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Food and Chemical Toxicology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31412289/discovery-of-keap1-nrf2-small-molecule-inhibitors-from-phytochemicals-based-on-molecular-docking
#1
Maiquan Li, Weisu Huang, Fan Jie, Mengmeng Wang, Yongheng Zhong, Qi Chen, Baiyi Lu
Various phytochemicals have been reported to protect against oxidative stress. However, the mechanism underlying has not been systematically evaluated, which limited their application in disease treatment. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a central transcription factor in oxidative stress response related to numerous diseases, is activated after dissociating from the cytoskeleton-anchored Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). The Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction has become an important drug target...
August 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31408721/the-presence-of-ochratoxin-a-does-not-influence-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-growth-kinetics-but-leads-to-the-formation-of-modified-ochratoxins
#2
Luísa Freire, Marianna M Furtado, Tatiane M Guerreiro, Juliana S da Graça, Beatriz S da Silva, Diogo N Oliveira, Rodrigo R Catharino, Anderson S Sant'Ana
Yeasts are able to reduce the levels of ochratoxin A in fermentative processes; and, through their enzymatic complex, these micro-organisms are also capable of forming modified mycotoxins. These mycotoxins are often underreported, and may increase health risks after ingestion of contaminated food. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate whether the presence of ochratoxin A influences yeast growth kinetic parameters and to elucidate the formation of modified ochratoxin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during fermentation...
August 10, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31408720/aqueous-coriandrum-sativum-l-extract-promotes-neuroprotection-against-motor-changes-and-oxidative-damage-in-rat-progeny-after-maternal-exposure-to-methylmercury
#3
Keuri Eleutério Rodrigues, Fábio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Benilson Ramos Cassunde Barbosa, Ricardo S Oliveira Paraense, Cahy Manoel Bannwart, Bruno Gonçalves Pinheiro, Anderson de Santana Botelho, Nilton Akio Muto, Cristine Bastos do Amarante, Moises Hamoy, Barbarella de Matos Macchi, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz Maia, Alejandro Ferraz do Prado, José Luiz Martins do Nascimento
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract (CSAE) on the rat progeny of mothers exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). The presence of bioactive compounds and CSAE's antioxidant capacity been evaluated, and the offspring were assessed for their total mercury levels, motor behavioral parameters and oxidative stress in the cerebellum. The analysis of the bioactive compounds revealed significant amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as a variety of minerals...
August 10, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31408719/protective-effect-of-ganoderma-atrum-polysaccharide-on-acrolein-induced-macrophage-injury-via-autophagy-dependent-apoptosis-pathway
#4
Kunyou Hou, Qiang Yu, Xiaoyi Hu, Xiaomeng Ding, Jiaqian Hong, Yi Chen, Jianhua Xie, Shaoping Nie, Mingyong Xie
The study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of Ganoderma atrum (G. atrum) polysaccharide (PSG-1) on macrophage injury induced by acrolein. The results showed that PSG-1 restored the cell viability damaged by acrolein. In addition, PSG-1 significantly reduced the acrolein-induced occurrence of apoptosis via increase of Bcl-2 expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decrease of ROS, cytochrome c (Cyt-C), caspase-3, caspase-9. Moreover, the overexpressions of autophagy-related proteins (LC3, Beclin-1, Atg7 and Atg5) were suppressed by PSG-1, which demonstrated that PSG-1 inhibited autophagy in acrolein treated macrophage...
August 10, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31401185/spectrum-effect-relationship-of-antioxidant-and-tyrosinase-activity-with-malus-pumila-flowers-by-uplc-ms-ms-and-component-knock-out-method
#5
Wenjing Li, Yan Zhang, Shujin Shi, Gen Yang, Zhenhua Liu, Jinmei Wang, Wenyi Kang
The active components of Malus pumila flowers on antioxidant and tyrosinase activity were investigated with the method of spectrum-effect relationship and knock-out. Some compounds were identified by UPLC-MS/MS method. The chemical fingerprints were established by HPLC and the activity of antioxidant and tyrosinase were assayed in vitro. Chromatographic peaks P34, P35, P39, P44, P45 and P49 were identified as phloridzin, hyperoside, astragalin, afzelin, quercetin and kaempferol by UPLC-MS/MS method. Hyperoside and kaempferol were identified in M...
August 8, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31400477/more-data-on-in-vitro-assessment-of-comparative-and-combined-toxicity-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles
#6
Tatiana Bushueva, Ilzira Minigalieva, Vladimir Panov, Alisa Kuznetsova, Anna Naumova, Vladimir Shur, Ekaterina Shishkina, Vladimir Gurviсh, Larisa Privalova, Boris Katsnelson
Isolated and combined damaging effects of PbO and CuO nanoparticles were estimated on an established line of human fibroblasts by a decrease in: (a) the cellular dehydrogenase activity (MTT Assay), (b) the ATP content (Luminescent Cell Viability Assay), (c) the cellular proliferation, viability, spreading, and attachment to substrate evaluated integrally by continuous impedance-based measurement of the Normalized Cell Index. Using all these indices, we demonstrate an explicit dependence of cell damage on the concentrations of both metal oxide nanoparticle (MeO-NP) species...
