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Food and Chemical Toxicology | Page 2

Ukpai A Eze, John D Huntriss, Michael N Routledge, Yun Yun Gong, Lisa Connolly
The mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN) and alpha-zearalenone (α-ZOL), which are common contaminants of agri-food products, are known for their oestrogenic potential. In addition to mycotoxins, food may also contain pesticides with oestrogenic properties such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE), raising the question on the potential effects of individual and combinations of these xeno-oestrogens on the action of natural oestrogens...
May 10, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
A M Gannon, A Nunnikhoven, V Liston, D F K Rawn, P Pantazopoulos, J H Fine, D Caldwell, G S Bondy, I H A Curran
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant which was recommended by a UN expert body under the Stockholm Convention to be eliminated from the global marketplace in 2011; however, due to its ability to persist in the environment, undergo long-range transport and bioaccumulate, it remains a concern for human health. The commercial mix of HBCD (T-HBCD) consists of α-HBCD, β-HBCD and γ-HBCD. Although the γ-HBCD (79%) isomer is the predominant isomer of T-HBCD, the most bioaccumulative isomer detected in mammals is the α-HBCD isomer...
May 10, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nika Larian, Mark Ensor, Sean E Thatcher, Victoria English, Andrew J Morris, Arnold Stromberg, Lisa A Cassis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of sepsis, produces pyocyanin, a blue-pigmented virulence factor. Sepsis is associated with cachexia, but mechanisms are unknown and conventional nutrition approaches are not effective. Pyocyanin has affinity for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is expressed on adipocytes and regulates adipocyte differentiation. The purpose of this study was to define in vitro and in vivo effects of pyocyanin on adipocyte differentiation and body weight regulation as relates to septic cachexia...
May 9, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Kuras Renata, Kozlowska Lucyna, Reszka Edyta, Wieczorek Edyta, Jablonska Ewa, Gromadzinska Jolanta, Stanislawska Magdalena, Janasik Beata, Wasowicz Wojciech
Mercury (Hg) is a potent toxicant. In the field of public health a chronic-low-level environmental Hg exposure resulting from fish consumption in general population is still being discussed. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of real Hg exposure on biomarkers of selenium (Se) status and selected biomarkers of pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant effects in healthy men (n = 67) who participated in the short-term intervention study consisting in daily fish consumption for two weeks. The analysis included Se level, Se-associated antioxidants at molecular (profile of 7 genes encoding selected proteins related to antioxidant defense) and biochemical levels (Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases activities and plasma selenoprotein P concentration)...
May 9, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Govindarajan Karthivashan, Mee-Hyang Kweon, Shin-Young Park, Joon-Soo Kim, Deuk-Hoi Kim, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi
Recently, our research team reported the anti-amnesic potential of desalted-hydroethanolic extracts of Salicornia europaea L. (SE-EE). In this study, we performed bioactivity-guided isolation and identification of Acanthoside B (Aca.B), from SE-EE, as the potential bioactive candidate and examined anti-amnesic activity with its potential mechanism of action using an in vivo model. S7-L3-3 purified from SE-EE showed enhanced in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The isolated S7-L3-3 was identified and characterized as Aca...
May 8, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Tetyana Kobets, Alexander Thomas Cartus, Julia Alice Fuhlbrueck, Alexander Brengel, Simone Stegmüller, Jian-Dong Duan, Klaus D Brunnemann, Gary M Williams
Formation of DNA adducts by five alkenylbenzenes, safrole, methyl eugenol, eugenol, and asarone with either α- or β-conformation, was analyzed in fetal avian livers in two in ovo models. DNA reactivity of the carcinogens safrole and methyl eugenol was previously demonstrated in the turkey egg model, whereas non-genotoxic eugenol was negative. In the current study, alkenylbenzenes were also tested in the chicken egg model. Injections with alkenylbenzenes were administered to fertilized turkey or chicken eggs for three consecutive days...
May 8, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Fangling Qin, Lu Yao, Cairui Lu, Cong Li, Yanyan Zhou, Chencan Su, Bang Chen, Yehua Shen
The polyphenols profiles of the methanol extracts of bitter apricot [Armeniaca Sibirica (L.)] kernel skins (AKS) were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The antioxidan, anticancer effect on HepG2 cell and antibacterial properties of the AKS polyphenol extracts were further characterized in vitro. Polyphenol compounds (35), including nine phenolic acids, thirteen anthocyanins and thirteen flavonoids, were identified in AKS for the first time. The content of apigenin 7-O-glucoside, (cyanidin 3-(4″-acetylrutinoside), 3- (6″-acetylglucoside)-5-glucoside and salicylic acid was relatively high than the others...
