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Brain and Cognition | Page 2

Zhiwei Zheng, Minjia Lang, Wei Wang, Fengqiu Xiao, Juan Li
Older adults demonstrate greater susceptibility to high-confidence memory distortions. Cognitive processes underlying memory errors in older adults remain unclear. Here, in a categorized pictures paradigm, we used the event-related potential (ERP) to examine the electrophysiological correlates of false recognition. Young and older participants were presented with categorized pictures during study and subsequently completed an old/new recognition memory task that included studied pictures, lure pictures from studied categories, and new pictures...
February 18, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Jennifer Cozzi, Rebecca Angel, Anthony Herdman
The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of an endogenously-evoked no-go N2b. Previous literature focused on the N2b being evoked by exogenous auditory stimuli. In this study, no-go stimuli were the absence of a gap in a 1000-ms noise burst (i.e., no-gap trials). ERPs were measured from 35 participants while performing a gap-detection task and passively listening to the same stimuli. Participants were asked to press a button when they heard a gap in the noise burst (go trials) and to withhold their button press when they did not perceive a gap in the noise burst (no-go trials)...
February 2019: Brain and Cognition
Alexandria C Zakrzewski, Matthew G Wisniewski, Nandini Iyer, Brian D Simpson
Recent research has focused on measuring neural correlates of metacognitive judgments in decision and post-decision processes during memory retrieval and categorization. However, many tasks (e.g., stimulus detection) may require monitoring of earlier sensory processing. Here, participants indicated which of two intervals contained an 80-ms pure tone embedded in white noise. One frequency (e.g., 1000 Hz) was presented on ∼80% of all trials (i.e., 'primary' trials). Another frequency (e.g., 2500 Hz) was presented on ∼20% of trials (i...
February 2019: Brain and Cognition
Michael W Weiss, Isabelle Peretz
Listeners remember vocal melodies better than instrumental melodies, but the origins of the effect are unclear. One explanation for the 'voice advantage' is that general perceptual mechanisms enhance processing of conspecific signals. An alternative possibility is that the voice, by virtue of its expressiveness in pitch, simply provides more musical information to the listener. Individuals with congenital amusia provide a unique opportunity to disentangle the effects of conspecific status and vocal expressiveness because they cannot readily process subtleties in musical pitch...
February 2019: Brain and Cognition
Martin Lotze, Robert Langner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Hui Wang, Weijiang He, Jingting Wu, Junjun Zhang, Zhenlan Jin, Ling Li
The n-back task is a classical paradigm for functional neuroimaging studies of working memory (WM). The frontal and parietal cortical regions are known to be activated during the task. We used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of 96 primary studies of n-back task variants based on four conditions: memory loads (1-back, 2-back), object (identity, location), age (younger, older) and gender (male, female). Six cortical regions were consistently activated across all the studies: bilateral middle frontal gyrus (BA 10); bilateral inferior parietal lobule (BA 40); bilateral precuneus (BA 7); left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6); left anterior insula (aI) (BA 13); bilateral thalamus...
January 29, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Stefanie Pietsch, Petra Jansen
This study investigates the mental rotation performance of right- and left-handers on a chronometric mental rotation task. Hand preference as well as different types of hand performance were measured. Previous studies have reported slightly better mental rotation performance in right-handers compared with left-handers. However, different forms of hand performance were not considered in these studies. In this research, 61 participants completed a chronometric mental rotation task with cube figures. Handedness was measured using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, finger tapping, grip strength and the Grooved Pegboard Test...
January 21, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Syanah C Wynn, Sander M Daselaar, Roy P C Kessels, Dennis J L G Schutter
Subjectively perceived confidence is critically involved in distinguishing recollection from familiarity in episodic memory retrieval. However, the extent to which recollection and familiarity share similar electrophysiological processes associated with subjectively perceived memory confidence remains an open question. In addition, the role of memory encoding in subjectively perceived confidence during retrieval has not yet been investigated. To address these issues, an EEG study was performed in thirty healthy volunteers...
January 8, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Yuki Takakura, Mika Otsuki, Shinya Sakai, Yasutaka Tajima, Yasunori Mito, Akihiko Ogata, Shuichi Koshimizu, Masami Yoshino, Genki Uemori, Satoko Takakura, Yoshitsugu Nakagawa
Some studies have hypothesized that primary progressive apraxia of speech (ppAOS) consists of heterogeneous symptoms that can be sub-classified; however, no study has classified stroke-induced AOS (sAOS) and ppAOS according to common criteria. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the symptoms and relevant brain regions associated with sAOS and ppAOS for sub-classification. Participants included 8 patients with sAOS following lesions in the left precentral gyrus and/or underlying white matter, and 3 patients with ppAOS...
January 7, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Radek Ptak, François Lazeyras
The neural mechanisms underlying the access to object knowledge from early representations of shape are little known. Functional imaging studies support the view that representations of visual properties are distributed across occipito-temporal cortex of both cerebral hemispheres. By contrast, brain lesion studies show that focal occipito-temporal damage may lead to object agnosia - a specific impairment of object recognition. How does distributed processing fit with functional specialization implied by the existence of stimulus-specific agnosias? Using fMRI we studied functional connectivity (FC) in a patient with object agnosia following left lateral occipital damage...
