
Rui Du, Pingping Hu, Qiqi Liu, Jiandong Zhang
For patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer, induction chemotherapy could down-stage primary tumors, resulting in conversion surgery becoming possible. However, the feasibility and therapeutic benefit of conversion surgery remains controversial. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to systematically review and investigate the efficacy of conversion surgery followed by chemotherapy for unresectable AGC.
January 11, 2019: Cancer Investigation
Emaad Khansur, Ashish H Shah, Kyle Lacy, Ricardo J Komotar
Despite surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation, survival for glioblastoma remains poor. Because of the dismal prognosis, attention has shifted to alternative adjuvant treatment modalities. Although traditionally limited to systemic malignancies (melanoma, lung and colon cancer), the field of immunotherapy has recently identified glioblastoma as a potential target for new treatments. Anti-tumor vaccines (dendritic cell/heat shock), checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric T-cell receptors, and virotherapy all have been preliminarily trialed in glioblastoma patients with reasonable success and safety...
January 11, 2019: Cancer Investigation
Tae-Kyu Jang, Jeong-Yeol Park, Dae-Yeon Kim, Dae-Shik Suh, Jong-Hyeok Kim, Yong-Man Kim, Young-Tak Kim, Joo-Hyun Nam
The aim of this study is to determine the rate of clinically significant histopathologic lesions in women identified with atypical glandular cells (AGC). Five-hundered and forty patients with AGC, from a cohort of 1013 with AGC, met inclusion criteria for this study by having a proper histologic evaluation. Clinically significant histologic results were obtained in 170 cases with AGC (31.5%). Of the 170 clinically significant cases, 86 of 540 (15.9%) were diagnosed with malignant lesions. The findings of clinically significant lesions in more than 30% of patients support the recommendation that women identified with AGC require extensive histologic examination...
January 2, 2019: Cancer Investigation
Elizabeth A Fry, Kazushi Inoue
The c-Myb gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through protein-protein interaction and transcriptional regulation of signaling pathways. The protein is frequently overexpressed in human leukemias, breast cancers, and other solid tumors suggesting that it is a bona fide oncogene. c-MYB is often overexpressed by translocation in human tumors with t(6;7)(q23;q34) resulting in c-MYB-TCRβ in T cell ALL, t(X;6)(p11;q23) with c-MYB-GATA1 in acute basophilic leukemia, and t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24) with c-MYB-NF1B in adenoid cystic carcinoma...
January 2, 2019: Cancer Investigation
Valentina Lancellotta, Sara Chierchini, Elisabetta Perrucci, Simonetta Saldi, Lorenzo Falcinelli, Martina Iacco, Claudio Zucchetti, Isabella Palumbo, Vittorio Bini, Cynthia Aristei
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the incidence of toxicity in breast cancer with helical tomotherapy (HT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 51 patients with breast cancer were assigned to postoperative radiotherapy by means of HT to the chest wall/breast plus draining nodes. During HT treatment, toxicity was monitored and were assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 scale. RESULTS: Acute skin G3 toxicity observed in 1.9% cases...
December 5, 2018: Cancer Investigation
József Virga, László Bognár, Tibor Hortobágyi, Éva Csősz, Gergő Kalló, Gábor Zahuczki, László Steiner, Gábor Hutóczki, Judit Reményi-Puskár, Almos Klekner
AIM OF THE STUDY: Astrocytomas are primary CNS malignancies which infiltrate the peritumoral tissue, even when they are low-grade. Schwannomas are also primary CNS tumors, however, they do not show peritumoral infiltration similarly to brain metastases which almost never invade the neighboring parts of brain. Extracellular matrix is altered in composition in various cancer types and is proposed to play an important role in the development of invasiveness of astrocytic tumors. This study aims to identify differences in the ECM composition of CNS tumors with different invasiveness...
December 3, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Raffaella Mormile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Kazushi Inoue, Elizabeth A Fry
Recent studies have indicated that EGR1 is a direct regulator of tumor suppressors including TGFβ1, PTEN, and p53. The Myb-like transcription factor Dmp1 is a physiological regulator of the Arf-p53 pathway through transactivation of the Arf promoter and physical interaction of p53. The Dmp1 promoter has binding sites for Egr proteins, and Egr1 is a target for Dmp1. Crosstalks between p53 and PTEN have been reported. The Egr1-Dmp1-Arf-p53-Pten pathway displays multiple modes of interaction with each other, suggesting the existence of a functional network of tumor suppressors that maintain normal cell growth and prevent the emergence of incipient cancer cells...
