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Annals of Tropical Paediatrics

A G Saini, S Dogra, R Kumar, R Nada, M Singh
Tuberculous cerebellar abscess is a rare manifestation of central nervous system tuberculosis. An 8-year-old boy is described who presented with acute hydrocephalus and right hemiparesis owing to a cerebellar abscess.
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
S Shukla, S Singh, V Puri, D Verma, L Jain
Metastatic tuberculous abscesses and gummas are unusual forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. They result from haematogeneous spread of the mycobacterium from a primary focus during a period of impaired immunity. A 5-year-old boy is reported who presented with spinal tuberculosis and bilateral subcutaneous swelling of the cheeks owing to tuberculous gummas.
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
M P Senanayake, S Mettananda, M V C De Silva
A 4-month-old infant presented with continued fever, unresolving bronchopneumonia and household contact with sputum-smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) and showed marginal improvement on anti-TB chemotherapy. Recurrent pneumothorax prompted the clinical diagnosis of TB to be revised. High-resolution CT scan of the chest and open lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Treatment with prednisolone and vinblastin resulted in settling of fever and resolution of respiratory symptoms and signs...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
G S Tanwar, P C Khatri, G S Sengar, A Kochar, S K Kochar, S Middha, G Tanwar, N Khatri, D Pakalapati, S Garg, A Das, D K Kochar
BACKGROUND: Bikaner region is endemic for both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Usually, cerebral malaria is caused by P. falciparum but it has been reported recently also in P. vivax mono-infection. Epidemiologic studies and clinical descriptions of P. vivax cerebral malaria in children are rare. AIMS: To describe the clinical features of PCR-confirmed cerebral malaria owing to P. vivax mono-infection and its clinico-laboratory profile in Bikaner, Northwest India...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
R Ganesh, L Janakiraman, B Meenakshi
AIM: To investigate serum zinc levels in children with simple febrile and epileptic seizures and compare them with controls. METHODS: A prospective, case-control study was conducted between July 2009 and September 2010 in Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, Chennai. Sixty-seven children (22 with epileptic seizures, 23 with simple febrile seizures and 22 controls) were enrolled. Serum zinc level was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry. RESULTS: Mean (SD) serum zinc level in children with epileptic seizures, simple febrile seizures and controls were 969·8 (177·3), 638·1 (206·8) and 939·9 (258·4) ug/L, respectively (p<0·05)...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
B Dhingra, D Mishra
BACKGROUND: Local and minor systemic adverse events are frequently seen after routine immunisation with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus. Antipyretics are frequently prescribed for these events and prophylactic administration of acetaminophen is occasionally recommended. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prophylactic administration of acetaminophen has any effect in reducing the incidence of post-vaccination side-effects. DESIGN: A prospective, comparative trial with telephone interview-based outcome assessment...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
M Bhattacharya, A P Dubey
BACKGROUND: With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS have decreased markedly. However, high adherence to ART (>95%) is necessary for a good therapeutic outcome. There is a paucity of data on paediatric adherence to ART and its correlates from developing countries, particularly India. AIM: To determine the rate of adherence to ART in HIV-infected Indian children and the factors associated with adherence. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at an ART clinic in New Delhi, north India...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
A A Campbell, N Akhter, K Sun, S De Pee, K Kraemer, R Moench-Pfanner, J H Rah, J Badham, M W Bloem, R D Semba
BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a significant global public health problem in developing countries with adverse health effects on young children. Household food insecurity, which reflects a household's access, availability and utilisation of food, has not been well characterised in relation to anaemia in children. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of household food insecurity with anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) in children. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 4940 rural households participating in the Indonesian Nutrition Surveillance System, household food insecurity was measured using a modified 9-item food security questionnaire and related to anaemia in children aged 6-59 months...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
M J Chisti, T Duke, C F Robertson, T Ahmed, A S G Faruque, P K Bardhan, S La Vincente, M A Salam
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on risk factors for pneumonia and pneumonia-related deaths in children who also have diarrhoea. AIM: To identify risk factors for the above in order to improve strategies for case management and to develop appropriate public health messages. METHODS: All children under 5 years of age admitted to the Special Care Ward, Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) from 1 September to 31 December 2007 were considered for enrollment if they also had diarrhoea...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
