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Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A

Paul A Brown, Chantal Allée, Céline Courtillon, Nathan Szerman, Evelyne Lemaitre, Didier Toquin, Jean-Michel Mangart, Michel Amelot, Nicolas Eterradossi
To date four subgroups of avian metapneumoviruses have been defined (AMPV-A, B, C and D) based on genetic and antigenic differences. The extent of infection in the three principal species (turkeys, chickens and ducks) by these subgroups however, is not well defined. Here, a series of controlled and ethically-approved experimental infections were performed in SPF turkeys, chickens and ducks with each of the four AMPV subgroups. For subgroup C, one strain isolated from turkeys in the USA (turkey AMPV-C) and one isolated from ducks in France (duck AMPV-C) were compared...
February 19, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Amir H Noormohammadi, Kevin G Whithear
In order to compare the short-term efficacies of the live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85, four groups of SPF chickens were vaccinated with each of the vaccines using eye drop and aerosol inoculations, and were subsequently challenged with a wild-type MG strain. When administered by the recommended routes (eye drop for ts-11 and fine aerosol for 6/85), both vaccines induced substantial and comparable levels of protection against airsacculitis and tracheitis caused by wild-type MG...
February 18, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ana Marandino, Ariel Vagnozzi, María Isabel Craig, Gonzalo Tomás, Claudia Techera, Yanina Panzera, Federico Vera, Ruben Pérez
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a persistent sanitary problem for the South American poultry industry despite extensive vaccination. The IBV single-stranded RNA genome has high rates of mutation and recombination that generate a notorious virus variability. Since most IBV vaccines are type-specific, there is a need for a constant surveillance of the circulating lineages and knowledge about their genetic and antigenic properties. Here we present an integrative analysis that provides the pattern of genetic variation of the South American IBV strains and information about their antigenic characteristics...
February 14, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Stephen J Spatz, Maricarmen Garcia, Sylva Riblet, Teresa A Ross, Jeremy D Volkening, Tonya L Taylor, Taejoong Kim, Claudio L Afonso
Over the last decade the US broiler industry has fought long-lasting outbreaks of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV). Previous nine genotypes (I-IX) of ILTVs have been recognized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) method with three viral alleles (gB, gM and UL 47/gG). In this study, the genotyping system was simplified to six genotypes by amplicon sequencing and examining discriminating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these open reading frames...
February 5, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Marcus Vinicius Romero Marques, Sandra Yuliet Marin, Rodrigo de Macedo Couto, Roselene Ecco, Mauricio Resende, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins
Extinct from nature captive young Alagoas curassows (Pauxi mitu) were found agonizing or dead with respiratory disease. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of the trachea, associated with marked necrotic tracheitis. An Aviadenovirus was isolated in chicken eggs and characterized genetically with 99% identity to the Fowl Aviadenovirus A as based on the hexon protein gene. This is the first report of a respiratory disease by Aviadenovirus in any cracid species in Brazil, recommending for stricter biosecurity in the conservation premises...
January 21, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Gonzalo Tomás, Ana Marandino, Céline Courtillon, Michel Amelot, Alassane Keita, Anna Pikula, Martín Hernández, Diego Hernández, Ariel Vagnozzi, Yanina Panzera, Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Nicolas Eterradossi, Ruben Pérez, Sébastien Mathieu Soubies
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease affecting young chickens. The recently described 'distinct IBDV' (dIBDV) genetic lineage encompasses a group of worldwide distributed strains that share conserved genetic characteristics in both genome segments making them unique within IBDV strains. Phenotypic characterization of these strains is scarce and limited to Asiatic and European strains collected more than fifteen years ago. The present study aimed to assess the complete and comprehensive phenotypic characterization of a recently collected South American dIBDV strain (1/chicken/URY/1302/16)...
January 21, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Huang He, Jiao Xiaoyan, Xu Yanmin, Han Qi, Jiao Wanying, Liu Yanyan, Shu Li, Teng Xiaohua
Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant and can damage organisms. Selenium (Se) can alleviate Pb poisoning. The present study aimed to investigate alleviative effect of Se on Pb-caused immune toxicity in chicken hearts. One hundred and eighty Hy-line male chickens were randomly divided into four groups at 7 days of age. The control group was offered a standard commercial diet (SD) and drinking water (DW); the Se group was offered SD supplemented with sodium selenite (SeSD) and DW; the Pb + Se group was offered SeSD and DW supplemented with lead acetate (PbDW); and the Pb group was offered SD and PbDW...
