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Journal of Policy Analysis and Management

Gayle L Reznik, Kennith A Couch, Christopher R Tamborini, Howard M Iams
We consider the distributional implications of Social Security policy changes in the context of increases in life expectancy and differential mortality. Using a robust microsimulation model, we examine how several options for raising the retirement age, including a scenario that applies a mortality adjustment in combination with such policies, affect different types of individuals and households. Policy changes are simulated for Social Security beneficiaries in 2030 using the Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model...
2019: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Anca M Grecu, Dhaval M Dave, Henry Saffer
Despite the significant cost of prescription (Rx) drug abuse and calls from policymakers for effective interventions, there is limited research on the effects of policies intended to limit such abuse. This study estimates the effects of prescription drug monitoring (PDMP) programs, which constitute a key policy targeting access to non-medical use of Rx drugs. Based on objective indicators of abuse as measured by substance abuse treatment admissions and mortality related to Rx drugs, estimates do not suggest any substantial effects of instituting an operational PDMP...
2019: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Ariel Marek Pihl, Gaetano Basso
The effects of paid parental leave policies on infant health have yet to be established. In this paper we investigate these effects by exploiting the introduction of California Paid Family Leave (PFL), the first program in the U.S. that specifically provides working parents with paid time off for bonding with a newborn. We measure health using the full census of infant hospitalizations in California and a set of control states, and implement a differences-in-differences approach. Our results suggest a decline in infant admissions, which is concentrated among those causes that are potentially affected by closer childcare (and to a lesser extent breastfeeding)...
2019: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Christian A Gregory, Travis A Smith
Household food insecurity status in the United States is ascertained by a battery of close-ended questions. We posit that the monthly nature of benefit receipt from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) creates experiences of food hardship, which become salient in the context of SNAP receipt, and in turn exert influence on the response to food security questions. We test this hypothesis by examining answers to a 30-day food security module in relation to when SNAP benefits are received. We find that for SNAP households near the end of or at the beginning of the benefit month, the probability of being classified as food insecure increases by 11 percentage points, over a baseline of 42 percent...
2019: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Andrew Foote, Michel Grosz, Stephanie Rennane
Transaction costs pose significant barriers to participation in public programs. We analyze how Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) application behavior was affected by iClaim, a 2009 innovation that streamlined the online application process. We use a difference-in-differences design to compare application rates before and after 2009 across counties with varying degrees of access to high-speed internet. We estimate that counties with internet connectivity one standard-deviation above the mean experienced a 1...
2019: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Catalina Amuedo-Durantes, Esther Arenas-Arroyo
Tougher immigration enforcement was responsible for 1.8 million deportations between 2009 and 2013 alone--many of them were fathers of American children. We exploit the geographic and temporal variation in the escalation of interior immigration enforcement to assess its impact on the structure of families to which many of the deported fathers of U.S.-born children belonged. We find that the average increase in immigration enforcement during the 2005 to 2015 period has raised by 19 percent the likelihood that Hispanic U...
2019: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Kenneth A Frank, Ran Xu, William R Penuel
Much of the impact of a policy depends on how it is implemented, especially as mediated by organizations such as schools or hospitals. Here, we focus on how implementation of evidence-based practices in human service organizations (e.g., schools, hospitals)is affected by intraorganizational network dynamics. In particular, we hypothesize intraorganizational behavioral divergence and network polarization are likely to occur when actors strongly identify with their organizations. Using agent-based models, we find that when organizational identification is high, external change agents who attempt to direct organizations by introducing policy aligned messages (e...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Daniel Gubits, Marybeth Shinn, Michelle Wood, Scott R Brown, Samuel R Dastrup, Stephen H Bell
What housing and service interventions work best to reduce homelessness for families in the United States? The Family Options Study randomly assigned 2,282 families recruited in homeless shelters across 12 sites to priority access to one of three active interventions or to usual care in their communities. The interventions were long-term rent subsidies, short-term rent subsidies, and transitional housing in supervised programs with intensive psychosocial services. In two waves of follow-up data collected 20and 37 months later, priority access to long-term rent subsidies reduced homelessness sand food insecurity and improved other aspects of adult and child well-being relative to usual care, at a cost 9 percent higher...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Judith S Ricks
This paper analyzes the effect of a change in the status of housing equity as a protected asset for Medicaid long-term care payment eligibility. A difference-in-difference-in-differences strategy is employed to estimate the effect of the policy on the housing equity holdings of potentially treated individuals. Using a panel of unmarried homeowners, the policy induced treated individuals who were likely to require long-term care to hold less housing equity by values of $82,000 to $193,000 relative to control individuals...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Alice J Chen, Amy J Graves, Matthew J Resnick, Michael R Richards