May 6, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Md Badrul Alam, Vivek K Bajpai, Jeong-Sic Ra, Ji-Young Lim, Hongyan An, Shruti Shukla, Khong Trong Quan, Imran Khan, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han, MinKyun Na, Sang-Han Lee
This study assesses the ability of anthraquinone derivative, 2-methyl-1,3,6-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (MTAQ) to decrease postprandial hyperglycemia or enhance glucose uptake and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. We investigated α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, and translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in C2C12 myotubes. The data indicate that MTAQ strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 6.49 ± 1.31 μM, and functioned as a reversible competitive inhibitor, with a dissociation constant of 41...
May 6, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Domniki Fragou, Eleni Pakkidi, Michael Aschner, Victoria Samanidou, Leda Kovatsi
Among epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation has been widely studied with respect to many environmental factors. Smoking is a common factor which affects both global and gene-specific DNA methylation. It is supported that smoking directly affects DNA methylation, and these effects contribute to the development and progression of various diseases, such as cancer, lung and cardiovascular diseases and male infertility. In addition, prenatal smoking influences the normal development of the fetus via DNA methylation changes...
May 4, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Kitty Verhoeckx, Katrine Lindholm Bøgh, Didier Dupont, Lotti Egger, Gabriele Gadermaier, Colette Larré, Alan Mackie, Olivia Menard, Karine Adel-Patient, Gianluca Picariello, Reto Portmann, Joost Smit, Paul Turner, Eva Untersmayr, Michelle M Epstein
The current allergenicity assessment of novel proteins is based on the EFSA GMO guidance. Recently, EFSA launched a new guidance document on allergenicity assessment of GM plants (2017). This document describes, amongst other topics, the new scientific and regulatory developments on in vitro protein digestibility tests. The EFSA GMO Panel stated that for in vitro protein digestibility tests, additional investigations are needed before any additional recommendation in the form of guidance can be provided. To this end, an interim phase is considered necessary to evaluate the revisions to the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion test, proposed by EFSA...
May 4, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Qian Zhou, Jun Gong, Mingfu Wang
Methylglyoxal (MGO), a cytotoxic factor, reacts irreversibly with the side chains of lysine, cysteine, and arginine residues in proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which might be a major pathological factor associated with diabetic complications. Thus, it is necessary to prevent or alleviate such diseases through inhibiting the formation of AGEs or lowering these AGEs-induced cellular damages. Based on our previous work, it was known that phloretin, an apple polyphenol, can inhibit the formation of AGEs under simulated physiological conditions...
May 3, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Elaine de Oliveira, Fernanda T Quitete, Dayse N Bernardino, Deysla S Guarda, Fabiele A H Caramez, Patrícia N Soares, Thamara C Peixoto, Vanessa S T Rodrigues, Isis H Trevenzoli, Egberto G Moura, Patrícia C Lisboa
Maternal exposure to coconut oil metabolically programs adult offspring for overweight, hyperphagia and hyperleptinemia. We studied the neuroendocrine mechanisms by which coconut oil supplementation during breastfeeding as well as continued exposure of this oil throughout life affect the feeding behavior of the progeny. At birth, pups were divided into two groups: Soybean oil (SO) and Coconut oil (CO). Dams received these oils by gavage (0.5 g/kg body mass/day) during lactation. Half of the CO group continued to receive CO in chow throughout life (CO + C)...
May 3, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jiří Prokop, Kateřina Lněničková, Norbert Cibiček, Pavel Kosina, Veronika Tománková, Lenka Jourová, Tereza Láníčková, Lenka Skálová, Barbora Szotáková, Pavel Anzenbacher, Iveta Zapletalová, Zuzana Rácová, Eva Anzenbacherová, Jitka Ulrichová
Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit is a blue-colored berry with a high content of anthocyanins. These bioactive secondary metabolites are considered to play a major role in the health-promoting properties of bilberries. Our in vivo study was designed to assess the possible influence of bilberry extract on drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Rats were exposed to bilberry extract in drinking water at two concentrations (0.15 and 1.5 g/L). Selected DMEs were determined (mRNA expression and enzymatic activity) after 29 and 58 days in rat liver...
