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Human Movement Science

Zhi Zhang, Ying Gao, Jian Wang
This study assessed the effects of vision and cognitive load on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) in response to an externally triggered postural perturbation. A ball-hitting test was repeated under different visual conditions (eyes open, EO; eyes closed, EC) and cognitive loads (no load, 3-subtraction task, time-limited 3-subtraction task). Data were collected separately for I) surface electromyography from the right side of the biceps brachii (BIC) and erector spinae (ES) to detect the latency and response intensity (RI); and II) displacement of the centre of pressure (ΔCOP) to detect the standard deviation (ΔCOPSD ) and maximum value (ΔCOPmax ) in the anterior-posterior direction...
March 12, 2019: Human Movement Science
Hannah J Walter, Ruixuan Li, Justin Munafo, Christopher Curry, Nicolette Peterson, Thomas A Stoffregen
Motion sickness is preceded by differences in the quantitative kinematics of body sway between individuals who (later) become sick and those who do not. In existing research, this effect has been demonstrated only in measures of body sway, relative to the earth. However, body sway can become coupled with imposed oscillatory motion of the illuminated environment, and the nature of this coupling may differ between individuals who become sick and those who do not. We asked whether body sway would become coupled to complex oscillations of the illuminated environment, and whether individual differences in such coupling might be precursors of motion sickness...
March 12, 2019: Human Movement Science
Takaaki Tsunokawa, Hirotoshi Mankyu, Hideki Takagi, Futoshi Ogita
Through pressure measurement and underwater motion capture analysis, this study aimed to elucidate the effects of hand paddles on hand propulsive forces, mechanical power, and Froude efficiency in arm-stroke-only front-crawl swimming at various velocities. Eight male swimmers swam under two conditions in randomized order, once using only their hands and once aided by hand paddles on both hands. Each participant swam 10 times a distance of 16 m in each condition, for a total of 20 trials. To elucidate the relationship between propulsive forces and swimming velocity, each participant was instructed to swim each of the two sets of 10 trials at an arbitrarily different swimming velocity...
March 9, 2019: Human Movement Science
Saleh M Aloraini, Cheryl M Glazebrook, Kathryn M Sibley, Jonathan Singer, Steven Passmore
Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are an integral part of standing balance. Previous research with balance control has shown that adopting an external focus of attention, compared to an internal focus of attention, yields better performance during motor skills. Despite the importance of APAs, especially among older adults, and the potential benefits of adopting an external focus of attention, studies investigating methods for improving APAs are limited. The aim of this study was to compare behavioral, kinematic and APAs measures while adopting different foci of attention among young and older adults when performing a lower extremity Fitts' task...
March 8, 2019: Human Movement Science
Thomas A Duda, Joseph E Casey, Amanda M O'Brien, Natalie Frost, Amanda M Phillips
PURPOSE: The present study sought to determine if children and adolescents with ADHD demonstrate reduced procedural learning of a graphomotor program. METHOD: Thirty-two children and adolescents between age 9 and 15 with (n = 16) and without ADHD (n = 16) participated in the study. Each group of participants practiced a novel grapheme on a digitizing tablet 30 times. Participants with ADHD were off stimulant medication or were medication naïve. RESULTS: Control participants demonstrated significant improvement in graphomotor fluency from the beginning to the end of practice, T = 2, z = -2...
March 7, 2019: Human Movement Science
Thenille Braun Janzen, Marion Haase, Michael H Thaut
This study investigated the immediate effects of auditory-motor entrainment across effector systems by examining whether Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation training of arm or finger movements would modulate gait speed. Forty-one participants with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Participants in the finger-tapping group tapped in synchrony with a metronome set to 20% faster pace than the pre-training walking cadence, whereas participants in the other group were asked to swing both arms in an alternating motion in synchrony with the metronome...
March 7, 2019: Human Movement Science
Satoshi Kasahara, Hiroshi Saito
For older adults, falls often occur when transitioning from motion to a complete stop, as the motor control required during this phase is very complex and challenging. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of aging on the motor control required to terminate motion. Twenty-five healthy older adults (aged >65 years) and 25 healthy young adults (20-23 years) performed a rapid stopping task while standing on a force plate. The rapid stopping task was conducted by analyzing center of pressure (COP) on the force plate during a visually guided tracking experiment...
March 7, 2019: Human Movement Science
Amin Behdarvandan, Mohammad Jafar Shaterzadeh-Yazdi, Hossein Negahban, Mohammad Mehravar
Repetitive lumbopelvic rotation (LPR) during active limb movements has been indicated as a factor that contributes to low back pain (LBP). Prior studies suggest that people with LBP demonstrate greater and earlier LPR during limb movements in prone. We examined timing and magnitude of LPR during sitting active knee extension in people with and without LBP. We also investigated differences of LPR during active and passive knee extension in LBP group. 38 men (mean age: 38.4)10.6) years) with chronic mechanical LBP and 38 matched healthy men (mean age: 36...
March 6, 2019: Human Movement Science
Xin Ye, William M Miller, Sunggun Jeon, Joshua C Carr
Bilateral deficit (BLD) describes a phenomenon that the force produced during maximal simultaneous bilateral contraction is lower than the sum of those produced unilaterally. The aim of this study was to examine the potential sex-related differences in BLD in upper body proximal and distal limb muscles. Ten men and eight women performed single-joint maximal contractions with their elbow flexors and index finger abductors at separate laboratory visits, during which the maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVICs) were performed unilaterally and bilaterally with a randomized order in the designated muscle group...
