journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030969/current-state-of-sex-and-gender-influence-in-neurology
#1
EDITORIAL
Rima M Dafer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030968/challenges-training-women-in-neurology
#2
REVIEW
Stasia Rouse, Ashley Raedy, Farah Khan
The challenges that current women neurologists in training face remain similar to a certain extent to those experienced by their women neurologists' mentors. The key challenge that often coincides with residency or fellowship is childbearing. This has the potential to prolong training time and delaying graduation. Women neurologists in training face additional challenges of juggling between family responsibilities--as caregivers--and professional roles.
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030967/are-america-s-caregivers-on-the-brink-of-extinction-the-pandemic-straw-that-broke-the-nurses-back
#3
REVIEW
Rachel Elana Norris
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has drawn attention to many of the inadequacies of the US health-care system. Perhaps, no profession has felt these shortcomings more than nurses. This female-dominated profession has the potential to suffer a high attrition rate for several reasons, including declining mental health and increasing workplace violence. Nurses have already begun to leave the bedside. Unless significant changes can be made quickly to prevent more of these caregivers from leaving the profession, the health and safety of the US population are at risk...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030966/neurology-of-systemic-disease-selected-topics-with-a-focus-on-women
#4
REVIEW
Faten El Ammar, Zachary B Bulwa
Sex differences exist within the neurologic complications of systemic disease. To promote new avenues for prevention and develop novel therapeutics, we highlight the role of sex in differential outcomes to infectious disease and cardiac arrest and educate the reader in paraneoplastic presentations that may herald underlying malignancies in women.
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030965/autism-in-women
#5
REVIEW
Cesar Ochoa-Lubinoff, Bridget A Makol, Emily F Dillon
Relative to males, women with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have neurobiological and clinical presentation differences. Recent research suggests that the male/female ASD prevalence gap is smaller than previously reported. Sex differences in symptom presentation as well as the male bias of ASD account for delayed/missed diagnosis among women. Investigating ASD and providing psychological evaluation referrals for women who are struggling socially and present with complex mental health conditions (e.g., ADHD, depression), even when they do not show typical autistic characteristics, is important...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030964/sex-and-gender-differences-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Roshni Patel, Katie Kompoliti
The lower prevalence of Parkinson disease (PD) in females is not well understood but may be partially explained by sex differences in nigrostriatal circuitry and possible neuroprotective effects of estrogen. PD motor and nonmotor symptoms differ between sexes, and women experience disparities in care including undertreatment with DBS and less access to caregiving. Our knowledge about PD in gender diverse individuals is limited. Future studies should improve our understanding of the role of hormone replacement therapy in PD, address gender-based inequities in PD care and expand our understanding of PD in SGM and marginalized communities...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030963/sex-specific-neurocognitive-impairment
#7
REVIEW
Sharlet A Anderson, Maria A Rossetti
This article explores sex-specific neurocognitive impairment. It first defines relevant terms such as gender and sex. Next, it describes the nature of the problem including under-representation of women and other gender and sexual minorities in neuroscience research, including cognitive studies. A biopsychosocial framework is employed to account for structural and social determinants of health in sex/gender-specific neurocognitive impairment. Issues in assessment including the use of gender/sex-specific normative data are also discussed...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030962/sex-differences-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Neelum T Aggarwal, Michelle M Mielke
Reviewing the research presented in this article, it is evident that from an epidemiological perspective, it is important to evaluate the extent to which findings of sex and gender differences in Alzheimer's dementia (AD) are due to differences in longevity, survival bias, and comorbidities. Medical, genetic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors, in addition to hormonal factors, can differentially affect the risk and progression of AD in women versus men. Further, evaluation of sex differences in AD progression and the trajectory of change in cognitive function, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood-based biomarkers of AD is needed...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030961/neuro-oncology-in-women-clinical-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Lauren Singer, Ditte Primdahl, Priya Kumthekar
Sex differences play a large role in oncology. It has long been discussed that the incidence of different types of tumors varies by sex, and this holds in neuro-oncology. There are also profound survival sex differences, biologic factors, and treatment effects. This review aims to summarize some of the main sex differences observed in primary brain tumors and goes on to focus specifically on gliomas and meningiomas, as these are two commonly encountered primary brain tumors in clinical practice. Additionally, considerations unique to female individuals, including pregnancy and breastfeeding, are explored...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030960/neuroimmunological-disorders-the-gender-effect
#10
REVIEW
Edith L Graham
Multiple sclerosis is a disease that tends to affect women during their childbearing years. Although relapse risk decreases during pregnancy, patients should still be optimized on disease-modifying therapy before and after pregnancy to minimize gaps in treatment. Exclusive breastfeeding may reduce the chances of disease relapse postpartum, and many disease-modifying therapies are considered to be safe while breastfeeding. Treatments for other neuroimmunologic disorders such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease, neurosarcoidosis, and central nervous system vasculitis may require rituximab before and prednisone or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy during pregnancy...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030959/neurologic-disorders-in-women-and-sleep
