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Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Suji George, Manoj V Murhekar, Asha Mary Abraham, Mini P Singh, Santoshkumar M Jadhav, Vijayalakshmi Nag, Sadanand Naik, Chandrashekhar Raut, Ashok Munivenkatappa, Minakshi Gupta, Vishal Jagtap, Ojas Kaduskar, Nivedita Gupta, Gajanan N Sapkal
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibody identification, is important for laboratory confirmation of rubella infection in different settings. The Enzygnost rubella ELISA, widely used in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network, is expensive and often unavailable. Qualitative and quantitative performance of the Euroimmun ELISA was compared with the Enzygnost ELISA, for detection of rubella specific IgM, using 283 sera collected from suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) patients and IgG antibodies using 435 sera from a serosurvey among pregnant women...
January 24, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Flora De Conto, Francesca Conversano, Maria Cristina Medici, Francesca Ferraglia, Federica Pinardi, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. The viral etiology of ARTIs was investigated over 3 years (October 2012-September 2015) in 2575 children in Parma, Italy, using indirect immunofluorescent staining of respiratory samples for viral antigens, cell culture, and molecular assays. Respiratory viruses were detected in 1299 cases (50.44%); 1037 (79.83%) were single infections and 262 (20.17%) mixed infections. The highest infection incidence was in children aged >6 months to ≤3 years (57...
January 17, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Emilie Vallières, Leila Rabaamad, Manon Labrecque, Caroline Chartrand, Christian Renaud
This study evaluated the concordance of Architect™ chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays with Captia™ ELISA for cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM and IgG, with Enzygnost™ and Captia™ ELISA for rubella IgM and IgG and with Trep-Sure™ ELISA for syphilis treponemal antibodies in a mixed pediatric and obstetrical population. Total agreement between assays and Kappa statistic value were 82.5% (95% CI: 75.6-87.7) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.54-0.77) for CMV IgM, 82.8% (95% CI: 76.7-87.6) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.55-0...
January 17, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sebastien Kenmoe, Clarisse Tcharnenwa, Gwladys C Monamele, Cyprien Nde Kengne, Mohamadou Njankouo Ripa, Brett Whitaker, Karen A Alroy, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Richard Njouom
INTRODUCTION: This study compares the detection of 14 common respiratory viruses by two different real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) methods: in house singleplex tests developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the commercially available Fast Track Diagnostic (FTD®) Respiratory Pathogens 33 multiplex test. METHODS: A total of 217 nasopharyngeal swabs were analyzed using CDC singleplex rRT-PCR and FTD® Respiratory Pathogens 33 multiplex assays, for the detection of 14 respiratory viruses...
January 16, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Kimberly F Starr, Danielle C Robinson, Kevin C Hazen
Bacteremia and septicemia require rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) to start targeted, appropriate therapy. To answer this need, Accelerate Diagnostics, Inc., developed the Accelerate Pheno™ system (AXDX), a fast ID and phenotypic AST platform. Performance of a pre-FDA clearance version of AXDX was evaluated using 261 positive BacT/ALERT® Plus bottles and compared with standard of care (SOC). Average time to ID was reduced by 24.9±6.9 h and AST by 36.7±18.9 h compared with SOC...
January 16, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
C A Hogan, N Watz, I Budvytiene, N Banaei
OBJECTIVE: Optimizing therapy for bacteremia is currently limited by the 1-2-day turnaround time required for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Here, we assess a rapid AST method with VITEK®2 (bioMérieux, France) directly from positive blood cultures. METHODS: Patient-derived positive blood cultures with Gram-negative rods identified as Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were prospectively tested, and other blood culture bottles were spiked with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)...