August 7, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31390533/di-n-butyl-phthalate-butylbenzyl-phthalate-and-their-metabolites-exhibit-different-apoptotic-potential-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#7
Paulina Sicińska
Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are one of the main cell models used in studies concerning the exposure of humans (in vitro) to various chemical substances. Changes in PBMCs may reflect the general reaction of the organism regarding the effect of xenobiotics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and their metabolites: mono-n-butylphthalate (MBP), mono-benzylphthalate (MBzP) upon the induction of apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro...
August 4, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31390532/chlorogenic-acid-attenuates-cadmium-induced-intestinal-injury-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Yanwen Xue, Fang Huang, Rongxue Tang, Qingsheng Fan, Bing Zhang, Zhenjiang Xu, Xiaoming Sun, Zheng Ruan
Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) causes remarkable damage to the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have revealed that chlorogenic acid (CGA) could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats. Hence, this study sought to investigate the protective effects of CGA from pure reagent and sunflower seed extract (SSE) on growth performance, antioxidant indicators, inflammatory biomarkers and intestinal barrier function in Cd treated rats. A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley female rats with similar weights were randomly allotted to four treatments: control, CdCl2 (6 mg/kg BW), co-treatment of Cd (6 mg/kg BW) and pure CGA (50 mg/kg BW), and co-treatment of Cd (6 mg/kg BW) and SSE (50 mg/kg BW) for 14 days...
August 4, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31381944/toxicological-evaluation-of-lotus-ginkgo-and-garlic-tailored-fermented-korean-soybean-paste-doenjang-for-biogenic-amines-aflatoxins-and-microbial-hazards
#9
Shruti Shukla, Jong Suk Lee, Vivek K Bajpai, Imran Khan, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han, Myunghee Kim
The present study aimed to develop a consortium of nutritive fermented food products, supplemented with phytochemicals, with reduced toxicological contents. We developed new flavored Doenjang products (protein rich) fermented with lotus, ginkgo, and garlic plant extract-based Meju (termed as EMD) as the starter culture and by using traditional Meju (termed as TMD), where these plant extracts were added later during the fermentation process. Fermented Doenjang samples were analyzed for reduced levels of biogenic amines (BAs), aflatoxins, and microbial hazards, (including Bacillus cereus) as well as for their nutritive contents and antioxidant potential, after varying periods of fermentation (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months)...
August 2, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31377140/long-term-effects-of-chromium-on-morphological-and-immunological-parameters-of-wistar-rats
#10
A V Karaulov, E A Renieri, A I Smolyagin, I V Mikhaylova, A A Stadnikov, D N Begun, K Tsarouhas, A Buha Djordjevic, T Hartung, A Tsatsakis
Hexavalent chromium raises high concern because of its wide industrial applications and reported toxicity. Long-term (135 days) oral exposure of Wistar rats to chromium in the form of K2 Cr2 O7 (exposed group∼20 mg/kg/day) led to a decrease in thymus mass and thymocytes' number and caused structural and functional changes in the lymph nodes and spleen, namely lymphoreticular hyperplasia and plasmocytic macrophage transformation. Programmed cell death was increased in both thymocytes and splenocytes and decreased in lymphocytes in the T-zones of spleen and lymph nodes...
August 1, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31377139/extraction-of-phospholipid-rich-fractions-from-egg-yolk-and-development-of-liposomes-entrapping-a-dietary-polyphenol-with-neuroactive-potential
#11
João Bernardo, Romeu A Videira, Patrícia Valentão, Francisco Veiga, Paula B Andrade
A new protocol to obtain egg yolk phospholipids in ethanol is presented. Rutin-phospholipids nanoliposomes were prepared and characterized. The procedure takes advantage of the different solubility of egg yolk lipids in ethanol and acetone at low temperature, to efficiently obtain a phospholipid-rich fraction of high purity degree. The phospholipid content in the final fraction is 208.65 ± 26.46 μmol/g fresh egg yolk (16%), accounting for ca. 96% of the extract's dry weight. The phospholipid-rich fraction contains cholesterol (0...
August 1, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31377138/acetoin-is-a-precursor-to-diacetyl-in-e-cigarette-liquids
#12
Carl A Vas, Andrew Porter, Kevin McAdam
Use of the e-liquid flavourings diacetyl and acetyl propionyl has raised concerns that they might cause respiratory diseases amongst vapers. Product surveys show that these compounds, plus a less toxic alternative, acetoin, are widely used in e-liquids. We have investigated the chemistry of acetoin, acetyl propionyl and diacetyl in e-liquids. They are reactive, with concentrations falling substantially over time. Acetyl propionyl is the most reactive, diacetyl less so, and acetoin significantly more stable...
