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Mass Spectrometry Reviews

Valérie Gabelica, Alexandre A Shvartsburg, Carlos Afonso, Perdita Barran, Justin L P Benesch, Christian Bleiholder, Michael T Bowers, Aivett Bilbao, Matthew F Bush, J Larry Campbell, Iain D G Campuzano, Tim Causon, Brian H Clowers, Colin S Creaser, Edwin De Pauw, Johann Far, Francisco Fernandez-Lima, John C Fjeldsted, Kevin Giles, Michael Groessl, Christopher J Hogan, Stephan Hann, Hugh I Kim, Ruwan T Kurulugama, Jody C May, John A McLean, Kevin Pagel, Keith Richardson, Mark E Ridgeway, Frédéric Rosu, Frank Sobott, Konstantinos Thalassinos, Stephen J Valentine, Thomas Wyttenbach
Here we present a guide to ion mobility mass spectrometry experiments, which covers both linear and nonlinear methods: what is measured, how the measurements are done, and how to report the results, including the uncertainties of mobility and collision cross section values. The guide aims to clarify some possibly confusing concepts, and the reporting recommendations should help researchers, authors and reviewers to contribute comprehensive reports, so that the ion mobility data can be reused more confidently...
February 1, 2019: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Haopeng Xiao, Fangxu Sun, Suttipong Suttapitugsakul, Ronghu Wu
Protein glycosylation is ubiquitous in biological systems and plays essential roles in many cellular events. Global and site-specific analysis of glycoproteins in complex biological samples can advance our understanding of glycoprotein functions and cellular activities. However, it is extraordinarily challenging because of the low abundance of many glycoproteins and the heterogeneity of glycan structures. The emergence of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has provided us an excellent opportunity to comprehensively study proteins and their modifications, including glycosylation...
January 3, 2019: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Simone Colombo, Pedro Domingues, M Rosário Domingues
The biological functions of modified aminophospholipids (APL) have become a topic of interest during the last two decades, and distinct roles have been found for these biomolecules in both physiological and pathological contexts. Modifications of APL include oxidation, glycation, and adduction to electrophilic aldehydes, altogether contributing to a high structural variability of modified APL. An outstanding technique used in this challenging field is mass spectrometry (MS). MS has been widely used to unveil modified APL of biological interest, mainly when associated with soft ionization methods (electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) and coupled with separation techniques as liquid chromatography...
December 30, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Jianhui Zhu, Elisa Warner, Neehar D Parikh, David M Lubman
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most-common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most cases of HCC develop in patients that already have liver cirrhosis and have been recommended for surveillance for an early onset of HCC. Cirrhosis is the final common pathway for several etiologies of liver disease, including hepatitis B and C, alcohol, and increasingly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Only 20-30% of patients with HCC are eligible for curative therapy due primarily to inadequate early-detection strategies...
November 25, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Hemi Luan, Xian Wang, Zongwei Cai
Metabolomics seeks to take a "snapshot" in a time of the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of all small molecule metabolites in response to a biological system with genetic or environmental changes. The emerging development in mass spectrometry technologies has shown promise in the discovery and quantitation of neuroactive small molecule metabolites associated with gut microbiota and brain. Significant progress has been made recently in the characterization of intermediate role of small molecule metabolites linked to neural development and neurodegenerative disorder, showing its potential in understanding the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host brain...
January 2019: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Sara D'Aronco, Sara Crotti, Marco Agostini, Pietro Traldi, Nino Cristiano Chilelli, Annunziata Lapolla
In the last decade, mass spectrometry has been widely employed in the study of diabetes. This was mainly due to the development of new, highly sensitive, and specific methods representing powerful tools to go deep into the biochemical and pathogenetic processes typical of the disease. The aim of this review is to give a panorama of the scientifically valid results obtained in this contest. The recent studies on glycation processes, in particular those devoted to the mechanism of production and to the reactivity of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, AGE peptides, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, dicarbonyl compounds) allowed to obtain a different view on short and long term complications of diabetes...
November 13, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Xiangfeng Chen, Ze Wang, Y-L Elaine Wong, Ri Wu, Feng Zhang, T-W Dominic Chan
The structural elucidation of natural products (NPs) remains a challenge due to their structurally diversities and unpredictable functionalities, motifs, and scaffolds. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is an effective method that assists the full elucidation of complicated NP structures. Ion activation methods play a key role in determining the fragmentation pathways and the structural information obtained from MS/MS. Electron-ion reaction-based dissociation (ExD) methods, including electron capture dissociation (ECD), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron-induced dissociation (EID), and electron detachment dissociation (EDD), can induce the breakage of specific chemical bonds and the generation of distinct fragment ions...
November 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Yury Kostyukevich, Thamina Acter, Alexander Zherebker, Arif Ahmed, Sunghwan Kim, Eugene Nikolaev
The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry...
November 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Şule Yılmaz, Genet A Shiferaw, Josep Rayo, Anastassios Economou, Lennart Martens, Elien Vandermarliere
Chemical cross-linking analyzed by mass spectrometry (XL-MS) has become an important tool in unravelling protein structure, dynamics, and complex formation. Because the analysis of cross-linked proteins with mass spectrometry results in specific computational challenges, many computational tools have been developed to identify cross-linked peptides from mass spectra and subsequently interpret the identified cross-links within their structural context. In this review, we will provide an overview of the different tools that are currently available to tackle the computational part of an XL-MS experiment...