January 16, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Laure Flurin, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Robin Patel
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a rare but challenging complication of arthroplasty. Herein, we describe the epidemiology and microbiology of PJI, with a focus on analyzing differences between the microbiology of polymicrobial versus monomicrobial infection of hip, knee, and shoulder prostheses. In addition, we report the most frequent co-pathogens in polymicrobial infections, as detected by culture. A total of 373 patients diagnosed with PJI at Mayo Clinic were studied. For hip and knee arthroplasties, a higher proportion of fractures (P = 0...
January 15, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Emelissa J Mendoza, Kai Makowski, Nicole Barairo, Kimberly Holloway, Kristina Dimitrova, Angela Sloan, Robert Vendramelli, Charlene Ranadheera, David Safronetz, Michael A Drebot, Heidi Wood
The previous serological algorithm for Zika virus (ZIKV) comprised screening by anti-ZIKV IgM capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA) for samples collected within 3 months postexposure or onset (MPEO). Samples positive by MAC-ELISA and samples collected beyond 3 MPEO were tested by the confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which proved laborious and time-consuming during the 2015 outbreak. Thus, we evaluated several ZIKV ELISAs to establish an anti-IgM and anti-IgG combination for use as a screening tool for all samples prior to PRNT confirmation...
January 14, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Olivia Ellis, Peera Hemarajata, Akbar Shahkolahi, Godfred Masinde, Kerry Buchs, Romney M Humphries, Jeffrey D Klausner
There are no commercially available Food and Drug Administration-cleared rapid tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study evaluated the performance of a laboratory-developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for genotyping the gyrA gene to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Validation and clinical performance of the gyrA assay were evaluated across 3 geographic locations (Los Angeles, San Francisco, Philadelphia). Following validation, clinical specimens were collected in Aptima Combo2® CT/NG transport medium from asymptomatic persons who tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and evaluated for assay percent reportable (i...
January 14, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Gary P Wormser, Kathryn C Brady, Michelle S Cho, Carol A Scavarda, Donna McKenna
Although a 14-day treatment course with amoxicillin is in wide clinical usage to treat early Lyme disease, only a few published studies exist to validate its efficacy and safety, with none in the United States. In this study, we reviewed the records of 24 prospectively followed adult patients with erythema migrans who were prescribed a 14-day course of amoxicillin, 500 mg 3 times daily. Treatment with amoxicillin was well tolerated and uniformly successful in resolving the erythema migrans skin lesion and in preventing the development of an objective neurologic, cardiac, or rheumatologic manifestation...
January 10, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Se Yoon Park, Shi Nae Yu, Eun Jung Lee, Tark Kim, Min Hyok Jeon, Eun Ju Choo, Suyeon Park, Joon Won Chae, Hae In Bang, Tae Hyong Kim
This study aimed to characterize patients with monomicrobial gram-negative necrotizing fasciitis in three university hospitals in Korea. In this study, of the 115 patients with community-acquired necrotizing fasciitis, 67 (58%) had monomicrobial infections: 31 (27%) in the gram-negative group and 36 (31%) in the gram-positive group. The majority of patients in the gram-negative group were infected with Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio vulnificus. More patients in the gram-negative group showed liver cirrhosis than those in the gram-positive group (39% vs...
January 4, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jee-Soo Lee, Mihye Yoon, Man Jin Kim, Sung Im Cho, Moon-Woo Seong, Sung Sup Park, Ji Yeon Kim
The accurate measurement of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA level in the blood is required for managing EBV-associated diseases. A new commercial Abbott Real-Time EBV assay, which targets the BLLF1 gene, was evaluated on 120 clinical whole blood samples and the Qnostics EBV analytical panel. The limit of detection of the assay was 48.9 IU/mL (95% confidence interval, 48.1-49.8 IU/mL). The assay was linear from 2 to 5 log10 IU/mL (R2  = 0.997). The within-run coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 1...
January 3, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Amanda A Abbott, James A Karlowsky
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is commonly used to identify bacteria and yeasts. Studies indicate that MALDI-TOF is relatively indifferent to the medium used for culture. We report on an investigation into high- and low-confidence MALDI-TOF misidentifications of Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma alkalescens from urine specimens plated to CHROMagar™ Orientation medium that appear to be due to the intrinsic mass spectrum of the medium.