May 3, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hyemin Gu, Hyun-Jin An, Jung-Yeon Kim, Woon-Hae Kim, Mi-Gyeong Gwon, Hyun-Ju Kim, Sang Mi Han, InSook Park, Sok Cheon Park, Jaechan Leem, Kwan-Kyu Park
Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is one of the major periodontal pathogens leading to inflammation and alveolar bone resorption. Bone resorption is induced by osteoclasts, which are multinucleated giant cells. Osteoclastic bone resorption is mediated by enhanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) signaling. Therefore, the down-regulation of RANKL downstream signals is regarded as an effective therapeutic target in the treatment of bone loss-associated disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether purified bee venom (BV) could attenuate P...
May 2, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yao Lu, Jiang Ma, Ge Lin
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic and specifically damage hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs) via cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs)-mediated metabolic activation. Due to the lack of CYPs in HSECs, currently there is no suitable cell model for investigating PA-induced HSEC injury. This study aimed to establish a two-layer transwell co-culture model that mimics hepatic environment by including HepaRG hepatocytes and HSECs to evaluate cytotoxicity of PAs on their major target HSECs. In this model, PAs were metabolically activated by CYPs in HepaRG hepatocytes to generate reactive pyrrolic metabolites, which react with co-cultured HSECs leading to HSEC damage...
May 2, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hsin-Yi Lo, Chia-Cheng Li, Hui-Man Cheng, I-Chen Liu, Tin-Yun Ho, Chien-Yun Hsiang
Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic phytochemical, is commonly found in grains, vegetables, and fruits. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) interaction is one of important therapeutic targets for psoriasis. Here we analyzed the FA effects on IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction and psoriasis-like skin injury induced by imiquimod (IMQ). IL-17A-blocking assay and docking analysis showed that FA interacted with Trp-67, Gln-94, and Glu-95 residues of IL-17A via hydrogen bonds and consequently abolished the binding of IL-17RA to IL-17A...
May 2, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Guoling Yang, Hui Ma, Yanliang Wu, Baoping Zhou, Chunlei Zhang, Chengzhi Chai, Zhengyu Cao
(+)-Conocarpan (CNCP), a neolignan frequently found in many medicinal and edible plants displays a broad spectrum of bioactivity. Here, we demonstrated that CNCP induced apoptotic cell death in human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50  = 19.3 μM) and led to the sustained elevation of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ). Lower extracellular Ca2+ concentrations from 2.3 mM to 0 mM significantly suppressed the CNCP-induced Ca2+ response by 69.1%. Moreover, the depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores using thapsigargin normalized CNCP-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores, suggesting that the CNCP-induced Ca2+ response involved both extracellular Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores...
May 2, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Anne B Carlson, Carey A Mathesius, Stephen Ballou, Chad J Boeckman, Tim A Gunderson, Henry P Mirsky, Pushkor Mukerji, Jacqueline C Roe, Jean M Schmidt, John Zhang, Bryan Delaney
The ipd072Aa gene from Pseudomonas chlororaphis encodes the IPD072Aa protein which confers protection against certain coleopteran pests when expressed in genetically modified (GM) plants. A weight of evidence approach was used to assess the safety of the IPD072Aa protein. This approach considered the history of safe use of the source organism and bioinformatic comparison of the protein sequence with known allergenic and toxic proteins. The IPD072Aa protein was assessed for resistance to degradation in the presence of simulated gastric fluid containing pepsin as well as heat stability...
May 2, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Zisheng Chen, Dacheng Yang, Xinwei Jiang, Lingmin Tian, Jianxia Sun, Dongbo Tian, Weibin Bai
Natural products derived from fruits have multiple antitumor potential. However, very few have been developed for clinical therapy, due to the limited efficiency or insufficient study of their mechanism. Since lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world, there is still need to explore novel compounds but their molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, a new compound Final-2 was synthesized. Final-2 exhibited antitumor activity in A549 cells by promoting apoptosis and blocking autophagy. Moreover, Final-2 significantly induced G0 /G1 cycle arrest and inhibited cell malignancy...
May 1, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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