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Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology

Jean-Michel Gaulier, Fabienne Charvier, Françoise Monceaux, Pierre Marquet, Gérard Lachatre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Richard F Clark, Saralyn R Williams, Frederick Fung, Aaron B Schneir, Binh T Ly, David A Tanen, Stephen W Munday
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
John Kashani, Anne-Michelle Ruha
BACKGROUND: People who ingest packets of illicit drugs or insert them into body cavities in an attempt to smuggle them are termed body packers. People who do this in an attempt to hide the drugs when encountered by law enforcement are called body stuffers. Severe toxicity and death occurs in body packers and body stuffers, and this is usually secondary to leaking of drug from packets in the gastrointestinal tract. This is well reported with cocaine and heroin and occurs less commonly with methamphetamine...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Simon F J Clarke, Nandini Arepalli, Catherine Armstrong, Paul I Dargan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Robert D Gair, Marjorie S Friesen, Debra A Kent
BACKGROUND: Pimozide overdose has rarely been reported in children. In adults, pimozide intoxication may cause seizures, extrapyramidal and anticholinergic effects, hypotension, QTc prolongation and torsades de pointes. We report dystonia, hypotension and drowsiness following pimozide ingestion in a child. CASE REPORT: An alert 18-month-old presented to hospital 40 minutes after ingesting up to 6 mg (0.5 mg/kg) of pimozide. Vital signs: BP 91/62 mmHg, HR 130/min, RR 26/min, temperature 97...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
R Afshari, R Majdzadeh, M Balali-Mood
Drugs and chemicals are almost easily available in Iran. Natural toxins as poisonous plants and animals also exist in most parts of the country. Therefore, acute poisonings, either intentional or accidental and also drug abuse/addiction are common in Iran. In spite of these difficulties there is no center for poison control and surveillance in this country to gather information and analyse data. The files of a systematic randomised ten percent of all hospital-referred poisoned patients from 21 March 1993 to 20 March 2000 in Imam Reza (p) University Hospital of Mashhad (71589 cases) were screened retrospectively...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Fahim Mohamed, Lalith Senarathna, Adrian Percy, Manel Abeyewardene, Geoffrey Eaglesham, Ron Cheng, Shifa Azher, Ariyasena Hittarage, Wasantha Dissanayake, M H Rezvi Sheriff, Willie Davies, Nick A Buckley, Michael Eddleston
OBJECTIVE: Fipronil, a broad spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide that inhibits GABAA-gated chloride channels, has been in use since the mid-1990s. A high affinity for insect compared to mammalian GABA receptors results in lower animal toxicity than other insecticides blocking this channel. To date, only two accidental cases of fipronil poisoning in humans have been published. CASE SERIES: We report seven patients with fipronil self-poisoning seen prospectively in Sri Lanka together with pharmacokinetics for four patients...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Sule Kalkan, Oguz Aygoren, Aylin Akgun, Sedef Gidener, Hulya Guven, Yesim Tuncok
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the our study was to investigate the role of adenosine receptors on cardiovascular toxicity induced by amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant agent. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study was that adenosine receptor antagonists would improve and/or prevent amitriptyline-induced hypotension and conduction abnormalities in an anesthetized rat model of amitriptyline intoxication. METHODS: Two separate experimental protocols were performed...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
J A Vale, K Kulig
Gastric lavage should not be employed routinely, if ever, in the management of poisoned patients. In experimental studies, the amount of marker removed by gastric lavage was highly variable and diminished with time. The results of clinical outcome studies in overdose patients are weighed heavily on the side of showing a lack of beneficial effect. Serious risks of the procedure include hypoxia, dysrhythmias, laryngospasm, perforation of the GI tract or pharynx, fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, and aspiration pneumonitis...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Florian Eyer, Norbert Felgenhauer, Elisabeth Jetzinger, Rudolf Pfab, Thomas R Zilker
BACKGROUND: Organochlorine insecticides are highly toxic compounds that are responsible for a number of severe intoxications worldwide with several deaths. Despite their widespread use in agriculture during the 1940s to 1960s and the well-known signs and symptoms of intoxication, the clinical picture in case of poisoning varies. We report two cases of acute intentional endosulfan intoxication with cerebral edema and cardiac failure. CASE REPORTS: Both cases developed life-threatening signs like epileptic state, respiratory insufficiency and hemodynamic instability soon after ingestion...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Ibrahim Abu-Kishk, Michal Toledano, Ahuva Reis, David Daniel, Matitiahu Berkovitch
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon potentially fatal side effect of neuroleptic drugs, characterized by movement disorder, altered mental status and autonomic instability. A single dose of clotiapine was administered to an 11-year old male with acute psychosis. The previously healthy child had signs consistent with NMS including hyperthermia, hypertension, motor and mental changes. Repeat examination performed two weeks later, demonstrated that while his hyperthermia subsided, his mental status deteriorated...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Vikhyat S Bebarta, Kennon Heard, Craig Nadelson
Mycophenolate mofetil is an immunosuppressive drug used for prevention of graft rejection following solid organ transplant and for treatment of autoimmune disorders. We report a case of a 24-year-old female with lupus nephritis that presented following ingestion of 10 grams of mycophenolate in a suicide gesture. Serum levels confirmed ingestion. The patient was treated with decontamination and supportive care and recovered with no adverse effect.
