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Nutrition Research

Azusa Nishino, Takashi Ichihara, Kazuhisa Sugimoto, Takashi Kuriki, Hiroyuki Yasui, Takashi Maoka
Carotenoids are phytochemicals with strong antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species that are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. The beneficial effects of carotenoids on human health have attracted considerable attention. The plasma carotenoid profile in humans is generally recognized to reflect the dietary carotenoid composition. Although carotenoid profile in plasma is believed to correlate well with that in other tissues, the data for tissue accumulation of carotenoids in humans is very limited and poorly understood...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Maud Rizk, Adrien Guilloteau, Thomas Mouillot, Gérard Thiefin, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Carine Richou, Michel Doffoel, Mona Diab Assaf, Patrick Hillon, Vanessa Cottet
Eighty percent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases occur after cirrhosis from various etiologies. The association between diet and cancer is well accepted, but the links with cirrhosis progression and HCC risk have been poorly investigated. However, we hypothesized that diet could be a modifiable preventive factor for HCC. Thus, the aim of our study was to explore the relationships between dietary factors and the risk of HCC in a population of cirrhotic patients. A total of 582 cirrhotic patients were studied: 401 without HCC (controls) and 181 with HCC (cases)...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Karen J Murphy, Katie M Walker, Kathryn A Dyer, Janet Bryan
Flavonoid consumption has reported health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors, improving endothelial function, and delaying age-related cognitive decline. However, there are little dietary intake data for Australians, which limit our ability to make dietary recommendations to increase intakes to a level where health benefits are seen. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the intake of flavonoids, flavonoid classes, and flavonoid subclasses of 1183 Australians aged 39 to 65 years using a validated 215-item food frequency questionnaire...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Igor N Zelko, Jianxin Zhu, Jesse Roman
Recent studies point to the important role of in utero malnutrition in gene programming and in the development of vascular diseases. We hypothesize that maternal undernutrition affects vascular function in the offspring by promoting epigenetic changes that drive the differential expression of genes involved in endothelial function. To test this, we exposed mice to nutrient deprivation in utero and analyzed its effect on global DNA methylation and expression of endothelium-specific genes in the pulmonary endothelium of the adult progeny...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Tony F Grassi, Lucas T Bidinotto, Gisele A D Lopes, Joyce R Zapaterini, Maria A M Rodrigues, Luís F Barbisan
Previous studies have shown that early life intake of high-fat diet or western-style diet (WD) enhances the development of mammary tumors in adult female rats. Thus, we hypothesized that maternal WD throughout pregnancy and the lactation period could speed up the development of MNU-induced mammary tumors and alter their gene expression. For this, the present study investigated the gene expression profile of chemically-induced mammary tumors in female rat offspring from dams fed a WD or a control diet. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats received a WD (high-fat, low-fiber and oligoelements) or a control diet from gestational day 12 until post-natal day (PND) 21...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Maria Michelle Papamichael, Charis Katsardis, Bircan Erbas, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Dimitris Tsoukalas
Childhood asthma prevalence continues to rise despite advancements in prevention and medical management strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between urinary organic acids and pulmonary diagnostic tests, asthma control in Greek asthmatic children. We hypothesized that urinary organic acids are positively associated with poor pulmonary function in children with asthma. Seventy-two children, 5 to 12 years old with asthma were recruited from a pediatric asthma clinic in Athens, Greece...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Bénédicte L Tremblay, Frédéric Guénard, Benoît Lamarche, Louis Pérusse, Marie-Claude Vohl
Metabolites are of great importance for understanding the pathogenesis of several diseases. Understanding the genetic contribution to metabolite concentrations may provide insights into mechanisms of complex diseases. Several studies have investigated heritability of metabolites but none investigated potential influences of genetic and environmental factors on the relationship between metabolites and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that both genetic and common environmental effects contribute to the variance of plasma metabolite concentrations and that shared genetic and environmental effects explain their phenotypic correlations with CM risk factors...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Hualei Sun, Shao Rong Long, Xing Li, Huina Ge, Xinxin Liu, Teng Wang, Fei Yu, Yan Wang, Yuan Xue, Wenjie Li
Several studies have reported a conflicting association between vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism, and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that serum 25(OH)D concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR were associated with and increased risk of CVD. A total of 2378 adults residing in rural parts of China participated in this study. Ultimately, 1142 individuals, including 638 CVD patients and 504 control subjects were included in the study...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Ammar W Ashor, Rebecca Brown, Patrick D Keenan, Naomi D Willis, Mario Siervo, John C Mathers
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient with important antioxidant properties. Higher vitamin C intake appears to be associated with positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors in cohort studies, whereas large randomized controlled clinical trials did not confirm the benefits of supplemental vitamin C on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. In this overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, an "umbrella review," we investigated the effects of vitamin C supplementation on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, that is, arterial stiffness, blood pressure, endothelial function, glycemic control, and lipid profile...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Oh Yoen Kim, So-Young Kwak, Hyunjung Lim, Min-Jeong Shin
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucokinase regulator (GCKR) are associated with major cardiovascular risk factors (ie, lipid profile and glycemic status). Recently, GCKR was shown to be related to circulating calcium levels involved in lipid and glycemic controls. Therefore, we hypothesized that GCKR SNPs are associated with major cardiovascular risk factors in the Korean population, and the association is modified by circulating calcium levels. Epidemiological data and GCKR SNPs (rs780093T>C, rs780094 T>C, and rs1260326 T>C) were collected from a subset of Ansung-Ansan cohort in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 7815)...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Stephen M Cornish, Semone B Myrie, Eric M Bugera, Jeremie E Chase, David Turczyn, Mark Pinder