January 21, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Victor A Palomino-Tapia, Guillermo Zavala, Sunny Cheng, Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease of chickens controlled through vaccination with live-modified attenuated vaccines, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) and the tissue-culture origin (TCO). Recently, novel recombinant vaccines have been developed using herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) and fowl pox virus (FPV) as vectors to express ILTV immunogens for protection against ILT. The objective of this study was to assess the protection efficacy against ILT induced by recombinants; live-modified attenuated; and inactivated virus vaccines when administered alone or in combination...
January 14, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Di Hu, Yunqing Guo, Jie Guo, Ying Wang, Zhe Pan, Yuncai Xiao, Xiliang Wang, Sishun Hu, Mei Liu, Zili Li, Dingren Bi, Zutao Zhou
Riemerella anatipestifer (RA), the causative agent of infectious serositis that targets ducklings and other poultry, secretes protein via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). The proteins transported by T9SS are located on the bacterial cell surface or secreted into the extracellular milieu. In this study, a sprA deletion mutant was constructed encoding a core protein of T9SS to investigate its influence on outer membrane protein expression and role in virulence. Compared with the wild-type RA-YM strain, the deletion mutant ΔsprA failed to digest gelatin, showed the same growth rate in the logarithmic phase and exhibited greater sensitivity to the bactericidal activity of duck sera, whereas the complemented strain restored these phenotypes...
January 14, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Qingping Luo, Lingyan Kong, Jun Dong, Tengfei Zhang, Honglin Wang, Rongrong Zhang, Qin Lu, Huanchun Chen, Huabin Shao, Meilin Jin
Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida), a causative agent of fowl cholera, is an important pathogen in the poultry industry. In the present study, we found that the inactivated vaccine of P. multocida grown in an iron-restricted medium provided better protection than that grown in normal medium. Thus, we adopted a comparative proteomics approach, by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS), to profile the supernatant proteins associated with P...
January 14, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Hongxia Shao, Ping Wang, Weikang Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Tuofan Li, Guangchen Liang, Wei Gao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
As a major causative agent for hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrom (HPS) in chickens, serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) has caused huge economic loss in poultry industry globally. However, there is no commercial diagnostics for FAdV-4 antigens. To generate a rapid approach for specific detection of FAdV-4, a monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) based sandwich ELISA was developed. In this ELISA, a purified mAb 4A3 and HRP labeled mAb 3C2 specific to the fiber2 of FAdV-4 was used as the capture antibody and detection antibody respectively...
January 9, 2019: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Aadish Balouria, Sidhartha Deshmukh, H S Banga, Ajaz Ahmad, R S Brar, Sandeep Sodhi
Infectious coryza (IC) is nearly a curse for poultry farmers, when occurs concurrently with several pathogens causing swollen head syndrome. The disease is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, which inflicts an initial damage to the nasal and respiratory epithelium. This facilitates the progression of disease pathology across the nasal cavity, thereby providing a platform for multiplication of opportunistic microbes. In this study, we attempted to investigate the early entrance and migration pattern of A...
December 20, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Andreas Alber, Taiana Costa, Cosmin Chintoan-Uta, Karen J Bryson, Pete Kaiser, Mark P Stevens, Lonneke Vervelde
Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) cause severe respiratory and systemic disease. To address the genetic and immunological basis of resistance, inbred chicken lines were used to establish a model of differential resistance to APEC, using strain O1 of serotype O1:K1:H7. Inbred lines 72 , 15I and C.B12 and the outbred line Novogen Brown were inoculated via the airsac with a high dose (107 colony-forming units, CFU) or low dose (105 CFU) of APEC O1. Clinical signs, colibacillosis lesion score and bacterial colonisation of tissues after high dose challenge were significantly higher in line 15I and C...
December 20, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Yao Shi, Yaru Zhang, Jiabao Lin, Xinyi Zhu, Zhaofei Xia
The crus haemorrhage was one of the main causes of carcass defects in Pekin duck processing houses. However, its pathologic features are currently unclear. In order to examine the injury to the hind limb veins and illustrate the pathologic characteristics of crus haemorrhage in Pekin ducks, a total of 68 Pekin ducks with crus haemorrhage (test group) and 10 unaffected ducks (control group) were collected in this study. Five ducks randomly selected from each group were determined by computed tomographic venography (CTV) with 2...