November 5, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Vivek R Sharma, Shelia D Thomas, Donald M Miller, Francine Rezzoug
AS1411 is an antiproliferative DNA aptamer, which binds the ubiquitous protein, nucleolin. In this study, we show that constitutive overexpression of nucleolin confers increased sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of AS1411. HeLa cells overexpressing nucleolin have an increased growth rate and invasiveness relative to control cells. Nucleolin overexpressing cells demonstrate increased growth inhibition in response to the AS1411 treatment, which correlates with increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, when compared to non-transfected cells...
November 5, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Omar Abdel-Rahman
The role of local treatment in patients with oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a subject of ongoing debate. This study assessed the survival impact of combined surgery to the primary tumor and metastatic disease in the management of metastatic NSCLC. Stage IV NSCLC patients at presentation, diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 were identified from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. Propensity-matched analysis was performed considering baseline characteristics (age, gender, race, histology, TN stage, and site of metastases)...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Lingeng Lu, Gongjian Zhu, Hongmei Zeng, Qian Xu, Klaus Holzmann
NSUN2 is a tRNA methyltransferase and plays an important role in cell development via modifying RNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the expression of NSUN2 and its prognostic value in HNSCC. Random-effects model of meta-analysis shows 1.99-folds (95% CI: 1.89-2.09) upregulation of NSUN2 expression in HNSCC versus normal tissues. Patients with high NSUN2 levels had approximately 22 months shorter overall survival, and had a higher mortality risk than those with low one (p-trend = 0.020). In conclusion, NSUN2 is a potential independent prognostic marker and may be a potential therapeutic target in HNSCC...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Tatiana Anatolievna Bogush, Boris Borisovich Polezhaev, Ivan Andreevich Mamichev, Elena Alexandrovna Bogush, Boris Evseevich Polotsky, Sergei Alexeevich Tjulandin, Andrey Borisovich Ryabov
Tamoxifen is a first targeted drug that continues to be the gold standard in treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer for almost 50 years. The current review is an update of the paper published in 2012. We provide the new data on the tamoxifen targets that are the key points of signaling cascades activating cellular proliferation, which determines aggressiveness of disease and chemotherapy resistance or sensitivity. Some inspiring clinical cases dealing with tamoxifen efficiency in treatment of different tumors are discussed...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Alessandro Allegra, Vanessa Innao, Demetrio Gerace, Doriana Vaddinelli, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Caterina Musolino
Reducing the dimension of antigen-binding proteins to an only immunoglobulin domain has been one of the objectives of antibody manufacturing. Heavy chain antibodies were encountered while attempting to separate the blood serum proteins of dromedaries. Later the term "nanobodies" (Nbs) was introduced. The advantageous features of Nbs comprise little immunogenicity, stability at low/high pH, capacity to target antigens that are less antigenic, and, lastly, easy capability to be used for therapy against tumor cells...
April 21, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Alexander M Scherbakov, Alexander M Borunov, Galina I Buravchenko, Olga E Andreeva, Igor A Kudryavtsev, Lyubov G Dezhenkova, Andrey E Shchekotikhin
A series of 3-aryl/hetarylquinoxaline-2-carbonitrile-1,4-dioxides was synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines in normoxia and hypoxia. Selected compounds in this series demonstrated better cytotoxicity and comparable hypoxia selectivity than tirapazamine. In contrast to Dox, quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides showed potent cytotoxicity against different MDR cells. Compound 2g inhibits of cancer cell growth through p53-independent mechanisms. Our results showed that compound 2g sensitized MCF-7 cells to metformin in hypoxia...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Miao Yu, Danqing Guo, Zhenglin Cao, Longyi Xiao, Gang Wang
We showed that miR-107 expression was decreased in osteosarcoma (OS) tissues and cell lines. miR-107 mimic significantly decreased OS cell proliferation and inhibited invasion and migration of OS cells. Inhibition of miR-107 expression notably promoted proliferation, invasion and migration of OS cells. In addition, miR-107 mimic inhibited EMT biomarkers and significantly increased apoptosis. miR-107 mimic significantly decreased the protein expression of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, and c-Myc, whereas increased GSK-3β protein expression...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
Natalia R Gómez-Hidalgo, Ling Chen, June Y Hou, Ana I Tergas, Caryn M St Clair, Cande V Ananth, Dawn L Hershman, Jason D Wright
We analyzed 54,039 women with uterine cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2013 to 2014 including 38,453 (71.2%) who underwent lymphadenectomy, 1929 (3.6%) who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, and 13,657 (25.3%) who did not undergo nodal assessment. SLN mapping increased from 2.8% in 2013 to 4.3% in 2014 (P < 0.001). Patients treated in 2014 and those at community centers were more likely to undergo SLN biopsy, while women with advanced-stage disease, sarcomas, and grade 3 tumors were less likely to undergo SLN mapping (P < 0...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Investigation
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