While salient features of the Affordable Care Act include insurance expansions and private coverage reforms, various other provisions are embedded within the law. We focus on a temporary 10 percent fee increase for primary care visits supplied to publicly insured (Medicare) beneficiaries. Using administrative and survey data, we assess the price shock's impact on service volume, physician labor supply, and quality of care. Primary care physicians (PCPs) in independent practices demonstrate, at most, a marginal 2 percent increase in new patient visits while horizontally and vertically integrated PCPs show no change...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Julia Shu-Huah Wang, Fred M Ssewamala, Torsten B Neilands, Laura Gauer Bermudez, Irwin Garfinkel, Jane Waldfogel, Jeannie Brooks-Gunn, Jing You
The use of savings products to promote financial inclusion has increasingly become a policy priority across sub-Saharan Africa, yet little is known about how families respond to varying levels of savings incentives and whether the promotion of incentivized savings in low-resource settings may encourage households to restrict expenditures on basic needs. Using data from a randomized controlled trial in Uganda, we examine: 1) whether low-income households enrolled in an economic-empowerment intervention consisting of matched savings, workshops, and mentorship reduced spending on basic needs and 2) how varied levels of matching contributions affected household savings and consumption behavior...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Nora V Becker
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates that prescription contraceptives be covered by private health insurance plans with no cost sharing. Using medical and prescription claims from a large national insurer, I estimate individual claim rates and out-of-pocket (OOP) costs of prescription contraceptives for 329,642 women aged 13 to 45 who were enrolled in private health insurance between January 2008 and December 2013. I find that OOP spending on contraceptives has decreased sharply since the implementation of the ACA mandate...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Casey S Buckles, Daniel M Hungerman
While the fertility effects of improving teenagers' access to contraception are theoretically ambiguous, most empirical work has shown that access decreases teen fertility. In this paper, we consider the fertility effects of access to condoms--a method of contraception not considered in prior work. We exploit variation across counties and across time in teenagers’ exposure to condom distribution programs in schools. We find that access to condoms in schools increases teen fertility by about 12 percent. The results suggest that the effects of condom access varied significantly across different programs; the positive fertility estimates are driven by communities where condoms are provided without mandated counseling...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Melinda Sandler Morrill
Accurate diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is difficult because the major symptoms, inattentiveness and hyperactivity, can be exhibited by any child. This study finds evidence of systematic differences in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD due to third party financial incentives. In some states, due to the financing mechanism for special education, schools face a financial incentive to facilitate the identification of children with ADHD. Using variation in special education funding policies across states, we find that children living in states with financial incentives are about 15 percent more likely to report having ADHD and are about 22 percent more likely to be taking medication for ADHD...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Paul Glewwe, Kristine L West, Jongwok Lee
More than 20 percent of all school-aged children in the United States have vision problems, and low-income and minority children are disproportionately likely to have unmet vision care needs. Vision screening is common in U.S. schools, but it remains an open question whether screening alone is sufficient to improve student outcomes. We implemented a multi-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the impact of vision screening, and of vision screening accompanied by eye exams and eyeglasses, provided by a non-profit organization to Title I elementary schools in three large central Florida school districts...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Sara Capacci, Mario Mazzocchi, Bhavani Shankar
This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression discontinuity design. Since the relationship between age-at-interview and school level is not precise, we introduce fuzziness in the model. We find that the ban has generated a 10-gram reduction in sugar intakes from morning snacks at school, and a significant reduction in the frequency of these morning snacks...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Kanika Arora, Douglas A Wolf
The intent of Paid Family Leave (PFL) is to make it financially easier for individuals to take time off from paid work to care for children and seriously ill family members. Given the linkages between care provided by family members and the usage of paid services, we examine whether California's PFL program influenced nursing home utilization in California during the 1999 to 2008 period. This is the first empirical study to examine the effects of PFL on long-term care patterns. Multivariate difference-indifference estimates across alternative comparison groups provide consistent evidence that the implementation of PFL reduced the proportion of the elderly population in nursing homes by 0...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Anne P Bartel, Maya Rossin-Slater, Christopher J Ruhm, Jenna Stearns, Jane Waldfogel
Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i...
2018: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Jesse Rothstein, Robert G Valletta
Many Unemployment Insurance (UI) recipients do not find new jobs before exhausting their benefits, even when benefits are extended during recessions. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) panel data covering the 2001 and 2007 to 2009 recessions and their aftermaths, we identify individuals whose jobless spells outlasted their UI benefits (exhaustees) and examine household income, program participation, and health-related outcomes during the six months following UI exhaustion. For the average exhaustee, the loss of UI benefits is only slightly offset by increased participation in other safety net programs (e...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Luca Pieroni, Luca Salmasi
In this paper, we investigate the extent to which the economic outcomes of restaurants, bars, and cafés have been affected by the introduction of anti-smoking regulations in Europe. We use an unexploited panel database to collect a comprehensive set of information on financial indicators regarding the balance sheets of private and public companies in various economic sectors. The results show that smoke-free policies did not significantly affect the firms' economic performance, irrespective of the balance sheet indicators analyzed...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
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