January 2, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Andrea M Lerner, John E Bennett, Stefania Pittaluga, Pavel P Khil, J H Youn, Gary A Fahle, Karen M Frank, John P Dekker, Theresa D Jerussi, Clare Sun, Adrian Wiestner, Juan Gea-Banacloche
A 52-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was hospitalized with disseminated adenovirus disease. More than a month following recovery, hepatic necrotizing granulomas secondary to adenovirus were found. This case illustrates the protracted course that adenovirus disease may take and emphasizes an unusual presentation with hepatic necrotizing granulomas.
January 2, 2019: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Juliane Havlicek, Beatrice Dachsel, Peter Slickers, Sönke Andres, Patrick Beckert, Silke Feuerriegel, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, Ines Labugger
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antibiotic for the treatment of drug susceptible tuberculosis. PZA-resistance is mainly mediated by mutations in the pncA gene; however the current gold standard is a phenotypic drug susceptibility test requiring a well-adjusted pH-value for reliable results. Our melting curve assay detects a non-wild type genotype in selected pncA regions in at least 3750 gene copies/mL within 2.5 hours. The prototype assay was further evaluated by analyzing 271 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Swaziland originating from a previously published drug resistance survey and including 118 isolates with pncA mutations...
December 30, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
J Michael Janda
A key aspect of medical, public health, and diagnostic microbiology laboratories is the accurate identification and rapid reporting and communication to medical staff regarding patients with infectious agents of clinical importance. Microbial taxonomy continues to change at a very rapid rate in the era of molecular diagnostics including whole genome sequencing. This update focuses on taxonomic changes and proposals that may be of medical importance for years 2017 and 2018.
December 30, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Zuhha Ashraf, Elham Rahmati, Jeffrey M Bender, Neha Nanda, Rosemary C She
Diagnosing Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection is challenged by lack of a clear gold standard. We sought to determine if the two-step algorithm (screening GDH and toxin lateral flow assay followed by tcdB PCR) would have adequate clinical performance at a tertiary care center. Of 486 patients, 310 (63.8%) were immunocompromised. Of 150 PCR-positive specimens, 52 (34.7%) were toxin-positive and 126 (84.0%) were GDH positive. Positive GDH or toxin results corresponded to lower PCR cycle threshold values (P < 0...
December 29, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Katrin Mende, Laveta Stewart, Faraz Shaikh, William Bradley, Dan Lu, Margot R Krauss, Lauren Greenberg, Qilu Yu, Dana M Blyth, Timothy J Whitman, Joseph L Petfield, David R Tribble
We present extremity wound microbiology data from 250 combat casualties (2009-2012). Confirmed extremity wound infections (EWIs) were based on clinical and laboratory findings. Suspected EWIs had isolation of organisms from wound cultures with associated signs/symptoms not meeting clinical diagnostic criteria. Colonized wounds had organisms isolated without any infection suspicion. A total of 335 confirmed EWIs (131 monomicrobial and 204 polymicrobial) were assessed. Gram-negative bacteria were predominant (57% and 86% of monomicrobial and polymicrobial infections, respectively)...
December 29, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lei Huang, Xingchun Chen, Heping Xu, Liying Sun, Chen Li, Wenchen Guo, Lili Xiang, Guolan Luo, Yancao Cui, Binghuai Lu
Nocardia spp. is a pathogen responsible for a variety of clinical infections, ranging from skin and soft tissue infections, to the respiratory tract and central nervous system infections. Its epidemiological characteristics, including species distribution, clinical features, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, should be under surveillance for the prevention and treatment of nocardiosis. In the present study, over a 9-year period (from 2009 to 2017), 53 non-repetitive Nocardia isolates were collected from 8 tertiary general hospitals of 7 cities in China...
December 29, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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