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Brain and Cognition

Ryan M Barker, Ellen Bialystok
Bilingualism is associated with enhancement of executive control (EC) across the lifespan. Working memory and non-verbal emotion regulation both draw upon EC mechanisms so may also be affected by bilingualism, but these relationships are not fully understood. These relationships were explored using an n-back task with distracting emotional stimuli administered to young adults while continuous EEG was recorded. Monolinguals were faster but less accurate on the 2-back than bilinguals, and monolingual accuracy was more impeded by the presence of emotional stimuli than was that of bilinguals...
May 17, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Sachiyo Ozawa, Noriaki Kanayama, Kazuo Hiraki
The current study examined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the anterior ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) represent responses to emotional stimuli instead of cognitive control of emotion during distraction tasks, as suggested by our previous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study. The functional distinction of MPFC regions is occasionally difficult due to their multiple functions. Here, we addressed some remaining concerns from our previous distraction studies, and employed the distraction paradigm, in which negative or neutral images are presented as emotional stimuli; a rest period is included in one condition and working memory (distraction) tasks in the other...
May 15, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Ayanna K Thomas, Jessica M Karanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Zahra Khosrowtaj, Henning Gibbons
The present study investigated a recently introduced left-lateralized component in the event-related potential (ERP), the posterior semantic asymmetry (PSA), in the context of an isolation paradigm. The PSA is a relative negativity that is most pronounced at temporoparietal electrodes, peaks around 300 ms, and is assumed to reflect early semantic processing of visual words. A free-recall, word-list-learning paradigm was conducted. The learning list comprised two stimuli which were physically isolated from the other stimuli (by different font size or different typeface)...
May 8, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Margarete Delazer, Laura Zamarian, Thomas Benke, Michaela Wagner, Elke R Gizewski, Christoph Scherfler
Recent evidence has suggested that the hippocampus supports learning and retrieval of arithmetic facts during childhood and adolescence. Whether the hippocampus is also involved in retrieving overlearned arithmetic facts (such as 3 × 5 = 15) during adult age is open for investigation. In this study, we assessed whether patients with hippocampal atrophy due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still able to retrieve overlearned arithmetic facts from memory. Sixteen patients (n = 13 with AD, n = 3 with Mild Cognitive Impairment - MCI) were evaluated using standard radiological, neurological, and neuropsychological test procedures...
May 1, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Lindsay C Hanford, Farena Pinnock, Geoffrey B Hall, R Walter Heinrichs
Schizophrenia is characterized by psychosis and, in most cases, cognitive impairment. It is unclear, however, whether these elements of the disorder represent distinct or related disease processes. Accordingly, this study investigated 3-way interactions between group, cognition and cortical thickness in cognitively-matched patients with schizophrenia and healthy control groups. Patients and healthy controls were group-matched on demographics and a broadly-based index of cognitive performance. T1-weighted images were processed using Freesurfer...
April 17, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Léa M Martinon, Leigh M Riby, Giulia Poerio, Hao-Ting Wang, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Humans spend a large proportion of their time engaged in thoughts unrelated to the task being performed, a tendency that declines with age. However, a clear neuro-cognitive account of what underlies this decrease is lacking. This study addresses the possibility that age-related changes in off-task thinking are correlated with changes in the intrinsic organisation of the brain. Laboratory measures of ongoing thought were recorded in young and older individuals, who also participated in a resting state fMRI experiment...
April 15, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Corinna M Perchtold, Elisabeth M Weiss, Christian Rominger, Andreas Fink, Hannelore Weber, Ilona Papousek
Difficulties in emotion regulation, particularly in using adaptive regulation strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, are a commonly observed correlate of paranoia. While it has been suggested that poor implementation of cognitive reappraisal in dealing with aversive events precedes the onset of subclinical paranoid thinking, there is little empirical research on neural activation patterns during cognitive reappraisal efforts that might indicate vulnerability towards paranoid thinking. Prefrontal EEG alpha asymmetry changes were recorded while n = 57 participants were generating alternative appraisals of anger-eliciting events, and were linked to a behavioral measure of basic cognitive reappraisal capacity and self-reported paranoia proneness (assessed by personality facets of hostility and suspiciousness; Personality Inventory for DSM-5)...
April 10, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Jo-Fu Lotus Lin, Toshiaki Imada, Patricia K Kuhl
Bilingual experience alters brain structure and enhances certain cognitive functions. Bilingualism can also affect mathematical processing. Reduced accuracy is commonly reported when arithmetic problems are presented in bilinguals' second (L2) vs. first (L1) language. We used MEG brain imaging during mental addition to characterize spatiotemporal dynamics during mental addition in bilingual adults. Numbers were presented auditorally and sequentially in bilinguals' L1 and L2, and brain and behavioral data were collected simultaneously...
April 8, 2019: Brain and Cognition
R Rachel Weintraub-Brevda, Elizabeth F Chua
Previous research suggests that the left VLPFC is involved in working memory, whereas right VLPFC is involved with subsequent episodic memory. High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) was used to test whether excitation of the left or right VLPFC would show differential effects of negative and neutral stimuli on working memory and episodic memory tasks. While receiving HD-tDCS over the left or right VLPFC or sham stimulation, participants completed a working memory task with negative and neutral distractors followed by a surprise recognition test for the distractors...
March 30, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Alexandra Muller-Gass, Kenneth Campbell
Sleep loss has a major effect on cognitive tasks that are dependent on the maintenance of active sustained attention. This study examines the effects of sleep deprivation on automatic information processing, more specifically, its effect on processes leading to involuntary auditory attention capture by task-irrelevant auditory events. Two experiments were run. In the first, 13 participants were totally sleep-deprived (TSD); in the second, 16 participants were partially sleep-deprived (PSD), sleeping only four hours...
