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Food and Chemical Toxicology

Humaira Rehman, Imdad Ullah, Mehwish David, Asad Ullah, Sarwat Jahan
Furan is a colorless toxic organic compound that is produced during thermal degradation of natural food constituents, and is present in various processed foods such as coffee and processed baby foods. The present study investigated the endocrine disrupting potential of furan in Sprague Dawley male pups. On postnatal day 0 (PND 0), pups were divided into five groups. The control group received subcutaneous injections of corn oil (50 μL), while the treated groups were injected with one of four concentrations of furan (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1 d-1 in 50 μL corn oil) from PND 1 to PND 10...
May 20, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Barbara Steinhoff
Since 2013, a potential contamination of medicinal plant material with pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing weeds e.g. Senecio has been discussed. The knowledge about such a risk of contamination induced suppliers of medicinal drugs and manufacturers of medicinal teas to investigate the situation regarding herbal drugs and teas and other medicinal products of plant origin. As due to worldwide cultivation/collection and season-dependent sourcing processes an immediate elimination or even reduction of PA contamination at all sourcing sites was considered impossible, manufacturers have taken action by application of their Code of Practice, by monitoring pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination and by collection of data, by elimination of peak exposures as well as by participation in research projects...
May 20, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hyun Jung Koo, Kyoung Rim Lee, Hyung Sik Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
The aim of the present study was to investigate the detoxifying effects of aloe polysaccharide (APS), propolis, and the mixture of APS and propolis on the urinary excretion of major human tobacco carcinogens, BaP and an addictive stimulant alkaloid, nicotine. Smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day) were randomly classified into four subgroups (10 people/group) and were given 600 mg/day of APS, 600 mg/day of propolis, or 600 mg/day of the mixture of APS (420 mg/day) and propolis (180 mg/day) for four weeks...
May 18, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Lu Chen, Patrick P J Mulder, Ad Peijnenburg, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
In this study five types of herbal teas were used to quantify the effect of comminution of the leaves on resulting PA exposure. Results show that PA levels extracted from intact leaves were consistently lower than from comminuted tea leaves. The Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach was applied to evaluate the consequences of this difference for the associated risks in the scenario of lifetime exposure. Furthermore, we considered medicinal use of these teas for shorter-than-lifetime exposure scenarios, and also analysed the risks of shorter-than-lifetime use of eight herbal medicines and 19 previously analysed plant food supplements...
May 18, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Shaghayegh Alizadeh Tabari, Mahsa Loran Esfahani, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini, Atena Rahimi
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound which is used in many cosmetic products, medical devices and house hold products. Toxicity attributed to TCS has recently become a focus of research. Recent studies showed that TCS can easily migrate into the human brain and animal tissues and cause adverse changes in various target organs. Our knowledge of the neurotoxicity of TCS is largely based on very limited data. In this regard, adult male NMRI mice were administered TCS (1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg) by gavage for 14 consecutive days, whereas the control animals were given corn oil...
May 18, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nibedita Pradhan, Sabnam Parbin, Chahat Kausar, Swayamsiddha Kar, Shradha Mawatwal, Laxmidhar Das, Moonmoon Deb, Dipta Sengupta, Rohan Dhiman, Samir Kumar Patra
Aberrant epigenetic modifications are responsible for tumor development and cancer progression; however, readily reversible. Bioactive molecules from diets are promising to cure cancer by modulating epigenetic marks and changing immune response. These compounds specifically target the activity of DNMTs and HDACs to cure various human cancers. In view of this, we investigated the anticancer and epigenetic regulatory activities of an edible-plant Paederia foetida. The efficacy of methanolic extract of P. foetida laves (MEPL) was tested for the modulation of epigenetic factors in gene silencing, i...
May 18, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Anke Ehlers, Georgios Marakis, Alfonso Lampen, Karen Ildico Hirsch-Ernst
To assess the possible cardiovascular risks associated with energy drink (ED) consumption in Europe, a comprehensive literature research was performed in regard to (i) possible ED-induced dose-dependent cardiovascular outcomes, (ii) ED consumption patterns in Europe and (iii) the risks of EDs in combination with alcohol. The identified intervention studies primarily investigated acute ED effects in young healthy adults. Moderate consumption of EDs corresponding to an acute caffeine intake of up to 200 mg did not result in clinically relevant cardiovascular changes in young healthy adults...
