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Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Simon Gubbins, Arjan Stegeman, Eyal Klement, Ledi Pite, Alessandro Broglia, José Cortiñas Abrahantes
Lumpy skin disease has recently emerged as a major threat to cattle populations outside of Africa, where it is endemic. In 2015 the first ever European outbreaks occurred in Greece, which were followed by spread across much of the Balkans in 2016. Here we use a simple mathematical model for the transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) between herds to explore factors influencing its spread by fitting it to data on outbreaks in Albania in 2016. We show that most transmission occurs over short distances (<5 km), but with an appreciable probability of transmission at longer distances...
December 17, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
E S M Tuppurainen, S-E Antoniou, E Tsiamadis, M Topkaridou, T Labus, Z Debeljak, B Plavšić, A Miteva, T Alexandrov, L Pite, J Boci, D Marojevic, V Kondratenko, Z Atanasov, B Murati, Z Acinger-Rogic, L Kohnle, P Calistri, A Broglia
The first epidemics of lumpy skin disease (LSD) reported in Europe in 2015 severely affected the cattle farming sector in several Balkan countries. After the first incursion into Greece in 2015, the disease quickly spread across the Balkan region with over 7000 outbreaks reported by the end of 2016. Thanks to a coordinated regional control and eradication policy, the spread of the disease was halted by the end of 2017. Regional large-scale vaccination campaign with effective homologous vaccines and high vaccination coverage revealed to be essential for the successful control the disease, supported by other measures such as early detection of outbreaks, total or partial stamping out and restrictions on cattle movements...
December 13, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Eyal Klement, Alessandro Broglia, Sotiria-Eleni Antoniou, Vangelis Tsiamadis, E Plevraki, Tamaš Petrović, Vladimir Polaček, Zoran Debeljak, Aleksandra Miteva, Tsviatko Alexandrov, Drago Marojevic, Ledi Pite, Vanja Kondratenko, Zoran Atanasov, Simon Gubbins, Arjan Stegeman, Josè Cortiñas Abrahantes
Despite the wide use of the live attenuated Neethling lumpy skin disease (LSD) vaccine, only limited data existed on its efficacy and effectiveness prior to the large LSD epidemic in the Balkans, which took place during 2016-2017. In addition, analysis of risk factors for the disease was hardly performed with proper control for vaccination effects and potential differences in exposure to the virus. Data from the LSD epidemics in six Balkan countries (Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) and Albania) affected during 2016 were analyzed to determine vaccine effectiveness (VE) and risk factors for LSD infection at the farm level...
December 5, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ibrahim Elsohaby, Marshal M Mweu, Yasser S Mahmmod, J Trenton McClure, Greg P Keefe
Accurate diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in newborn calves is an essential component of dairy farm management plan. Several methods (direct and indirect) are available for diagnosis of FTPI in dairy calves. However, the indirect methods offer an advantage over the direct methods in not requiring an experienced veterinarian, rapid, cost efficient and can be performed under field-setting. The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic performance of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, transmission infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and digital Brix refractometer for diagnosis of FTPI in dairy calves using latent class models at four cut-off values of digital Brix refractometer...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C Jacobs, C Beninger, G S Hazlewood, K Orsel, H W Barkema
Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious bacterial disease affecting cattle feet. Footbaths are a common herd-level control method for DD; however, variations in product, concentration, and frequency of use complicate comparisons between protocols. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate all walk-through footbath protocols reported that determined efficacy for prevention and treatment of DD lesions in dairy cattle. An extensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases and gray literature updated until March 2018...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Wantida Horpiencharoen, Sukanya Thongratsakul, Chaithep Poolkhet
Using Bayesian network analysis, this cross-sectional study aimed to identify the conditional probability among dairy farm practices, cow characteristics, bacteriological culture results, and antimicrobial susceptibility test results of milk from dairy cows with clinical mastitis in western Thailand. Data associated with risk factors and clinical signs were collected using a structured questionnaire that was administered to 34 small dairy holders. In total, 100 quarters of milk samples from 100 cows were used for Bayesian network analysis...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Francisca Di Pillo, Gustavo Anríquez, Pablo Alarcón, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm, Pablo Galdames, Vanesa Nieto, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Christopher Hamilton-West
