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Brain and Cognition | Page 2

Fernanda Pérez-Gay Juárez, David Labrecque, Victor Frak
The link between language processing and motor systems has been the focus of increasing interest to Cognitive Neuroscience. Some classical papers studying Event Related Potentials (ERPs) induced by linguistic stimuli have found differences in electrophysiological activity when comparing action and non-action words; more specifically, a bigger p200 for action words. On the other hand, a series of studies have validated the use of a grip force sensor (GFS) to measure language-induced motor activity during both isolated words and sentence listening, finding that action words induce an augmentation in the grip force around 250-300 ms after the onset of the stimulus...
June 12, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Linshu Zhou, Fang Liu, Jun Jiang, Cunmei Jiang
This study investigated whether individuals with congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder of musical pitch perception, were able to process musical emotions in single chords either automatically or consciously. In Experiments 1 and 2, we used a cross-modal affective priming paradigm to elicit automatic emotional processing through ERPs, in which target facial expressions were preceded by either affectively congruent or incongruent chords with a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 200 msec. Results revealed automatic emotional processing of major/minor triads (Experiment 1) and consonant/dissonant chords (Experiment 2) in controls, who showed longer reaction times and increased N400 for incongruent than congruent trials, while amusics failed to exhibit such a priming effect at both behavioral and electrophysiological levels...
June 12, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Huei-Yu Tsai, Hsin-Ni Cheng
Suppressing the neural activities to non-target stimuli becomes problematic with advancing age. Go/Nogo tasks, in which subjects are instructed to respond to a certain type of stimuli (Go) and withhold responses to other types of predefined stimuli (Nogo), have been extensively employed to study the age-related alterations of cognitive inhibition. However, it remains inconclusive whether the N2 and P3 electrophysiological responses to successful inhibition to Nogo stimuli are affected by aging processes. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of Go/Nogo studies to investigate the age effect on Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 activities as well as behavioral performance of commission errors...
June 11, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Daniel Voyer, Natalie Hearn
The current study presents two experiments that aimed to explore the effects of auditory semantic priming on the dichotic right ear advantage. In Experiment 1, a classic fused dichotic words task was modified with the addition of auditory associative primes with three levels of relatedness (right, left, or neither ear). In Experiment 2, a new dichotic listening task was developed based on a binaural task used in a published auditory priming study. In both experiments, we expected that priming would produce a large right ear advantage when related to the right ear target but that the magnitude of this advantage would decrease for left ear related targets...
June 10, 2019: Brain and Cognition
P Andrew Leynes, Alexander Batterman, Anna Abrimian
Two studies investigated the effect of recognition expectancies (Experiment 1) and decision criterion (Experiment 2) on event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants in both experiments studied meaningless pictures of abstract art and then completed three recognition memory tests with equal proportions of old and new items. To manipulate expectancies (Experiment 1), participants were told to expect equal numbers of old and new items (standard expectancy), more old items (old expectancy), or more new items (new expectancy)...
June 10, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Frédéric Isel, Michèle Kail
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Patrick S Markey, Martina Jakesch, Helmut Leder
The concept of semantics (meaning) and syntax (structure) seems to be an integral way of how humans perceive and order their environment. Processing natural scenes with semantic or syntactic inconsistencies evokes distinct Event-Related Potentials, ERPs, in the N300/400 and P600, respectively (Vo & Wolfe, 2013). Artworks, however, can by definition use violations of natural relationships as a means of style, especially in surrealist art. To test whether inconsistencies are processed differently in artworks, we presented participants with surrealist paintings containing semantic or syntactic inconsistencies, edited versions without inconsistencies, and as control real photographic versions of each painting...
May 28, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Ana Zappa, Deirdre Bolger, Jean-Marie Pergandi, Pierre Mallet, Anne-Sophie Dubarry, Daniel Mestre, Cheryl Frenck-Mestre
Embodied cognition studies have shown motor resonance during action language processing, indicating that linguistic representations are at least partially multimodal. However, constraints of this activation linked to linguistic and extra-linguistic context, function and timing have not yet been fully explored. Importantly, embodied cognition binds social and physical contexts to cognition, suggesting that more ecologically valid contexts will yield more valid measures of cognitive processing. Herein, we measured cortical motor activation during language processing in a fully immersive Cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE)...
May 22, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Margarete Delazer, Laura Zamarian, Thomas Benke, Michaela Wagner, Elke R Gizewski, Christoph Scherfler
Recent evidence has suggested that the hippocampus supports learning and retrieval of arithmetic facts during childhood and adolescence. Whether the hippocampus is also involved in retrieving overlearned arithmetic facts (such as 3 × 5 = 15) during adult age is open for investigation. In this study, we assessed whether patients with hippocampal atrophy due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still able to retrieve overlearned arithmetic facts from memory. Sixteen patients (n = 13 with AD, n = 3 with Mild Cognitive Impairment - MCI) were evaluated using standard radiological, neurological, and neuropsychological test procedures...
August 2019: Brain and Cognition
Iris Janet Broce, Byron Bernal, Nolan Altman, Catherine Bradley, Natalie Baez, Luis Cabrera, Gretter Hernandez, Anna De Feria, Anthony Steven Dick
The development of fluent reading is an extended process that requires the recruitment of a comprehensive system of perisylvian brain regions connected by an extensive network of fiber pathways. In the present cross-sectional study, we focused on fiber pathways-the arcuate fasciculus (AF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), and vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF)-proposed to support early literacy in typical 5-8-year-old children. We related quantitative metrics of fiber pathway microstructure in these pathways to early literacy measures of phonological awareness and decoding...
