Nutrition and Health

Jessica M Murakami, Brooke L Bennett, Devin Rand-Giovannetti, Emily C Stefano, Janet D Latner
BACKGROUND: As rates of obesity continue to rise in the USA, there is a need for effective treatments for excess adiposity. Behavioral weight-loss interventions can produce clinically meaningful weight reduction through life-style modifications. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of high-intensity behavioral weight-loss interventions at worksites. AIM: The present research investigated the effectiveness of a previously validated behavioral weight-loss intervention in a Hawai'i worksite...
May 21, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Ioanna Mylona, Michael Chourdakis, Kali Makedou, Ioannis Tsinopoulos
BACKGROUND: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) has been associated with cardiovascular and dietary risk factors. AIM: This study aimed to determine whether dietary practices correlate with POAG, after controlling for the most important risk factors, namely heredity and cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia). METHODS: Two samples of equal sizes ( N = 100) were randomly selected from glaucoma outpatient services with and without POAG...
May 18, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Fotini Tsofliou, Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Rosie Lumley, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Jose Lara, Carol Clark
BACKGROUND: Lunch clubs are community-based projects where meals are offered with opportunities for social interaction, and a unique dining experience of dual commercial and communal nature. AIM: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess differences in the dietary intake between lunch club and non-lunch club days among community-dwelling elderly, living in Dorset, UK. METHODS: A total of 39 elderly individuals attending local lunch clubs were recruited...
May 18, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Shinji Iizaka, Emiko Koitabashi, Takako Negishi, Aki Kawamura, Yuzuru Iizuka
BACKGROUND: Low accessibility to grocery stores may change dietary habits and increase health problems for elderly people living in communities. AIM: This study investigated whether the distance from the nearest grocery stores, including supermarkets, convenience stores, and drugstores, and the frequency of store-specific shopping were associated with dietary intake frequency among elderly people. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two towns of suburban cities...
May 13, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Wenceslaus Sseguya, Nicholas Matovu, Jessica Swann, Alizon Draper
BACKGROUND: Street food has continued to be a popular food source in the urban settings of developing countries and is proving to be a vital urban dietary source. However, its dietary contribution among urban populations is yet to be comprehensively understood. AIM: To assess how street food contributes to the dietary intake of habitual street food consumers. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among habitual street food consumers in Kampala city...
April 24, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Anna Roesler, Nobuo Nishi
BACKGROUND: Mindful eating has been introduced as a strategy to help prevent overweight and obesity. AIM: The purpose of this research was to develop a simple system dynamics model to investigate the impact of different interventions on population level mindfulness, mindful eating and healthy weight over a 10-year period. METHODS: A model was constructed and outcomes analysed following the addition of four mindful eating interventions, including decreasing busyness (formal and informal work), promotion of mindful eating (e...
April 20, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Ellisiv Lærum-Onsager, Therese Brovold, Astrid Bergland, Are H Pripp, Asta Bye
BACKGROUND: Data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in geriatric patients and non-hospitalized older people are lacking, and the associations among HRQoL, body mass index (BMI) and health status are not sufficiently investigated in these groups. AIM: This study aims to describe and compare HRQoL in a sample of geriatric patients and non-hospitalized people >70 years. It further aims to investigate the associations between HRQoL, BMI, health status and sociodemographic variables in geriatric patients and non-hospitalized people >70 years...
April 16, 2020: Nutrition and Health
J D Adams, Ali I Myatich, Alexis S McCullough
BACKGROUND: Thirst is a sensation normally aroused by a lack of water and associated with a desire to drink more fluid. AIM: The aims of this brief review are twofold: (a) to summarize the thirst mechanism in how it is initiated and diminished, and (b) to describe techniques to assess human thirst accurately in a variety of situations. DISCUSSION: Thirst is maintained via a feedback-controlled mechanism, regulated by central and peripheral factors, as well as social and psychological cues...
April 16, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Upasna Malhotra, Matthew Hasday, Georgios E Romanos, Fawad Javed
BACKGROUND: It was hypothesized that pathological bleeding (PB) during and/or after oral surgical procedures is higher in systemically healthy patients who have a history of garlic intake compared to controls (patients without a history of garlic consumption). AIM: The aim of the present review article was to identify studies in which garlic consumption was included as a patient management protocol before and after oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). METHODS: A review of pertinent indexed literature was performed...
April 3, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Maryam Momeni, Azam Ghorbani, Zahra Arjeini
BACKGROUND: Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors have become an issue of worldwide concern. AIM: This research was designed to investigate the role of body image satisfaction in the relationship with eating attitudes among students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 385 Qazvin university students of medical sciences were recruited by randomized stratified sampling in 2014. The students completed a three-part questionnaire (socio-demographic, Eating Attitudes Test and Body Shape Questionnaire) in their classrooms...