May 18, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Johanna Ebmeyer, Albert Braeuning, Hansruedi Glatt, Anja These, Stefanie Hessel-Pras, Alfonso Lampen
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are widely distributed phytotoxins contaminating food and feed. Hepatic enzymes are considered to bioactivate PA. Previous studies showed differences in the metabolism rate in liver homogenates of different species. Thus, uncertainty remains with respect to the relevance of human metabolism. Our study aimed to analyze whether the PA representative lasiocarpine is toxified by human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. We compared the metabolic elimination of lasiocarpine in the presence of rat and human S9 fractions and liver microsomes...
May 16, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Zhizhong Zheng, Yi Zheng, Yanlin Ming, Yazhu Bai, Lianghua Chen, Wen Huang, Mengshi Lin, Shaosong Liu, Jianbo Xiao, Hetong Lin
Compound K is a type of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides (PPDs) that has strong bioactivities due to fewer glycosyls. However, compound K is not present in raw and unprocessed ginseng. Some PPDs have the same structure with gypenosides, and could be obtained from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. The enzymolysis of PPD-type gypenosides of G. pentaphyllum by naringinase has been reported for the first time in this research. In addition, isolation and identification of enzymolysis end product, and the optimization of enzymolysis parameters were investigated...
May 16, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xudong Gao, Cong Wang, Zhongqin Chen, Yue Chen, Ramesh Kumar Santhanam, Zihan Xue, Qiqi Ma, Qingwen Guo, Wei Liu, Min Zhang, Haixia Chen
Laba garlic is a kind of processed garlic products, it is the traditional Chinese food with a long history. In this study, the antitumor, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of the blue pigment (BP) from Laba garlic were investigated. N-trans-feruloyltyramine (FLA) was isolated and identified from BP. The protective effects of FLA against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damages in L02 cells were also assessed. The apoptotic effects of FLA were detected by using flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that the tumor growth was significantly suppressed by BP (P<0...
May 16, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Juliana De Oliveira Mota, Géraldine Boué, Sandrine Guillou, Fabrice Pierre, Jeanne Marie Membré
The consumption of red meat has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess quantitatively the burden of disease of CRC and CVD due to the consumption of red meat in France. A probabilistic risk assessment model quantifying the risk, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALY) of both outcomes was built. In the model, uncertainty and variability were propagated separately. The model used data on current CRC and CVD incidence and red meat consumption in France, as well as dose-response from epidemiological studies...
May 16, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Esther Asensio, Teresa Peiro, Cristina Nerín
The set-off migration from printing inks can cause alterations in the safety and acceptability of food. Therefore, its control in the food industry is of special importance. The aim of this study was the determination of the migration of compounds coming from different types of cardboard-cups used in coffee vending machines. The volatile compounds present in cardboard-cups were studied and specific migration studies were carried out by solid phase microextraction with headspace coupled to gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC-MS)...
May 15, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Véronique Sirot, Gilles Riviere, Stéphane Leconte, Karine Vin, Thiema Traore, Julien Jean, Géraldine Carne, Sébastien Gorecki, Bruno Veyrand, Philippe Marchand, Bruno Le Bizec, Cravedi Jean-Pierre, Cyril Feidt, Paule Vasseur, Marine Lambert, Chanthadary Inthavong, Thierry Guerin, Marion Hulin
A total diet study (TDS) was conducted between 2010 and 2016 to assess the risk associated with chemicals in food of non-breast-fed children from 1 to 36 months living in France. Food samples were collected, prepared "as consumed", and analyzed for chemicals of public health interest. Acrylamide, furan and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed as heat-induced compounds produced mainly during thermal processing of foods. Dietary exposure was assessed for 705 representative children using food consumptions recorded through a 3-consecutive-days record...
May 15, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Maryam Hashemi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Natural products with high pharmacological potential and low toxicity have been considered as the novel therapeutic agents. Crocetin is an active constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma, which in its free-acid form is insoluble in water and most organic solvents. Crocetin exhibits various health-promoting properties including anti-tumor, neuroprotective effects, anti-diabetics, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, etc. These therapeutic effects can be achieved with different mechanisms such as improvement of oxygenation in hypoxic tissues, antioxidant effects, inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, anti-proliferative activity and stimulation of apoptosis in cancer cells...