March 29, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Alexandra M Mellis, Jonathan M Lisinski, Jeffrey S Stein, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Rocco Paluch, Ferdinand Schweser, Robert Zivadinov, Stephen M LaConte, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
Reinforcer pathology theory stipulates that individuals with both (a) high preference for smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards; and (b) high demand for unhealthy commodities are uniquely susceptible to poor health outcomes. Specifically, two behavioral economic tasks (delay discounting, assessing preference for smaller, immediate or larger, delayed rewards; and purchasing, assessing purchases of commodities over changes in price) have been independently associated with conditions such as overweight/obesity and problem substance use...
March 29, 2019: Brain and Cognition
G Salunkhe, B Feige, C W N Saville, T M Lancaster, M E Stefanou, S Bender, A Berger, N Smyrnis, M Biscaldi, D E J Linden, C Klein
Intra-Subject Variability (ISV), a potential index of catecholaminergic regulation, is elevated in several disorders linked with altered dopamine function. ISV has typically been defined as reaction time standard deviation. However, the ex-Gaussian and spectral measures capture different aspects and may delineate different underlying sources of ISV; thus reflecting different facets of the construct. We examined the impact of factors associated with dopamine metabolism, namely, Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT) genotype and Working Memory (WM) and response-switching on ISV facets in young healthy adults...
March 20, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Jessica I Fleck, Lisa Payne, Carolyne Halko, Morgan Purcell
Bilateral eye movements (EMs) have been associated with enhancements in episodic memory and creativity. We explored the influence of EMs on behavior and event related potential (ERP) responses during the Attention Network Test (ANT). Participants completed ANT trials after bilateral EMs or a center-fixation control manipulation. We examined condition (EM, control) and handedness (consistent, inconsistent) differences for overall task performance, as well as alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks...
March 14, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Paolo Canal, Luca Bischetti, Simona Di Paola, Chiara Bertini, Irene Ricci, Valentina Bambini
We studied the electrophysiological correlates of verbal humor comprehension by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency representations recorded while 50 participants read humorous and non-humorous passages. Using linear mixed models on single trials we showed that humorous target words elicited a larger Left Anterior Negativity (LAN), sustained in time and followed by a positive shift involving P600 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) components. In the time-frequency domain, humor was associated with a power decrease in the beta-band of the EEG...
March 11, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Kaileigh A Byrne, Astin C Cornwall, Darrell A Worthy
Acute stress influences reward-seeking tendencies and risky decision-making. However, it is unclear how acute stress influences decision-making in situations in which individuals must learn to either maximize long-term or immediate rewards from experience. Consequently, this study sought to investigate whether acute stress enhances salience of small, immediate or large, delayed rewards on decision-making under uncertainty. The Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Task (SECPT) was used to induce acute stress. Participants in Experiment 1 (N = 50) were exposed to either the SECPT or a warm-water control condition and then completed a decision-making task in which participants needed to learn to forego immediate rewards in favor of larger delayed rewards...
March 4, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Grace E Giles, Caroline R Mahoney, Christina Caruso, Asma S Bukhari, Tracey J Smith, Stefan M Pasiakos, James P McClung, Harris R Lieberman
Military personnel and emergency responders perform cognitively-demanding tasks during periods of sustained physical exertion and limited caloric intake. Cognitive function is preserved during short-term caloric restriction, but it is unclear if preservation extends to combined caloric restriction and physical exertion. According to the "reticular-activating hypofrontality" model, vigorous exertion impairs prefrontal cortex activity and associated functions. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study examined cognitive function during sustained exertion while volunteers were calorically-deprived...
March 1, 2019: Brain and Cognition
Jörg Pfannmöller, Martin Lotze
Biomarkers indicating characteristic alterations in the brains of pain patients would in comparison to behavioral examinations allow for earlier diagnoses of pain disease development, a more immediate monitoring of pain disease progression, and for the development of interventions to reverse or compensate for the alterations. To reveal causal relations between an observed alteration and the pain disease longitudinal examinations are essential. Resting-state fMRI examinations can readily be included in large longitudinal cohorts allowing to achieve sufficiently large patient samples even for rare diseases...
April 2019: Brain and Cognition
Jessica Hofmann, Hannah A D Keage, Rebecca Callahan, Scott Coussens, Owen Churches, Irina Baetu
This study investigated electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of prediction error during probabilistic learning in pre-adolescents. The detection of prediction errors, the discrepancies between experienced and anticipated outcomes, is thought to be a critical mechanism that drives new learning. Thirty-three typically developing pre-adolescents (mean age = 10.62 years) participated in an associative learning task in which they learned the probabilistic relationships between cues and outcome stimuli in the absence of explicit feedback...
March 2019: Brain and Cognition
Lea Hartmann, Laura Wachtl, Marzia de Lucia, Lucas Spierer
Inhibitory control deficits represent a key aspect of the cognitive declines associated with aging. Practicing inhibitory control has thus been advanced as a potential approach to compensate for age-induced neurocognitive impairments. Yet, the functional brain changes associated with practicing inhibitory control tasks in older adults and whether they differ from those observed in young populations remains unresolved. We compared electrical neuroimaging analyses of ERPs recorded during a Go/NoGo practice session with a Group (Young; Older adults) by Session (Beginning; End of the practice) design to identify whether the practice of an inhibition task in older adults reinforces already implemented compensatory activity or reduce it by enhancing the functioning of the brain networks primarily involved in the tasks...
February 22, 2019: Brain and Cognition
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