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Brain and Cognition

Rémi Laillier, Armelle Viard, Marie Caillaud, Harmony Duclos, Alexandre Bejanin, Vincent de La Sayette, Francis Eustache, Béatrice Desgranges, Mickaël Laisney
Although theory of mind (ToM) has been extensively explored in aging, few studies have used the same tool to simultaneously assess and compare its cognitive and affective components. When we administered the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition, a dynamic sequence of social scenes, to 60 healthy participants (20-75 years), we observed no different age-related decreases in both cognitive and affective ToM. While each component was associated with cognitive measures (i.e., episodic memory and processing speed were predictive of cognitive ToM, and recognition of facial emotion expressions and inhibition were predictive of affective ToM), mediation analyses showed that these measures only mediated the effect of age on affective ToM...
August 13, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Alexandre Celma-Miralles, Juan M Toro
The present study explores the relationship between the rhythmic structure of music and the spatial dimension of sound. We study how the brain interacts with spatially-separated sounds to build up a metrical structure. Participants listened to sequences of isochronous sounds that came from different positions on the azimuth plane: 0° (control condition), ±30°, ±60° or ±90° (spatial conditions). Ternary meter was signaled by the alternation of one sound on one side and two sounds on the symmetrical side...
August 12, 2019: Brain and Cognition
David Fleming, Sylvie Belleville, Isabelle Peretz, Greg West, Benjamin Rich Zendel
Experienced musicians outperform non-musicians in understanding speech-in-noise (SPIN). The benefits of lifelong musicianship endure into older age, where musicians experience smaller declines in their ability to understand speech in noisy environments. However, it is presently unknown whether commencing musical training in old age can also counteract age-related decline in speech perception, and whether such training induces changes in neural processing of speech. Here, we recruited older adult non-musicians and assigned them to receive a short course of piano or videogame training, or no training...
August 9, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Rebecca J Lepping, Jared M Bruce, Kathleen M Gustafson, Jinxiang Hu, Laura E Martin, Cary R Savage, Ruth Ann Atchley
Recent meta analyses suggest there is a common brain network involved in processing emotion in music and sounds. However, no studies have directly compared the neural substrates of equivalent emotional Western classical music and emotional environmental sounds. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated whether brain activation in motor cortex, interoceptive cortex, and Broca's language area during an auditory emotional appraisal task differed as a function of stimulus type. Activation was relatively greater to music in motor and interoceptive cortex - areas associated with movement and internal physical feelings - and relatively greater to emotional environmental sounds in Broca's area...
August 9, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Jason Chor Ming Lo, Catherine McBride, Connie Suk-Han Ho, Urs Maurer
Word reading involves a series of cognitive processes, from lower-level visual processing to word semantic retrieval. To investigate the timing of the underlying neurocognitive processes in reading, the current study examined the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive functions associated with traditional Chinese word reading in Hong Kong children (Age: M = 8.19, SD = 0.82 years old) using event-related potentials (ERPs). A single-character lexical decision task and a two-character word lexical decision task were used to explore different levels of Chinese word processing...
August 8, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Wenhai Zhang, Yongqiang Ouyang, Fanggui Tang, Jie Chen, Hong Li
Breath-focused mindfulness (BFM), which induces changes in brain structure and function, is applied in the clinical treatment of mental disorders as a method to regulate one's emotions. However, whether BFM works through a top-down emotional regulation strategy to alter brain dynamics and its relationship with individual differences in trait mindfulness are unclear. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 20 healthy BFM-naïve undergraduates were recorded when they conducted BFM/viewing tasks while viewing affective pictures...
July 30, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Rita Nisticò, Antonio Cerasa, Giuseppe Olivadese, Riccardo Dalla Volta, Marianna Crasà, Roberta Vasta, Vera Gramigna, Basilio Vescio, Gaetano Barbagallo, Carmelina Chiriaco, Andrea Quattrone, Maria Salsone, Fabiana Novellino, Gennarina Arabia, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Maurizio Morelli, Aldo Quattrone
According to embodied cognition, processing language with motor content involves a simulation of this content by the brain motor system. Patients with brain lesions involving the motor system are characterized by deficits in action verbs processing in the absence of dementia. We sought to assess whether action verbs interfere with the motor behavior of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) having tremor dominant symptoms. PD tremor is considered to result from dysfunction of cortical-subcortical motor circuits driven by dopamine depletion...
July 18, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Darya L Zabelina, Lisa A Hechtman, Arielle Saporta, Kristin Grunewald, Mark Beeman
The present study used functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) to examine the role of focused attention in divergent thinking and real-life creativity. Participants completed a Navon task, on which the stimuli consisted of a large letter made up of the smaller version of the same (congruent), or a different (incongruent) letter. Participants were cued to identify a letter at either the local or at the global level. A smaller congruency effect - how much faster people responded on the congruent than on the incongruent trials - was an index of focused attention...
July 18, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Alice Mado Proverbio, Maria Elide Vanutelli, Simone Viganò
It is known that the longer an information has been memorized, the stronger is its memory trace, and that emotionally-valenced information is more solid than neutral one. We investigated whether the emotional content of recent information might enhance its memory, making it as familiar as information known for a long time. We compared ERPs alternately recorded in response to old and solid information from long term memory (i.e., faces of popular movie stars), to recently acquired emotional information (faces of fictional characters), and to completely new information (faces of previously unknown people)...