May 14, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Laura Escrivá, Manuel Alonso-Garrido, Guillermina Font, Lara Manyes
Simultaneous mycotoxins toxicity is complex and non-predictable based on their individual toxicities. Beauvericin and Enniatins are emerging mycotoxins highly co-occurrent in food and feed, and their cytotoxicity has been reported in several human cell lines. RNA-seq studies of individual exposure in Jurkat cells demonstrated human genome perturbation mainly affecting mitochondrial pathways, however, both mycotoxins showed differences between their toxic responses. This study investigates the transcriptional effects of combined exposure to Beauvericin and Enniatin B (1:1) (0...
May 14, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nathan C Twaddle, Michelle Vanlandingham, Frederick A Beland, Daniel R Doerge
Arsenic species contaminate food and water, with typical dietary intake below 1 μg/kg bw/d. Exposure to arsenic in heavily contaminated drinking water is associated with human diseases, including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diabetes, and cancer. Dietary intake assessments show that rice and seafood are the primary contributors to intake of both inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV ) and at similar magnitudes. DMAV plays a central role in the toxicology of arsenic because enzymatic methylation of arsenite produces DMAV as the predominant metabolite, which may promote urinary clearance but also generates reactive intermediates, predominantly DMAIII , that bind extensively to cellular thiols...
May 12, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Lenis Liverpool-Tasie, Nikita Saha Turna, Oluwatoyin Ademola, Adewale Obadina, Felicia Wu
Aflatoxin and fumonisin are two major foodborne mycotoxins: toxic chemicals produced by fungi that contaminate food commodities including maize, a staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Aflatoxin causes liver cancer, and is associated with acute liver toxicity and immunotoxicity; while fumonisin is associated with neural tube defects in infants and esophageal cancer. Both mycotoxins have been associated with child growth impairment. Previous studies suggest that co-occurrence of these mycotoxins may have potentially synergistic toxicological effects...
May 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Michelle L Colgrave, Keren Byrne, Joanne Caine, Lukasz Kowalczyk, Sapna Vibhakaran Pillai, Bei Dong, George Lovrecz, Susan MacIntosh, Judith A Scoble, James R Petrie, Surinder Singh, Xue-Rong Zhou
The measurement of protein digestibility is one of the key steps in determining the safety of a genetically modified crop that has been traditionally accomplished using antibodies. Membrane proteins are often extremely difficult to express with replicated authentic tertiary structure in heterologous systems. As a result raising antibodies for use in safety assessment may not be feasible. In this study, LC-MS based proteomics was used to characterise seven transmembrane enzymes from the docosahexaenoic acid biosynthetic pathway that had been introduced into canola...
May 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Elias Begas, Maria Bounitsi, Thomas Kilindris, Evangelos Kouvaras, Konstantinos Makaritsis, Demetrios Kouretas, Eftihia K Asprodini
Crocus sativus L., a perennial plant grown mainly around the Mediterranean and Iran, has many medicinal properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-depressive and cancer preventing properties. Aqueous herbal extracts may affect the activity of Phase I and II enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study was designed to determine whether C. sativus infusion alters the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, XO and NAT2 enzymes in humans. Thirty-four healthy volunteers consumed infusion prepared from C. sativus stigmata for six days...
May 10, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
B V Mohan Kumar, M Vijaykrishnaraj, Nawneet K Kurrey, VijayS Shinde, P Prabhasankar
Targeted degrading Aspergillus niger-derived prolyl endopeptidase (AN-PEP) is promising in gluten hydrolysis because it specifically cleaves the proline-rich sites in gluten. The current study aims to understand the safety aspects of AN-PEP hydrolysed low immunoreactive wheat flours by testing immune responses using cell line and animal models. In the AN-PEP hydrolysed wheat flour (AN-PEP HWF) gliadin extract, there was no increase in the levels of zonulin-1 (Zo-1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) but a significant increase was noted in the control wheat flour (CWF) gliadin-treated Caco-2 cells...
May 10, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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