Backyard production systems (BPS) that involve poultry are a good way to improve food security and poverty alleviation. Few studies have been carried out to quantify the contribution of poultry production to these households and the constraints they might face if a priority animal disease enters these systems. This study aims to characterize the poultry-rearing BPS in central Chile and to identify socio-economic factors associated to households' consumption of poultry. Data was collected from 384 BPS through a face-to-face semi-structured questionnaire...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Amanda Brinch Kruse, Charlotte Sonne Kristensen, Liza Rosenbaum Nielsen, Lis Alban
Reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU) in pigs is a priority to counteract development of antimicrobial resistance in animal and human pathogens. However, there is concern that Danish pig producers complying with official AMU restrictions might experience reduced herd health and productivity in the future, if alternative strategies are not available. Vaccination has been suggested as a strategy to prevent disease and minimise the need for antimicrobial treatments. The aim of this register-based study was to assess the associations between data on vaccination, productivity and AMU in Danish finisher herds over a 4-year period following initiation of the Yellow Card, which is a restrictive AMU control scheme...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Arianna Comin, Alexandra Jeremiasson, Gilles Kratzer, Linda Keeling
After the ban of battery cages in 1988, a welfare control programme for laying hens was developed in Sweden. Its goal was to monitor and ensure that animal welfare was not negatively affected by the new housing systems. The present observational study provides an overview of the current welfare status of commercial layer flocks in Sweden and explores the complexity of welfare aspects by investigating and interpreting the inter-relationships between housing system, production type (i.e. organic or conventional), facilities, management and animal welfare indicators...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Toluwalope Ajayi, Rozita Dara, Zvonimir Poljak
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) emerged in North America in 2013. The first case of PEDV in Canada was identified on an Ontario farm in January 2014. Surveillance was instrumental in identifying the initial case and in minimizing the spread of the virus to other farms. With recent advances in predictive analytics showing promise for health and disease forecasting, the primary objective of this study was to apply machine learning predictive methods (random forest, artificial neural networks, and classification and regression trees) to provincial PEDV incidence data, and in so doing determine their accuracy for predicting future PEDV trends...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ricardo Shoiti Ichikawa, Bruna Nicoleti Santana, Elis Domingos Ferrari, Isabela Garcia do Nascimento, Alex Akira Nakamura, Ana Rita Moraes Nardi, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles
This study aimed to perform the detection and molecular characterization of Giardia spp. in Psittaciformes from the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. Fecal samples were obtained from 359 adult exotic captive Psittaciformes belonging to 13 genera, randomly selected from 33 aviaries located in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil during a bird exhibition at the 2015 Ornithological Championship of the Ornithological Federation of Brazil (FOB). Nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the small subunit rRNA gene identified Giardia spp...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A C Kinsley, A M Perez, M E Craft, K L Vanderwaal
Understanding between-farm movement patterns is an essential component in developing effective surveillance and control programs in livestock populations. Quantitative knowledge on movement patterns is particularly important for the commercial swine industry, in which large numbers of pigs are frequently moved between farms. Here, we described the annual movement patterns between swine farms in three production systems of the United States and identified farms that may be targeted to increase the efficacy of infectious disease control strategies...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A Zali, S M Nasrollahi, S Khodabandelo
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two new formulas of dietary buffers on intake, total tract digestibility, rumen pH, blood metabolites, and milk production of mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous cows (594 ± 46 kg BW; mean ± SD) averaging 120 ± 28 days in milk and producing 46.6 ± 3.4 kg/d were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered one of three total mixed rations that varied in dietary buffer...