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Olaf Hoffmann, L Rolf Gommert, Martin Egert
We report the case of a patient with increased cerebral cortical excitability following intoxication with flupirtine, a centrally acting analgesic and antispastic drug. Typically, flupirtine exerts membrane stabilizing and hyperpolarizing effects through activation of neuronal G-protein regulated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK). Based on these properties, GIRK activators have been suggested as candidates for antiepileptic drug development. In contrast, our observation suggests that these substances may also display unexpected proconvulsant effects in vivo...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Raffaella Butera, Carlo Locatelli, Teresa Coccini, Luigi Manzo
BACKGROUND: Amatoxin-containing species are responsible for the most severe cases of mushroom poisoning, with high mortality rate. Therefore, this poisoning should be ruled out in all patients presenting gastrointestinal symptoms after wild mushroom ingestion. OBJECTIVE: To determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic efficacy (DE) of urinary amanitin analysis in cases of suspected mushroom poisoning. METHODS: All cases of mushroom ingestion referred to a Poison Center during a one-month period were analyzed...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Joseph Rella, Steven Marcus, B J Wagner
BACKGROUND: Sources of cyanide exposure are many, including combustion of plastic and vinyl, such as in a house fire, laboratory or industrial exposures including exposure in the electroplating industry both of printed circuit boards and in jewelry work. Rapid and definitive diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is unavailable in the emergency department setting. It is desirable to make a definitive diagnosis in order to prevent potential complications of empiric treatment of presumptive cyanide poisoning from the cyanide antidote kit currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Barbara Vantroyen, J F Heilier, Agnes Meulemans, Arnold Michels, J P Buchet, Steven Vanderschueren, V Haufroid, Marc Sabbe
A case of a 27-year-old woman who ingested 9000 mg arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is reported. Classical symptoms of an acute arsenicum (As) poisoning such as gastrointestinal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, ECG changes and disturbed liver function tests were observed. The absorption of the ingested As was minimalized by a continuous gastric irrigation with highly concentrated NaHCO3 and intestinal cleansing with NaHCO3 and polyethyleneglycol was performed. Forced diuresis, BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) were started and therapy to enhance the formation of methylated As derivatives, which are potentially less toxic and which can be excreted more easily, was then administered...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Benoit Bailey, Nicholas A Buckley, Devendra K Amre
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and summarize studies on the accuracy of ECG and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) concentration as prognostic indicators of the risk of seizures, ventricular arrhythmia (VA) or death in patients with TCA overdose. METHODS: Articles were identified with MedLine and Cochrane register of controlled clinical trials searches and review of medical toxicology textbooks. Quality of the included studies was assessed. Pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and Summary Receiver Operating Characteristics (SROC) curves were generated...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Michael Eddleston, Nick A Buckley, Helaina Checketts, Lalith Senarathna, Fahim Mohamed, M H Rezvi Sheriff, Andrew Dawson
OBJECTIVE: Early deaths from organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning result from respiratory failure and cardiovascular collapse. Therapy requires the urgent use of atropine to reverse cholinergic excess, thereby improving respiratory function, heart rate, and blood pressure. We aimed to assess variation in textbook recommendations for early atropinisation and to see whether this variation affected time to stabilisation using model data from 22 severely poisoned patients seen in a Sri Lankan clinical trial...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
Michael J Yeoh, George Braitberg
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the association of hydrogen cyanide and carboxyhaemoglobin in victims of fire related deaths in Australia. The secondary aim was to document demographic data about Australian fire related deaths. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was undertaken of autopsy reports from the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine. Reports of fire related deaths were electronically searched using the terms burns, "smoke" or "fire" as a cause of death in the calender years 1992 to 1998...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient. Although some volunteer studies have shown substantial decreases in the bioavailability of ingested drugs, no controlled clinical trials have been performed and there is no conclusive evidence that WBI improves the outcome of the poisoned patient. Based on volunteer studies, WBI should be considered for potentially toxic ingestions of sustained-release or enteric-coated drugs particularly for those patients presenting greater than two hours after drug ingestion...
2004: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
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