#11
REVIEW
Fidaa Shaib
Sleep disorders in women remain underrecognized and underdiagnosed mainly because of gender bias in researching and characterizing sleep disorders in women. Symptoms of common sleep disorders are frequently missed in the general female population and are expected to be further overlooked because of overlapping symptoms in women with neurologic disorders. Given the bidirectional relationship with sleep and neurologic disorders, it remains critical to be aware of the presentation and impact of sleep disorders in this patient population...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030958/gender-differences-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#12
REVIEW
Nicholas Dykman Osteraas
Differences exist between genders in intracerebral hemorrhage cause, epidemiology, and outcomes. These gender differences are in part attributable to physiologic differences; however, demographic, social/behavioral risk factors, along with health care system variation and potential family and/or clinician bias play a role as well. These factors vary from region to region and interact, making comprehensive and definitive conclusions regarding sex differences a challenging task. Differences between the genders in intracerebral hemorrhage epidemiology and extensive differences in underlying pathophysiology, intervention, risk factors, and outcome are all discussed...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030957/women-and-ischemic-stroke-disparities-and-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Laurel Cherian
Although men are at higher risk of stroke throughout most of their lifespan, the incidence of stroke in women climbs with age, increasing after menopause and rising sharply after 85 years. This, combined with women's longer life expectancy, results in most of the stroke deaths occurring in women. In addition to accounting for a larger proportion of strokes, women may also suffer a survival disadvantage, which may be due to several factors. In many families, women are the primary caretakers. When they become disabled, there may be limited options to care for them...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030956/gender-issues-in-epileptic-patients
#14
REVIEW
Maggie L McNulty
Treatment approaches for epilepsy for both women and men are similar, however, there are special aspects that must be considered when caring for women with epilepsy. This includes how hormonal fluctuations may affect seizure frequency, contraception, and potential drug-drug interactions, and pregnancy planning to minimize and potentially mitigate any adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and major congenital malformations. Adequate counseling for women across the lifespan can help prepare women for the future and optimize outcomes...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37030955/migraine-and-the-gender-divide
#15
REVIEW
Aimen Vanood, India C Rangel, Amaal J Starling
Migraine is a global neurologic disease that is highly prevalent, especially in women. Studies have observed a predisposition for the development of migraine in women, although the mechanisms involved have yet to be fully elucidated. This review aimed to summarize the recent evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of migraine and highlight key sex differences. We also identify gaps in care for both women and men living with migraine and discuss the presence of migraine-related stigma and how this may impact the efficacy of clinical care...
May 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36400562/outpatient-neurology
#16
EDITORIAL
Everton Edmondson, Doris Kung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36400561/immunopathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-clinical-update
#17
REVIEW
Carlos A PĂ©rez, Fernando X Cuascut, George J Hutton
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent nontraumatic disabling neurologic condition among young adults worldwide. The diagnosis and management of MS is complex. The goal of this review is to provide an updated and practical approach to the diagnosis and treatment approaches in MS, emphasizing current understanding of immunopathogenesis, recent advances, and future directions, for both MS and non-MS clinicians.
February 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36400560/neck-pain-differential-diagnosis-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Marc Prablek, Ron Gadot, David S Xu, Alexander E Ropper
Axial neck pain is a common and important problem in the outpatient setting. In isolation, neck pain tends to have a musculoskeletal etiology and responds best to medication and targeted physical therapy. Careful history and physical examination are required to ascertain if there is a neurologic component in addition to the patient's neck pain. For patients needing surgical intervention, there are a variety of approaches and operations that can decompress the appropriate nerve root or the spinal cord itself...
February 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36400559/back-pain-differential-diagnosis-and-management
#19
REVIEW
David Gibbs, Ben G McGahan, Alexander E Ropper, David S Xu
Back pain is a common condition affecting millions of individuals each year. A biopsychosocial approach to back pain provides the best clinical framework. A detailed history and physical examination with a thorough workup are required to exclude emergent or nonoperative etiologies of back pain. The treatment of back pain first uses conventional therapies including lifestyle modifications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. If these options have been exhausted and pain persists for greater than 6 weeks, imaging and a specialist referral may be indicated...
February 2023: Neurologic Clinics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36400558/electrodiagnosis-how-to-read-electromyography-reports-for-the-nonneurophysiologist
#20
REVIEW
Ruple S Laughlin, Devon I Rubin
An electrodiagnostic evaluation is a neurodiagnostic test commonly used to evaluate neuromuscular conditions. A typical electromyography (EMG) report consists of tabular data summarizing findings from nerve conduction studies (NCS) as well as needle EMG (nEMG). A text summary of these findings is also included, followed by a clinical interpretation that evaluates the obtained NCS and nEMG in the context of the clinical presentation. For electrophysiologists and nonelectrophysiologists alike, understanding the elements of EMG report, patterns of findings in common neuromuscular conditions, and potential technical errors that can erroneously influence the clinical interpretation is vital...
February 2023: Neurologic Clinics
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