December 18, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Adrien Lion, Evelyne Esnault, Emmanuel Kut, Vanaïque Guillory, Laetitia Trapp-Fragnet, Sébastien M Soubies, Nathalie Chanteloup, Alisson Niepceron, Rodrigo Guabiraba, Daniel Marc, Nicolas Eterradossi, Sascha Trapp, Pascale Quéré
It is well established that the endothelium plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases in mammals. However, little is known about the role of endothelial cells (EC) as targets for avian pathogens and their contribution to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases in galliform birds. First, we explored the innate immune response of primary chicken aortic endothelial cells (pchAEC) obtained from 18 day-old embryos to stimulation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recombinant chicken interferons (type I, II and III IFNs)...
December 17, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
J J Sjaak de Wit, Aris Malo, Jane K A Cook
In an initial study in SPF chickens, a heterologous virus neutralising (VN) antibody response to IBV variants Q1, Variant 2 (Var 2), D388/QX (D388), D274 and Arkansas (DPI) was observed using a vaccination programme incorporating two different live-attenuated IBV vaccines, followed by boosting with an inactivated vaccine containing IBV Massachusetts (Mass) antigen. Therefore, a more detailed study was undertaken in SPF layer-type chickens previously primed with IBV Mass and 793B live-attenuated vaccines. The efficacy of single or repeated vaccination with a multivalent inactivated vaccine containing IBV antigen was determined against challenge with 5 virulent IBVs: Mass (M41), 793B (4/91), D388, Q1 and Var 2...
December 6, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Lianghai Wen, Aiguo Zhang, Yanpeng Li, Hanzhang Lai, Huimin Li, Qiong Luo, Shuangxing Jin, Ruiai Chen
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a cell-associated α-herpesvirus of chickens. It is difficult to perform its complete suspension culture. Therefore, MDV vaccines are currently produced using adherent primary chicken embryo fibroblasts and on a large scale is labor intensive and costly. In this study, the CVI988 strain of MDV was inoculated into chicken fibroblast cell line UMNSAH/DF-1 (DF-1) cultured by microcarrier suspension for proliferation experiment. Moreover, the effects of culture conditions, such as inoculation method, MOI, microcarrier concentration, and pH value, on the proliferation of MDV were investigated...
December 6, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Efstathios S Giotis, Michael A Skinner
Fowlpox virus is the type species of an extensive and poorly-defined group of viruses isolated from more than 200 species of birds, together comprising the avipoxvirus genus of the poxvirus family. Long known as a significant poultry pathogen, vaccines developed in the early and middle years of the 20th century led to its effective eradication as a problem to commercial production in temperate climes in developed western countries (such that vaccination there is now far less common). Transmitted mechanically by biting insects, it remains problematic, causing significant losses to all forms of production (from back-yard, through extensive to intensive commercial flocks), in tropical climes where control of biting insects is difficult...
December 3, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Patrizia Robino, Ilario Ferrocino, Giacomo Rossi, Andrea Dogliero, Valentina Alessandria, Lisa Grosso, Livio Galosi, Clara Tramuta, Luca Cocolin, Patrizia Nebbia
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster is an opportunistic yeast that colonizes the gastric mucosa of many avian species. Until now, no studies have been focused on about the influence of a gastric infection on the balance of the intestinal microbiota of birds. In this study, 44 fecal samples from individual canaries, with and without M. ornithogaster infection, were analyzed. The detection of the yeast was evaluated by 18S rRNA PCR. In order to evaluate the impact of the Macrorhabdus infection on the bacterial communities, the culture-independent methods by the use of amplicon based sequencing as well as 16S rRNA-DGGE were adopted...
November 30, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
W J M Landman, E A Germeraad, M J Kense
An outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) subtype H6N1 (intravenous pathogenicity index = 0.11) infection occurred in four productive brown layer flocks on three farms in the Netherlands within a period of two months. The farms were located at a maximum distance of 4.6 km from each other. The infections were associated with egg production drops up to 74%, pale eggshells and persisting high mortality up to 3.2% per week. Three flocks were slaughtered prematurely as they were not profitable anymore...
November 28, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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