December 24, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Iris Janet Broce, Byron Bernal, Nolan Altman, Catherine Bradley, Natalie Baez, Luis Cabrera, Gretter Hernandez, Anna De Feria, Anthony Steven Dick
The development of fluent reading is an extended process that requires the recruitment of a comprehensive system of perisylvian brain regions connected by an extensive network of fiber pathways. In the present cross-sectional study, we focused on fiber pathways-the arcuate fasciculus (AF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), and vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF)-proposed to support early literacy in typical 5-8-year-old children. We related quantitative metrics of fiber pathway microstructure in these pathways to early literacy measures of phonological awareness and decoding...
December 21, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Amy M Smith, Elizabeth Race, F Caroline Davis, Ayanna K Thomas
Smith, Floerke, and Thomas (2016) demonstrated that learning by repeated testing, or retrieval practice, reduced stress-related memory impairment when compared to learning by repeatedly studying material. In the present experiment, we tested whether, relative to study practice, retrieval practice would improve post-stress memory by increasing access to both item and source information. Participants learned two wordlists, which were temporally segregated to facilitate distinction between the two lists. Participants returned one week later for stress induction and two memory tests...
December 19, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Elizabeth V Goldfarb
Stress can strongly influence what we learn and remember, including by making memories stronger. Experiments probing stress effects on hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents have revealed modulatory factors and physiological mechanisms by which acute stress can enhance long-term memory. However, extending these findings and mechanisms to understand when stress will enhance declarative memory in humans faces important challenges. This review synthesizes human and rodent studies of stress and memory, examining translational gaps related to measurements of declarative memory and stress responses in humans...
December 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Paige Greenwood, John Hutton, Jon Dudley, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus
Reading is an acquired skill that relies on cognitive-control and language abilities. Home reading environment has been positively correlated with activation in parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex supporting mental imagery and narrative comprehension during a story-listening task in preschool-age children. However, the degree to which maternal reading ability influences early brain development, specifically neural circuits involved with language and reading, is not well understood. The current study explored the relationship between maternal reading ability and functional connectivity within the language network, between the language network and networks related to cognitive control and visual processing, as well as between the language network and the entire brain (network-to-voxel analysis) of preschool-age children during a resting state...
December 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
F Morange-Majoux, E Devouche
The main purpose of this study was to test the influence of music environment on hand-use preference in infants from 5 to 12 months, compared to speech environment. According to hemispheric specialization, our hypothesis was that infants would reach for objects more with their right hand in a speech context (left hemisphere), and more with their left hand in a music context (right hemisphere). 61 full-term infants aged from 5 to 12 months participated in this study. A prehension task was proposed successively in two sound environments (music and speech) in a counterbalanced order...
December 10, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Kelly A Vaughn, Pilar Archila-Suerte, Arturo E Hernandez
Research suggests that bilingualism is associated with increases in parietal gray matter volume (GMV). These parietal GMV increases are a source of variability that may help explain the reported bilingual/monolingual differences in attentional control. The current study examined how parietal GMV variability and a participant's language background predicted Simon task performance. GMV measures were extracted from the bilateral angular and supramarginal gyri from participants' MRI scans using Freesurfer image analysis suite...
December 6, 2018: Brain and Cognition
A M Barrett, Olga Boukrina, Soha Saleh
Emerging research suggests spatial neglect after right stroke is linked to dysfunctional attention and motor networks. Advanced functional connectivity analysis clarified brain network recovery, however we need to know how networks participate in adaptive motor performance. We need to verify network changes associated with validated functional measures and spatial-motor performance in spatial neglect, especially in patients with large brain lesions and significant disability. This study tested whether disability-relevant spatial neglect associates with different patterns of resting state functional connectivity between motor, dorsal and ventral attention networks (MN, DAN and VAN)...
December 3, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Matthew J Kmiecik, Ryan J Brisson, Robert G Morrison
Analogy is an important ability that allows humans to discover relationships between information domains that often vary in surface and relational characteristics. Cognitive neuroscience studies of analogy have demonstrated the importance of the prefrontal cortex during relational comparisons, but little is known about how semantic and relational similarity interact throughout its time course. We used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) analyzed with event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the neural time course of analogical reasoning while 16 participants solved four-term verbal analogies...
December 1, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Alexandra P Key, Dorita Jones, Sarika Peters, Caitlin Dold
The combination of intellectual, communicative, and motor deficits limit the use of standardized behavioral assessments of cognition in individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS). The current study is the first to objectively evaluate learning and memory in AS using auditory event-related potentials (ERP) during passive exposure to spoken stimuli. Fifteen nonverbal individuals with the deletion subtype of AS (age 4-45 years) completed the auditory incidental memory paradigm. Auditory ERPs were recorded in response to a sequence of unfamiliar nonwords, in which one randomly selected stimulus was repeated multiple times and the rest were presented once...
December 2018: Brain and Cognition
Chiara Crespi, Daniella Laureiro-Martínez, Alessandra Dodich, Stefano F Cappa, Stefano Brusoni, Maurizio Zollo, Andrea Falini, Nicola Canessa
Innovative decision-making entails the balance of exploitative and explorative choices, and has been linked to the efficiency of executive functioning, including working-memory and attentional skills, associated with fronto-parietal networks. Based on the notion that such skills can be improved by cognitive training, we assessed whether a cognitive training enhancing basic executive skills might also improve the ability to manage the exploration-exploitation trade-off and its financial consequences, and whether any improvement in training-related performance would be reflected in neurostructural changes within fronto-parietal networks...
December 2018: Brain and Cognition
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