February 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ryosuke Iida, Carlos Piñeiro, Yuzo Koketsu
Prolapses in sows are an emerging concern in pig production. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence rate of prolapses and to determine risk factors associated with prolapse occurrences. Data included 905,089 service records in 819,754 parity records of 155,238 sows from 144 swine herds in Spain. Producers were required to record a removal reason, including type of prolapse. A 1:4 matched case-control study was carried out to investigate prolapse risk factors, and piecewise exponential models were applied to the data...
February 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Asha M Miles, Jessica A A McArt, Francisco A Leal Yepes, Cassandra R Stambuk, Paul D Virkler, Heather J Huson
Our primary objective was to identify udder and teat conformational risk factors associated with the occurrence of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and clinical mastitis using a prospective cohort study design with careful assessment of exposure and disease outcomes. Mastitis prevalence was evaluated by parity across 6 sampling periods representing key physiological transitions during lactation: 0-1 day in milk (DIM), 3-5 DIM, 10-14 DIM, 50-60 DIM, 90-110 DIM, and 210-230 DIM. Cows were scored for front and rear teat length, width, end shape, and placement, fore udder attachment, udder cleft, udder depth, rear udder height, and rear udder width...
February 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
L Wisnieski, B Norby, S J Pierce, T Becker, J C Gandy, L M Sordillo
During the transition period, dairy cattle undergo tremendous metabolic and physiological changes to prepare for milk synthesis and secretion. Failure to sufficiently regulate these changes may lead to metabolic stress, which increases risk of transition diseases. Metabolic stress is defined as a physiological state consisting of 3 components: aberrant nutrient metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Current monitoring methods to detect cows experiencing metabolic stress involve measuring biomarkers for nutrient metabolism...
February 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J M Ariza, N Bareille, A Lehebel, K Oberle, A Relun, R Guatteo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the implementation of different footbathing practices using a new biocide solution (Pink-Step™, Qalian, France) in the healing and the occurrence of bovine digital dermatitis (bDD) lesions. The investigation was conducted through a controlled within cow clinical trial in which the hind feet of cows from each farm were allocated either to the control group or to a moderate (MR) or (IR) intensive footbath-regimen groups. The trial involved 1036 cows (2072 feet) from 10 dairy farms located in western France where bDD was endemic...
February 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
K D Bach, A Sipka, J A A McArt
Our objective was to evaluate a 200,000 cells/mL somatic cell count (SCC) cut-point on both the quarter and composite level to determine its effectiveness at identifying subclinical mastitis infections in one commercial dairy herd in Central New York. Milk samples from 107 Holstein cows were used for analysis. All cows were eligible for enrollment provided they had 4 working udder quarters, were >14 and <365 d in milk, and had no clinical mastitis event or treatment with intramammary antibiotics ≤14 d prior to d of sampling...
February 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Mahmoud S El-Tarabany, Omar A Ahmed-Farid, Akram A El-Tarabany
The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of space allowance on performance, welfare-related parameters and the levels of brain neurotransmitters in growing male rabbits. In a cage housing system, a total of 96 weaned rabbits were accommodated on three space allowance conditions (S1  = 1425 cm2 /rabbit; S2  = 850 cm2 /rabbit; S3  = 625 cm2 /rabbit), with 8 replicate cages per each group. Rabbits in the S1 and S2 groups showed better daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio compared with the high stocking density group (p = 0...
February 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Nicholas A Lyons, Wudu T Jemberu, Hassen Chaka, Jeremy S Salt, Jonathan Rushton
In 2015, the OIE and FAO launched a global eradication programme for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR). Vaccination is a major component of this strategy yet the costs of implementing a campaign are unknown or based on assumptions without field-based verification necessary for effective economic planning. This study used experiences of attending four PPR vaccination campaigns in Ethiopia to estimate various cost components in pastoral and mixed-crop livestock systems. These components included: cost of vaccine; vaccine transport from the producer to the local storage facility; storage of vaccine at the local facility; delivery and administration of vaccine in the field; opportunity cost of farmer's time to attend the vaccination; co-ordination of vaccination campaign; publicity and mobilisation costs; vaccine wastage from missed shots and vaccine discard...
February 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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