November 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Liang Cui, Haitao Lu, Yie Hou Lee
In the past decade, advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) have revolutionized untargeted metabolomics analyses. By mining metabolomes more deeply, researchers are now primed to uncover key metabolites and their associations with diseases. The employment of untargeted metabolomics has led to new biomarker discoveries and a better mechanistic understanding of diseases with applications in precision medicine. However, many major pertinent challenges remain. First, compound identification has been poor, and left an overwhelming number of unidentified peaks...
November 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Frederik Lermyte, Dirk Valkenborg, Joseph A Loo, Frank Sobott
In recent years, electron capture (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) have emerged as two of the most useful methods in mass spectrometry-based protein analysis, evidenced by a considerable and growing body of literature. In large part, the interest in these methods is due to their ability to induce backbone fragmentation with very little disruption of noncovalent interactions which allows inference of information regarding higher order structure from the observed fragmentation behavior. Here, we review the evolution of electron-based dissociation methods, and pay particular attention to their application in "native" mass spectrometry, their mechanism, determinants of fragmentation behavior, and recent developments in available instrumentation...
November 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Evelyne Maes, Eline Oeyen, Kurt Boonen, Karin Schildermans, Inge Mertens, Patrick Pauwels, Dirk Valkenborg, Geert Baggerman
Naturally occurring peptides, including growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters, represent an important class of biomolecules and have crucial roles in human physiology. The study of these peptides in clinical samples is therefore as relevant as ever. Compared to more routine proteomics applications in clinical research, peptidomics research questions are more challenging and have special requirements with regard to sample handling, experimental design, and bioinformatics. In this review, we describe the issues that confront peptidomics in a clinical context...
October 29, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Dietmar Kuck, Jürgen Grotemeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Frank Gunzer, Sascha Krüger, Jürgen Grotemeyer
Ever since the introduction of laser technology to the field of mass spectrometry, several disciplines evolved providing solutions to challenging scientific and analytical tasks in research and industry. Among these are techniques involving multiphoton ionization such as Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI, R2PI) and Mass-Analyzed Threshold Ionization (MATI) spectroscopy, a variant of Zero Kinetic Energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy, that possess the ability to selectively ionize certain preselected compounds out of complex mixtures, for example, environmental matrices, with a high level of efficiency...
October 9, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Zian Lin, Zongwei Cai
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an excellent analytical technique for rapid and sensitive analysis of macromolecules such as polymers and proteins. However, the main drawback of MALDI-TOF MS is its difficulty to detect small molecules with mass below 700 Da because of the intensive interference from MALDI matrix in the low mass region. In recent years there has been considerable interest in developing matrix-free laser desorption/ionization by using nanostructured substrates to substitute the conventional organic matrices, which is often referred as surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS)...
September 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Qiwei Zhang, Zack Li, Yawei Wang, Qi Zheng, Jianjun Li
Sialic acids are a family of structurally unique and negatively charged nine-carbon sugars, normally found at the terminal positions of glycan chains on glycoproteins and glycolipids. The glycosylation of proteins is a universal post-translational modification in eukaryotic species and regulates essential biological functions, in which the most common sialic acid is N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (2-keto-5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galactononulopyranos-1-onic acid) (Neu5NAc). Because of the properties of sialic acids under general mass spectrometry (MS) conditions, such as instability, ionization discrimination, and mixed adducts, the use of MS in the analysis of protein sialoglycosylation is still challenging...
September 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Michal Fárník, Jozef Lengyel
Nanometer-size particles such as ultrafine aerosol particles, ice nanoparticles, water nanodroplets, etc, play an important, however, not yet fully understood role in the atmospheric chemistry and physics. These species are often composed of water with admixture of other atmospherically relevant molecules. To mimic and investigate such particles in laboratory experiments, mixed water clusters with atmospherically relevant molecules can be generated in molecular beams and studied by various mass spectrometric methods...
September 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Thomas De Vijlder, Dirk Valkenborg, Filip Lemière, Edwin P Romijn, Kris Laukens, Filip Cuyckens
The identification of unknown molecules has been one of the cornerstone applications of mass spectrometry for decades. This tutorial reviews the basics of the interpretation of electrospray ionization-based MS and MS/MS spectra in order to identify small-molecule analytes (typically below 2000 Da). Most of what is discussed in this tutorial also applies to other atmospheric pressure ionization methods like atmospheric pressure chemical/photoionization. We focus primarily on the fundamental steps of MS-based structural elucidation of individual unknown compounds, rather than describing strategies for large-scale identification in complex samples...
September 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Robert Moulder, Santosh D Bhosale, David R Goodlett, Riitta Lahesmaa
Over the past decade, chemical labeling with isobaric tandem mass tags, such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification reagents (iTRAQ) and tandem mass tag (TMT) reagents, has been employed in a wide range of different clinically orientated serum and plasma proteomics studies. In this review the scope of these works is presented with attention to the areas of research, methods employed and performance limitations. These applications have covered a wide range of diseases, disorders and infections, and have implemented a variety of different preparative and mass spectrometric approaches...
September 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Wout Bittremieux, David L Tabb, Francis Impens, An Staes, Evy Timmerman, Lennart Martens, Kris Laukens
Mass spectrometry is a highly complex analytical technique and mass spectrometry-based proteomics experiments can be subject to a large variability, which forms an obstacle to obtaining accurate and reproducible results. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematic approach to quality control is an essential requirement to inspire confidence in the generated results. A typical mass spectrometry experiment consists of multiple different phases including the sample preparation, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics stages...
September 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
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