K Du Preez, A C Hesseling, A M Mandalakas, B J Marais, H S Schaaf
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chemoprophylaxis is an effective strategy to prevent progression of tuberculosis (TB) in vulnerable children who have had contact with an infectious source of TB. However, many operational gaps prevent implementation of routine chemoprophylaxis in high-burden settings. The TB exposure status and disease spectrum in children diagnosed with culture-confirmed TB are described and missed opportunities for chemoprophylaxis are highlighted. METHODS: All children <13 years of age diagnosed with culture-confirmed TB at a tertiary referral hospital between March 2003 and February 2007 were included...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
S M Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
E M Keating, M Chock, P R Fischer
The Millennium Development Goals are a set of eight goals drafted by the United Nations in 2000 with the aim of improving the health and welfare of people worldwide. The goals provide specific targets to be met by 2015, using the 1990 basis as a standard. This review presents these goals as they relate to children, discussing progress and future aims. Although not all eight goals specifically address children, each has its own impact on global child health. Thus far, much progress has been made, but increased rates of improvement must be achieved in order to meet the goals by 2015 and improve the health of children worldwide...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
T Duke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
Rashmi Ranjan Das
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
A Srinivasan, R Lavanya, J Sankar
Hypereosinophilic syndrome in children is rare and is characterised by sustained over-production of eosinophils. An 11-year-old boy was diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome as per standard criteria. He was treated initially with intravenous methylprednisolone, followed by oral prednisolone, to which he showed a limited response. The highest absolute eosinophil count was 27.0×10(9)/L. He was commenced on imatinib mesylate but, because of no response, he was switched to hydroxyurea combined with low-dose prednisolone to which he showed improvement with decreasing levels of eosinophils...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
B Budan, B Ekici, B Tatli, A Somer
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system which is usually precipitated by a viral infection or vaccination. A 3-month-old boy is reported who developed ADEM a week after full recovery from pertussis. MRI detected a high-intensity lesion extending from the pons to the mesencephalon, compatible with ADEM. Following the administration of intravenous immunoglobulins, the patient's clinical symptoms improved. This case report demonstrates that pertussis is capable of inducing an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
D A O'Reilly, G T Heikens
A 12-day-old infant girl was admitted with increasing lethargy and respiratory distress. Initial treatment was for pneumonia but deterioration despite appropriate treatment prompted review of her diagnosis and consideration of organophosphate poisoning. There was a brisk response to atropine. To our knowledge, this is the youngest infant reported to have been exposed to poisoning by organophosphates.
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
S Dogra, D Suri, A G Saini, A Rawat, K S Sodhi
Nimesulide is a frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and antipyretic effects in children. In view of fatal adverse drug reactions, however, its safety has been questioned. A 5-year-old boy developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome following use of nimesulide which was later complicated by rapidly progressive fatal bronchiolitis obliterans.
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
N Joshi, M Bhattacharya, S Yadav, D Rustogi
Neurological manifestations of enteric fever are well known. However, isolated cranial nerve palsies are rare. A 4-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 11 years with culture-proven typhoid fever are described, two of whom developed palatal palsy and the other sixth cranial nerve palsy. Following treatment, there was complete resolution of the cranial nerve palsies within 5-7 weeks. While palatal palsy is reported rarely, isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy associated with typhoid has not been reported previously...
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
Aysegul Cansu, M Cakir, E Dilber, O Gedikli, Ali Cansu, S Kul, E Erduran
Cardiac involvement is an uncommon complication of echinococcosis. It is usually asymptomatic and may only be diagnosed incidentally. A 7-year-old boy was admitted with acute stroke and bullous and ulcerated skin lesions. He was diagnosed with cardiac echinococcosis complicated by systemic emboli to the central nervous system and superficial cutaneous arteries. In endemic areas, echinococcosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cardiac disease and unexplained cerebral embolism.
2011: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics
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