July 11, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Dylan S Spets, Scott D Slotnick
Anatomic and molecular sex differences exist in the brain, which suggests there may be functional differences. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation aimed to identify the similarities and differences in brain activity between females and males during item memory. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented at fixation and participants made "old-left", "old-right", or "new" judgments...
July 10, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Angharad N Williams, Edward L Wilding
Event-related potential (ERP) signatures of preparation to retrieve episodic memories have been identified in several studies. A common finding is relatively more positive-going ERP activity over right-frontal sites when people prepare for episodic rather than semantic retrieval. This activity has been linked to the process of retrieval mode - a retrieval set that ensures subsequent events are treated as cues for episodic retrieval. This experiment was designed to test one explanation for why this putative index of retrieval mode was not observed in two recent experiments...
June 27, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Giovanni Federico, Maria A Brandimonte
In the present eye-tracking study, we analysed the visuo-spatial attentional patterns of participants looking at 3D images depicting single tools and object-tool pairs. The object-tool pairs could be thematically consistent, thematically inconsistent or spatially inconsistent. During the first 500 ms of visual exploration, tools were fixated longer on their functional area in all experimental conditions. However, extending the time-window of analysis to 1750 ms, the visual scene was encoded in a faster and more suited-for-action way in the thematically consistent condition (e...
June 27, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Antonio R Hidalgo-Muñoz, Christophe Jallais, Myriam Evennou, Daniel Ndiaye, Fabien Moreau, Maud Ranchet, Romain Derollepot, Alexandra Fort
Emerging automation technologies could have a strong impact on the allocation of drivers' attentional resources. The first objective of this pilot study is to investigate the hemodynamic responses evoked to relevant visual stimuli in manual and autonomous driving. The second aim is to examine how the inclusion of a secondary task (attentive listening to a broadcast) modulates these hemodynamic responses in both driving situations. Frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital activations were recorded using a functional Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (fNIRS) system...
June 27, 2019: Brain and Cognition
H Z Yin, M Cheng, D Li
It is unclear whether altering the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right DLPFC) affects an individual's timing performance in milliseconds- and seconds range timing. Here we investigated the causal role of right DLPFC in milliseconds- and seconds range timing with a temporal bisection task under the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that altered the neural activities of the right DLPFC. The tDCS conditions consisted of anodal, cathodal, and sham conditions. The electrodes were placed over the F4 position (10-20 system) and on the left supraorbital forehead...
June 25, 2019: Brain and Cognition
P Andrew Leynes, Heather Bruett, Jenna Krizan, Ana Veloso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Alexandra M Frankel, Doris A Trauner
Cystinosis is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the accumulation of cystine in lysosomes. Many organ systems are vulnerable to this cystine accumulation including the CNS. A past study demonstrated that children with cystinosis have deficits in visual learning and memory while their verbal learning and memory and global intellectual function are spared (Spilkin, Ballantyne, & Trauner, 2009). However, no related study has been performed to assess the dissociation between visual and verbal learning and memory in adults with cystinosis who have had the benefit of longterm treatment with the cystine-depleting agent, cysteamine...
June 21, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Anja Leue, André Beauducel
In deception tasks the parietal P3 amplitude of the event-related potential indicates either recognition of salient stimuli (larger P3 following salient information) or mental effort (smaller P3 following demanding information). This meta-analysis (k = 77) investigated population effect sizes (δ) for conceptual and methodological a-priori moderators (study design, pre-task scenario, context of deception tasks, and P3 quantification). Within-subject designs show evidence of the underlying cognitive processes, between-subject designs allow for comparisons of cognitive processes in culprits vs...
June 14, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Étienne Aumont, Martin Arguin, Véronique Bohbot, Greg L West
One of two memory systems can be used to navigate in a new environment. Hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy consists of creating a cognitive map of an environment and caudate nucleus-dependent response strategy consists of memorizing a rigid sequence of turns. Spontaneous use of the response strategy is associated with greater activity and grey matter within the caudate nucleus while the spatial strategy is associated with greater activity and grey matter in the hippocampus. The caudate nucleus is involved in executive functions such as working memory, cognitive control and certain aspects of attention such as attentional disengaging...
June 13, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Francesca Delogu, Harm Brouwer, Matthew W Crocker
The functional interpretation of two salient language-sensitive ERP components - the N400 and the P600 - remains a matter of debate. Prominent alternative accounts link the N400 to processes related to lexical retrieval, semantic integration, or both, while the P600 has been associated with syntactic reanalysis or, alternatively, to semantic integration. The often overlapping predictions of these competing accounts in extant experimental designs, however, has meant that previous findings have failed to clearly decide among them...
June 12, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Torsten Kai Jachmann, Heiner Drenhaus, Maria Staudte, Matthew W Crocker
Behavioral studies have shown that speaker gaze to objects in a co-present scene can influence listeners' sentence comprehension. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms involved in gaze processing and integration, we conducted two ERP experiments (N = 30, Age: [18, 32] and [19, 33] respectively). Participants watched a centrally positioned face performing gaze actions aligned to utterances comparing two out of three displayed objects. They were asked to judge whether the sentence was true given the provided scene...
June 12, 2019: Brain and Cognition
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