April 1, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Xuedi Li, Alicia Caroline Jarosz, Ahmed El-Sohemy, Alaa Badawi
BACKGROUND: Genetic and nutritional factors play an important role in inflammatory response and diseases. CXCL10 is a critical biomarker that is involved in multiple inflammatory diseases, and elevated levels of CXCL10 have been associated with the development of several chronic and infectious diseases. In contrast, micronutrients can attenuate inflammatory responses. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes such as IL-1β at rs16944 contributed to a number of inflammatory disorders and may substantiate the convergance between chronic and infectious diseases...
March 31, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Shalin Shah, Christopher Brown, John Owen, Bernard Fisher, Ramesh Natarajan, Stephen Kates
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C levels are decreased in arthritis patients and reduced levels following surgery may impair adequate healing. AIM: This study measured changes in vitamin C and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from 10 patients during the preoperative to postoperative period. Vitamin C, interleukin-1 β , interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured using various assays...
March 30, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Kelsey Gabel, Jarrad Marcell, Kate Cares, Faiza Kalam, Sofia Cienfuegos, Mark Ezpeleta, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Time restricted feeding is a form of intermittent fasting where participants shorten the daily window in which they eat. AIM: This is the first study to examine the effects of intermittent fasting on changes in the gut microbiome. METHODS: Adults with obesity ( n = 14) participated in a daily 8-hour time restricted feeding intervention (8-hour feeding window/16-hour fasting window) for 12 weeks. Fecal microbiota were determined by 16 S rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) gene sequencing of stool samples...
March 30, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Tavonga M Muderedzwa, Tonderayi M Matsungo
BACKGROUND: Nutrition education has the potential to improve eating habits, physical activity and nutritional status of schoolchildren. AIM: This study aimed to determine the nutritional status, physical activity levels and the associated nutrition knowledge of primary school learners aged 9-14 years in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among learners ( n = 368) from eight primary schools. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, nutrition knowledge and physical activity data...
March 30, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Rati Jani, Cathy K Agarwal, Pip Golley, Nicola Shanyar, Kimberley Mallan, Lucy Chipchase
BACKGROUND: The nexus between appetitive traits, dietary patterns and weight status has predominantly been studied in a mixed sample (healthy weight, overweight and obese sample). AIM: This cross-sectional study examined associations between overweight/obese children's appetitive traits, dietary patterns and weight status. METHODS: We studied children ( N = 58, body mass index z-score: 2.25±0.46), 4-12 years attending the School Kids Intervention Program...
March 29, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Mahshid Naghashpour, Samaneh Mansouri, Ali Vadizadeh, Bahman Cheraghian, Reza Fallahi, Fateme Vaziri
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is generally due to a lack of nutritional information rather than food deficiency. Therefore, the current knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of the target audience should be evaluated to eliminate malnutrition. However, KAP varies across demographic status and socioeconomic status (SES). AIM: The associations of nutritional KAP with demographic and socioeconomic variables were evaluated among households living in urban and rural areas of southwestern Iran...
March 17, 2020: Nutrition and Health
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2020: Nutrition and Health
Rebecca A Schlaff, Meghan Baruth, Samantha J Deere, Ashley Boggs, Anya Odabasic
BACKGROUND: Improving prenatal diet quality may promote appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG). AIM: To examine relationships between dietary quality in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and GWG. METHODS: Participants' ( n = 41) dietary intake was assessed at 14-20 and 35 weeks gestation via the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA-24). Kilocalories and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015) scores were calculated and associations with GWG were explored via linear regression...
March 2020: Nutrition and Health
Lukas Cipryan, Phil B Maffetone, Daniel J Plews, Paul B Laursen
BACKGROUND: It is commonly assumed that increased dietary fat and/or caloric excess induces chronic inflammatory processes, since the association between obesity and chronic adipose tissue with systemic inflammation has been shown previously. As far as we know, the reported health benefits of a VLCHF or ketogenic diet have not adequately involved an evaluation of biomarkers of inflammation. AIM: This study investigated the effects of a four-week very low-carbohydrate high-fat (VLCHF) diet in healthy young individuals on biomarkers of inflammation...
March 2020: Nutrition and Health
Peter Kelechi Ajuogu, Mohammed Ak Al-Aqbi, Robert A Hart, Mitchell Wolden, Neil A Smart, James R McFarlane
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the amount of protein in the diet affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis and sub-optimal quantity reduces male fertility potential in both animals and humans. However, individual research reports on the factors associated with male infertility are collectively uncharacterized. AIM: We systematically reviewed, and meta-analysed animal (rats) studies on the effect of low protein diet on factors associated with male infertility...
January 28, 2020: Nutrition and Health
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