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 3.0 g/d of omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation combined with progressive resistance training to improve body composition and lower inflammatory cytokines in older men when compared to placebo and resistance training. We hypothesized that completing a 12-week omega-3 supplementation period along with whole body resistance exercise (3 times/wk) would result in a significantly greater improvement in lean tissue mass as well as a significant decrease in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α when compared to placebo...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Kozue Shimizu, Hazuki Saito, Kanako Sumi, Yuri Sakamoto, Yoichi Tachi, Kaoruko Iida
Although a ketogenic diet (KD) is used to treat various metabolic diseases, the organ-specific metabolic changes that occur in response to a KD remain unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that duration of KD consumption and regular exercise in addition to KD consumption affect metabolic fuel selection at gene levels in heart and skeletal muscle. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 2 groups, one fed a standard diet and the other fed a KD, and maintained for either 4 weeks (short term) or 12 weeks (long term)...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Aldo Cavallini, Fiorenza Minervini, Antonella Garbetta, Catia Lippolis, Gaetano Scamarcio, Cinzia Di Franco, Rosalba D'Alessandro
Although the cross-kingdom transfer of vegetable miRNAs (miRNAs) in mammalian species, including humans, is still controversial, recent studies have rejected this theory. Based on these recent studies, we hypothesized that artichoke-derived miRNAs (cca-miRNAs) are not adsorbed into human intestinal cells after cooking and in vitro digestion. In order to test this hypothesis, we evaluated miRNA (cca-miRNAs) in the edible part of globe artichokes (head portion), after cooking and digestion by an in vitro digestion system...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Ronald D Fritz, Yumin Chen
Inclusion of oats in a gluten-free (GF) diet can provide whole grain nutritional benefits to celiac disease (CD) patients, but there has been debate regarding oat safety for these individuals. This is because of conflicting research findings, with inconsistencies attributed to varying CD subject's sensitivities to "pure" oats. Clinical trials to date have assumed oats provided to subjects to be lightly contaminated, if at all. This assumption is challenged here since oat's propensity to be "kernel" contaminated with gluten sources like wheat and barley has recently been shown to significantly complicate confirmation of a GF state...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Kristine R Polley, Natalie J Oswell, Ronald B Pegg, Chad M Paton, Jamie A Cooper
Modifying dietary fat composition is important for minimizing cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 5-day, high-fat diet rich in cottonseed oil (CSO) or olive oil (OO) on lipid profiles. Based on previous human and animal models, we hypothesized that the CSO-rich diet would lead to lower fasting and postprandial lipid levels, whereas the OO-rich diet would not significantly change lipid levels in 5 days. Fifteen normal-weight men completed a randomized crossover design with 2 controlled feeding trials (3-day lead-in diet, prediet visit, 5-day CSO- or OO-rich diet, postdiet visit)...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Alyssa M Burns, Rebecca J Solch, Jennifer C Dennis-Wall, Maria Ukhanova, Carmelo Nieves, Volker Mai, Mary C Christman, Dennis T Gordon, Bobbi Langkamp-Henken
Dietary fiber stimulates the growth of potentially beneficial bacteria (eg, bifidobacteria), yet most Americans do not meet daily fiber recommendations. Resistant maltodextrin (RMD), a fermentable functional fiber, may help individuals meet total fiber recommendations and potentially increase bifidobacteria. It was hypothesized that fecal bifidobacteria counts/ng fecal DNA would increase after adding 25 g RMD to inadequate fiber diets of healthy adults. In this double-blind, controlled crossover study, 51 participants (26...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Jun Yasuda, Mai Asako, Takuma Arimitsu, Satoshi Fujita
Skipping breakfast has been reported to decrease daily energy and nutrient intake. We aimed to investigate whether habitual breakfast intake frequency is associated with fat-free mass (FFM) in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that skipping breakfast and the subsequent negative energy balance may be risk factors for reduced muscle mass. This cross-sectional study included 270 healthy young subjects (152 men, 118 women). We collected information on habitual breakfast intake frequency, sleep quality according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, circadian rhythm type using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Clara Nilholm, Bodil Roth, Peter Höglund, Kaj Blennow, Elisabet Englund, Oskar Hansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Bodil Ohlsson
Food may induce inflammation and favor development of metabolic diseases, which have been associated with increased inflammation and potential risk of cognitive impairment. It is customary to know whether food or disease promote inflammation. Our hypothesis was that Okinawan-based Nordic (O-BN) diet leads to decreased circulating concentrations of inflammatory and neural biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of the O-BN diet on inflammatory and neural responses. First, 2 different breakfasts; one standard and another O-BN-based, were given in random order to 19 healthy volunteers...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Sunmin Park, Da Sol Kim, Suna Kang, Hyun Jin Kim
Luteolin and l-theanine have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and possible antidiabetic activities, and they may synergistically protect against dementia. Here, we hypothesized that a combination of luteolin and l-theanine would synergistically act to improve memory function and glucose disturbances in rats infused with amyloid-β, and the mechanisms underlying these actions were investigated. Rats that received an amyloid-β(25-35) infusion into the CA1 region of the hippocampus were fed dextrin (AD-CON), 0...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
Yang Wang, Patricia Buckendahl, Kajal Sharma, Joshua W Miller, Sue A Shapses
Obesity induced by high-fat diets (HFDs) is inversely associated with vitamin D status and bone health. However, the associations and effects of excessive fat intake on hepatic and renal vitamin D metabolism have not been addressed. The primary objective was to determine if excessive energy and fat intake, or the type of fat, affects serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration and whether this can be explained by an alteration of vitamin D-regulating enzymes in older mice. The second objective was a follow up of our recent findings that a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) is not detrimental to bone in lean mice and whether this is also true under conditions of diet-induced obesity...
December 2018: Nutrition Research
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