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Nutrition and Health

Yahya Pasdar, Shima Moradi, Behrooz Hamzeh, Farid Najafi, Seyed Mostafa Nachvak, Roghayeh Mostafai, Hadi Abdollahzad, Michael Nelson
BACKGROUND: There are different equations for estimating Resting Energy Expenditure (REE). However, these equations were mainly developed based on populations of western countries. AIM: The present study was conducted to determine the validity of REE predictive equations in adults with central obesity. METHODS: This study was conducted with 129 adults with central obesity aged 35-65 years, a sub-sample from a large cohort study (Western Iran), Kurdish population...
June 17, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Mark G Wilson, Heather M Padilla, Lu Meng, Carmen N Daniel
BACKGROUND: The average worker gains 2-3 lb (0.9-1.4 kg) a year, about half of which is gained during the fall holiday season (Halloween through New Year's). AIM: The aim of the study was to conduct a pilot test of a weight gain prevention program that was implemented in a workplace setting during the fall holiday season. METHODS: 239 state government employees participated in a weight gain prevention program offered during the fall holiday season...
June 13, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Lauren Trabold Apadula, Chrissy M Martins
BACKGROUND: Health conscious consumers often make choices from constrained sets of food options, such as a restaurant menu, in which healthy options may not be present. AIM: The aim of this research was to examine how different decision strategies, such as selection versus rejection, influence the food option chosen when a choice set is restricted to unhealthy options. The mediating role of anticipated guilt was also explored. METHODS: An experiment was conducted using a hypothetical choice scenario, in which participants were randomly assigned to a decision making strategy (select versus reject), health objective (diet versus indulge), and relative preference for the options (choice between two preferred options versus one preferred and one non-preferred option) was manipulated...
May 30, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Sayyed Saeid Khayyatzadeh, Safieh Firouzi, Maral Askari, Farzane Mohammadi, Irandokht Nikbakht-Jam, Maryam Ghazimoradi, Mohammad Mohammadzadeh, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: Violence and aggression are considered to be important public health issues. There is limited data on the association between dietary intake and aggression score. AIM: We aimed to examine the relationship between the dietary intake and aggressive behavior in Iranian adolescent girls. METHODS: The study was carried out among 670 girls aged 12-18 years. A valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) containing 147 food items was used to estimate dietary intake of the study participants...
April 26, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Matthew A Christensen, Peter Smoak, Jonathon K Lisano, Reid Hayward, Craig Coronado, Katie Kage, Daniel Shackelford, Laura K Stewart
BACKGROUND: The control of chronic inflammation has emerged as a target for improving the health of cancer survivors (CS). AIM: To examine differences in fitness and dietary characteristics of CS when grouped by low vs. moderate to high serum C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: CS ( N = 26, mean age = 68 ± 12 years) were evaluated for body mass index (BMI), body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake, dietary inflammatory index (DII), and serum CRP...
April 16, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Faiza Kalam, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Kelsey Gabel, Jee Hee Song, Sofia Cienfuegos, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Alternate-day fasting (ADF) involves a 'famine day' (25% energy intake) and a 'feast day' (ad libitum intake). This secondary analysis examined changes in beverage intake in relation to energy intake and body weight during 12 months of ADF versus daily calorie restriction (CR). METHODS: Obese subjects ( n = 100 enrolled, n = 69 completers) were randomized to one of three groups for 12 months: (a) ADF; (b) CR; or (c) control. RESULTS: At baseline, intakes of diet soda, caffeinated beverages, sugar-sweetened soda, alcohol, juice, and milk were similar between groups...
April 14, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Christopher Irwin, Ben Desbrow, Saman Khalesi, Danielle McCartney
BACKGROUND: Food-based dietary guidelines are designed to support populations to adopt a healthy diet. University students studying nutrition related courses are typically en-route to professional roles that involve advocating a healthy diet. AIM: The present study compared the dietary intake of university students enrolled in a foundation nutrition course against the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs), and explored students' experiences of following a 3-day self-determined diet plan adhering to the ADGs/NRVs...
April 11, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Hellen Cg Nabuco, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Rodrigo R Fernandes, Edilaine F Cavalcante, João Pedro Nunes, Paolo F Cunha, Leandro Dos Santos, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by progressive and accentuated decline in muscular strength and skeletal muscle mass, affecting health and functional autonomy. Both resistance training (RT) and diet are strategies that may contribute to improvement in the health of the elderly. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of higher habitual protein intake on RT-induced changes in body composition and strength in untrained postmenopausal women. METHODS: Seventy older women were submitted to an RT program...
March 26, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Tatiane Mieko de Meneses Fujii, Marina Maintinguer Norde, Regina Mara Fisberg, Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni, Marcelo Macedo Rogero
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia can be influenced by genetic and dietary risk factors. AIM: This study set out to investigate diet and genetic variations in Brazilian people in a cross-sectional population-based survey and to analyze the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in lipid metabolism and cardiometabolic-related phenotypes using a genetic risk score (GRS). METHODS: We recruited 228 adults (mean age 36...