March 2, 2019: Human Movement Science
Louis P Howe, Theodoros M Bampouras, Jamie North, Mark Waldron
Limited evidence is available concerning ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) and its relationship with landing performance from varying drop heights. The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationship between ankle DF ROM and both kinetic and kinematic variables measured during bilateral drop-landings from 50%, 100% and 150% of countermovement jump height. Thirty-nine participants were measured for their ankle DF ROM using the weight-bearing lunge test, after which five bilateral drop-landings were performed from 50%, 100% and 150% of maximal countermovement jump height...
March 2, 2019: Human Movement Science
Lee-Kuen Chua, Maria Katrina Dimapilis, Takehiro Iwatsuki, Reza Abdollahipour, Rebecca Lewthwaite, Gabriele Wulf
Variability in practice has been shown to enhance motor skill learning. Benefits of practice variability have been attributed to motor schema formation (variable versus constant practice), or more effortful information processing (random versus blocked practice). We hypothesized that, among other mechanisms, greater practice variability might promote an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect, while less variability would be more conducive to a less effective internal focus on body movements...
March 1, 2019: Human Movement Science
M Hervault, R Huys, C Farrer, J C Buisson, P G Zanone
Motor inhibition is considered to be an important process of executive control and to be implicated in numerous activities in order to cancel prepared actions and, supposedly, to suppress ongoing ones. Usually, it is evaluated using a "stop-signal task" in which participants have to inhibit prepared discrete movements. However, it is unknown whether other movement types involve the same inhibition process. We therefore investigated whether the inhibition process for discrete movements is involved in stopping ongoing rhythmic movements as well...
February 27, 2019: Human Movement Science
Camila Astolphi Lima, Sandra Regina Alouche, Alessandra Maria Schiavinato Baldan, Paulo Barbosa de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira Freitas
Stroke individuals frequently have balance problems and impaired arm movements that affect their daily activities. We investigated the influence of target uncertainty and the side of the brain lesion on the performance of arm movements and postural adjustments during reaching in a standing position by stroke individuals. Participants stood on force plates and reached a target displayed on the center of a monitor screen under conditions differentiated by the prior knowledge of the target location at the beginning of the movement...
February 27, 2019: Human Movement Science
Gordon R Chalmers
Reduced stability while standing typically decreases the soleus muscle Hoffmann (H-) reflex amplitude, purportedly to prevent the Ia afferent signal from excessively activating spinal motor neurons during the unstable stance. H-reflex measures, however, by excluding the spindle do not reflect the actual effect of the Ia pathway (i.e. the combined effects of spindle sensitivity and Ia presynaptic inhibition) on motor neuron activation, as tendon tap reflex measures can. But the effect of stance stability on soleus muscle tendon tap reflex amplitude is largely unknown...
February 27, 2019: Human Movement Science
Simon M Harrison, Paul W Cleary, Raymond C Z Cohen
Kayak racing performance is known to be dependent on technique, strength and equipment, but the relationship between these factors and performance is not well understood. Complete experimental measures of stroke technique and the interactions between the water and the paddle and the boat are not practical in a racing environment. Instead, simulation using computational fluid dynamics can be used to study this system. A coupled biomechanical-Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (B-SPH) model of the kayaking athlete is presented...
February 26, 2019: Human Movement Science
Tsung-Yu Hsieh, Yeou-Teh Liu, Karl M Newell
In discrete aiming movements the task criteria of time-minimization to a spatial target (e.g., Fitts, 1954) and time-matching to a spatial-temporal goal (e.g., Schmidt et al., 1979) tend to produce different functions of the speed-accuracy trade-off. Here we examined whether the task-related movement speed-accuracy characteristics were due to differential space-time trade-offs in time-matching, velocity-matching and time-minimizing task goals. Twenty participants performed 100 aiming trials for each of 15 combinations of task-type (3) and space-time condition (5)...
February 22, 2019: Human Movement Science
Arend W A Van Gemmert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2019: Human Movement Science
I A Solopova, D S Zhvansky, V A Selionov, Y Ivanenko
In recent years, neuromodulation of the cervical spinal circuitry has become an area of interest for investigating rhythmogenesis of the human spinal cord and interaction between cervical and lumbosacral circuitries, given the involvement of rhythmic arm muscle activity in many locomotor tasks. We have previously shown that arm muscle vibrostimulation can elicit non-voluntary upper limb oscillations in unloading body conditions. Here we investigated the excitability of the cervical spinal circuitry by applying different peripheral and central stimuli in healthy humans...
February 21, 2019: Human Movement Science
Sheng-Che Yen, Kevin K Chui, Ying-Chih Wang, Marie B Corkery, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador Farjadian
Previous studies suggest that functional ankle instability (FAI) may be associated with deficits in the ability to sense muscle forces. We tested individuals with FAI to determine if they have reduced ability to control ankle muscle forces, which is a function of force sense. Our test was performed isometrically to minimize the involvement of joint position sense and kinesthesia. A FAI group and a control group were recruited to perform an ankle force control task using a platform-based ankle robot. They were asked to move a cursor to hit 24 targets as accurately and as fast as possible in a virtual maze...
February 20, 2019: Human Movement Science
Sizhong Wang, Kitty H C Chan, Rachel H M Lam, Daisy N S Yuen, Carmen K M Fan, Thomas T C Chu, Heiner Baur, Roy T H Cheung
Foot progression angle adjustment was shown to reduce external knee adduction moment (EKAM) and knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI) during level ground walking. However, evidence on effects of foot progression angle adjustment on the above surrogate measures of medial knee loading during stair climbing is limited. Hence, this study examined the effects of toe-in and toe-out gait on EKAM and KAAI during stair ascent and descent. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-two healthy adults during stair ascent and descent with toe-in, toe-out and natural gait...
February 19, 2019: Human Movement Science
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