August 2019: Brain and Cognition
Matthew A Sazma, Grant S Shields, Andrew P Yonelinas
It is now well established that acute stress shortly after encoding (i.e., post-encoding stress) can benefit episodic memory. In the current paper, we briefly review the human literature examining the effects of post-encoding stress on episodic memory, and we relate that literature to studies of post-encoding manipulations of cortisol in humans, as well as studies of post-encoding stress and administration of corticosterone on analogous memory tasks in rodents. An examination of the literature reveals several important gaps in our understanding of stress and memory...
July 2019: Brain and Cognition
Alexandra Muller-Gass, Kenneth Campbell
Sleep loss has a major effect on cognitive tasks that are dependent on the maintenance of active sustained attention. This study examines the effects of sleep deprivation on automatic information processing, more specifically, its effect on processes leading to involuntary auditory attention capture by task-irrelevant auditory events. Two experiments were run. In the first, 13 participants were totally sleep-deprived (TSD); in the second, 16 participants were partially sleep-deprived (PSD), sleeping only four hours...
June 2019: Brain and Cognition
Ryan M Barker, Ellen Bialystok
Bilingualism is associated with enhancement of executive control (EC) across the lifespan. Working memory and non-verbal emotion regulation both draw upon EC mechanisms so may also be affected by bilingualism, but these relationships are not fully understood. These relationships were explored using an n-back task with distracting emotional stimuli administered to young adults while continuous EEG was recorded. Monolinguals were faster but less accurate on the 2-back than bilinguals, and monolingual accuracy was more impeded by the presence of emotional stimuli than was that of bilinguals...
May 17, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Sachiyo Ozawa, Noriaki Kanayama, Kazuo Hiraki
The current study examined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the anterior ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) represent responses to emotional stimuli instead of cognitive control of emotion during distraction tasks, as suggested by our previous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study. The functional distinction of MPFC regions is occasionally difficult due to their multiple functions. Here, we addressed some remaining concerns from our previous distraction studies, and employed the distraction paradigm, in which negative or neutral images are presented as emotional stimuli; a rest period is included in one condition and working memory (distraction) tasks in the other...
May 15, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Ayanna K Thomas, Jessica M Karanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Zahra Khosrowtaj, Henning Gibbons
The present study investigated a recently introduced left-lateralized component in the event-related potential (ERP), the posterior semantic asymmetry (PSA), in the context of an isolation paradigm. The PSA is a relative negativity that is most pronounced at temporoparietal electrodes, peaks around 300 ms, and is assumed to reflect early semantic processing of visual words. A free-recall, word-list-learning paradigm was conducted. The learning list comprised two stimuli which were physically isolated from the other stimuli (by different font size or different typeface)...
May 8, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Lindsay C Hanford, Farena Pinnock, Geoffrey B Hall, R Walter Heinrichs
Schizophrenia is characterized by psychosis and, in most cases, cognitive impairment. It is unclear, however, whether these elements of the disorder represent distinct or related disease processes. Accordingly, this study investigated 3-way interactions between group, cognition and cortical thickness in cognitively-matched patients with schizophrenia and healthy control groups. Patients and healthy controls were group-matched on demographics and a broadly-based index of cognitive performance. T1-weighted images were processed using Freesurfer...
April 17, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Léa M Martinon, Leigh M Riby, Giulia Poerio, Hao-Ting Wang, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Humans spend a large proportion of their time engaged in thoughts unrelated to the task being performed, a tendency that declines with age. However, a clear neuro-cognitive account of what underlies this decrease is lacking. This study addresses the possibility that age-related changes in off-task thinking are correlated with changes in the intrinsic organisation of the brain. Laboratory measures of ongoing thought were recorded in young and older individuals, who also participated in a resting state fMRI experiment...
April 15, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Corinna M Perchtold, Elisabeth M Weiss, Christian Rominger, Andreas Fink, Hannelore Weber, Ilona Papousek
Difficulties in emotion regulation, particularly in using adaptive regulation strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, are a commonly observed correlate of paranoia. While it has been suggested that poor implementation of cognitive reappraisal in dealing with aversive events precedes the onset of subclinical paranoid thinking, there is little empirical research on neural activation patterns during cognitive reappraisal efforts that might indicate vulnerability towards paranoid thinking. Prefrontal EEG alpha asymmetry changes were recorded while n = 57 participants were generating alternative appraisals of anger-eliciting events, and were linked to a behavioral measure of basic cognitive reappraisal capacity and self-reported paranoia proneness (assessed by personality facets of hostility and suspiciousness; Personality Inventory for DSM-5)...
April 10, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Jo-Fu Lotus Lin, Toshiaki Imada, Patricia K Kuhl
Bilingual experience alters brain structure and enhances certain cognitive functions. Bilingualism can also affect mathematical processing. Reduced accuracy is commonly reported when arithmetic problems are presented in bilinguals' second (L2) vs. first (L1) language. We used MEG brain imaging during mental addition to characterize spatiotemporal dynamics during mental addition in bilingual adults. Numbers were presented auditorally and sequentially in bilinguals' L1 and L2, and brain and behavioral data were collected simultaneously...
April 8, 2019: Brain and Cognition
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