March 5, 2019: Nutrition and Health
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March 2019: Nutrition and Health
Ben Desbrow, Susan Hall, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: Little independent information on the caffeine content of the popular Nespresso® coffee pod range exists. AIM: To quantify the caffeine content of Nespresso® pod coffees. METHODS: Initially, three serves (ristretto (S), espresso (M), lungo (L)) of two pod varieties (Livanto and Roma) were prepared on three different Nespresso® machines (2 × U-Delonghi (1 × 5 years since purchase (old), 1 × recently purchased (new)), 1 × new Lattissima Pro (alternate)) using two different batches (sleeves)...
March 2019: Nutrition and Health
Casey R Johnson, Philip R Fischer, Thomas D Thacher, Mark D Topazian, Megan W Bourassa, Gerald F Combs
BACKGROUND: Thiamin deficiency is a major public health concern in several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)-current attention to the problem is lacking. AIM: This review discusses prevalence of thiamin insufficiency and thiamin-deficiency disorders (TDDs) in LMICs, outlines programmatic experience with thiamin interventions, and offers recommendations to improve public-health and research attention to thiamin in LMICs. DISCUSSION: Thiamin insufficiency, i...
February 24, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Hassan A Alshamrani, Hana Alloub, Derek Burke, Amaka C Offiah
BACKGROUND: Several studies have revealed a substantial increase in the incidence of fractures in children in the past few decades. AIM: To assess the strength of the association between suggested risk factors and fracture prevalence in children. METHOD: A cross sectional observational study. Children aged 6-15 years and their guardians presenting to the Emergency Department of a single tertiary paediatric hospital were recruited. Self-reported data on vitamin D intake, calcium intake and physical activity were collected...
February 6, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Oyebola V Oyesiji, Israel O Otemuyiwa, Olumuyiwa S Falade, Steve Ra Adewusi
BACKGROUND: The consumption of instant foods like pasta and sweetened soft drinks have virtually replaced the traditional diets among children. This changing trend in food consumption could negatively affect the health status of school-aged children. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of consumption of instant foods (pasta) on anthropometric parameters and nutrient intake among children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. METHODS: Participants (126 healthy children, 66 boys and 60 girls, aged 4-12 years) were recruited from nursery and primary schools in Ife Central Local Government, Ile-Ife...
January 18, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Indira Sotelo-Díaz, Carla María Blanco-Lizarazo
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess military rations. Military rations must provide military personnel with suitable nutrition, as high-quality nutrition is crucial for promoting health. AIM: This systematic review provides information regarding the nutritional design of military rations according to energy and protein intake and supplements. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for articles published to date regarding the nutritional needs involved in a military diet for an active population of either gender, ranging from 18 to 60 years old, without excluding material by year, type of document, location, or author...
January 9, 2019: Nutrition and Health
V P Menezes, C Cohen, J Del-Rei, W Oigman, M F Neves, Fernanda Jurema Medeiros
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with metabolic imbalance, including insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. AIM: We aimed to evaluate clinical and vascular parameters in obese with or without insulin resistance. METHODS: Participants ( n=39) were divided into two groups according to Homeostasis Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance lower (group 1) or higher (group 2) than 2.7. All patients were submitted to clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, vascular structure and endothelial function assessment...
January 7, 2019: Nutrition and Health
Sona Azimi, Elnaz Faramarzi, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Alireza Ostadrahimi, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Mousa Ghayour
BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B12 are essential micronutrients, the deficiency of which can be associated with public health problems worldwide. AIM: The aims of this study were to assess the folate and vitamin B12 status of healthy adults and the effect of gender differences on their deficiency using serum folate, vitamin B12 and red blood cell (RBC) folate as biomarkers and their relation to hematological indices. METHODS: This study was a part of the Azar cohort study, which is designed as a noncommunicable disease survey in the population of Shabestar, East Azerbaijan, Iran...
December 28, 2018: Nutrition and Health
O Addison, R Yang, M C Serra
BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes to negative outcomes in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Little is known about the body-weight goals and trends among patients with PAD. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore self-reported body-weight trends and methods used to achieve weight loss in patients with PAD. METHODS: Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was utilized to compare individuals with PAD who were overweight and obese ( n = 240), to matched individuals without PAD ( n = 480)...
December 23, 2018: Nutrition and Health
Dalal Alkazemi
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the factors involved in health and wellness among college students can aid in the design of interventions that can reduce the rate of weight gain during young adulthood. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the gender differences in weight status, dietary habits, and health attitudes in a sample of college students at Kuwait University (KU). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 615 students were recruited from KU between November 2013 and March 2014...
December 17, 2018: Nutrition and Health
Sofia Sousa, Marcello Gelormini, Albertino Damasceno, Simão A Lopes, Sérgio Maló, Célia Chongole, Paulino Muholove, Susana Casal, Olívia Pinho, Pedro Moreira, Nuno Lunet, Patrícia Padrão
BACKGROUND: A nutrition transition is occurring in the urban areas of developing countries, where street food makes an important contribution to daily food intake. AIM: We aimed to characterise street food offer in Maputo, Mozambique, and to evaluate the nutritional composition of the most common homemade foods. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. Streets in the surroundings (500 m buffer) of randomly selected public transport stops in KaMpfumu district, Maputo, were canvassed to identify all street food vending sites ( n = 968)...
December 7, 2018: Nutrition and Health
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