August 1, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31377137/toxicological-and-pharmacological-properties-of-essential-oils-of-calamintha-nepeta-origanum-virens-and-thymus-mastichina-of-alentejo-portugal
#13
Sílvia Macedo Arantes, Andreia Piçarra, Marisa Guerreiro, Cátia Salvador, Fátima Candeias, A Teresa Caldeira, M Rosário Martins
Three autochthonous flavouring herbs from Alentejo (Portugal), Calamintha nepeta (syn. Clinopodium nepeta), Origanun virens and Thymus mastichina, were selected to evaluate toxicological, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial potential of their essential oils (EOs). C. nepeta and T. mastichina EOs showed a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (86-91%) while O. virens had similar content of oxygenated and hydrocarbon monoterpenes (45%). Toxicological assessment suggests high activity against A...
August 1, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31376412/cadmium-disrupts-the-dna-damage-response-by-destabilizing-rnf168
#14
Shuyuan Zhang, Shuailin Hao, Zhiyu Qiu, Ya Wang, Yuqin Zhao, Youhang Li, Wen Gao, Yan Wu, Chang Liu, Xingzhi Xu, Hailong Wang
Cadmium (Cd) is a dispensable element for the human body and is usually considered a carcinogen. Occupational and environmental Cd exposure leads to sustained cellular proliferation in some tissues and tumorigenesis via an unclear mechanism. Here, we evaluated the role of Cd in the DNA damage response (DDR). We found that Cd exposure causes extensive DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents accumulation of ubiquitination signals at these sites of DNA damage. Cd treatment compromises 53BP1 and BRCA1 recruitment to DSBs induced by itself or DNA damaging agents and partially inactivates the G2/M checkpoint...
July 31, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31374298/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-3-3-dimethyl-5-2-2-3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl-4-penten-2-ol-cas-registry-number-107898-54-4
#15
A M Api, D Belsito, S Biserta, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M A Cancellieri, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, A D Fryer, S Gadhia, L Jones, K Joshi, A Lapczynski, M Lavelle, D C Liebler, M Na, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, F Rodriguez-Ropero, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, F Siddiqi, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31374297/protective-effects-of-aronia-melanocarpa-juices-either-alone-or-combined-with-extracts-from-rosa-canina-or-alchemilla-vulgaris-in-a-rat-model-of-indomethacin-induced-gastric-ulcers
#16
Stefka Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Petko Denev, Miroslav Eftimov, Antoaneta Georgieva, Vasilena Kuzmanova, Atanas Kuzmanov, Krasimir Kuzmanov, Maria Tzaneva
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of four Aronia melanocarpa-based juices in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration. THE JUICES WERE: AM1 and AM2 (produced from aronia fruits at 20 °C and 60 °C, respectively), AMRC (a mixture of AM2 with Rosa canina extract) and AMAV (aronia juice with Alchemilla vulgaris). Male Wistar rats were used. Each of the juices (10 ml/kg) was administered for 10 days. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously and after 4 h, the effects were estimated...
July 30, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31369853/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-%C3%AE-amylcinnamyl-alcohol-cas-registry-number-101-85-9
#17
A M Api, D Belsito, S Biserta, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M A Cancellieri, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, A D Fryer, S Gadhia, L Jones, K Joshi, A Lapczynski, M Lavelle, D C Liebler, M Na, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, F Rodriguez-Ropero, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, F Siddiqi, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31369852/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-isocyclocitral-cas-registry-number-1335-66-6
#18
A M Api, F Belmonte, D Belsito, S Biserta, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M A Cancellieri, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, A D Fryer, S Gadhia, L Jones, K Joshi, A Lapczynski, M Lavelle, D C Liebler, M Na, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, F Rodriguez-Ropero, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31369851/effect-of-chitosan-on-the-digestibility-and-molecular-structural-properties-of-lotus-seed-starch
#19
Mingjing Zheng, Suzhen Lei, Hongqiang Wu, Baodong Zheng, Yi Zhang, Hongliang Zeng
The effect of chitosan (CS) on the in vitro digestibility and molecular structural properties of lotus seed starch (LS), and the correlation matrix was studied. The addition of CS could delay the hydrolysis of LS due to a increased level of slowly digestible starch (SDS). LS-CS blends exhibited lower pasting viscosity, greater amylose content and higher ordered structure than LS alone. A significant correlation was found between the digestibility and molecular structural properties of LS-CS blends. Rapidly digestible starch content was positively correlated with viscosity and full width at half-maximum height (FWHH) at 480 cm-1 ; whereas, SDS content was negatively correlated with setback and FWHH...
July 29, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31369850/identification-of-moracin-n-in-mulberry-leaf-and-evaluation-of-antioxidant-activity
#20
Jiaming Tu, Dingding Shi, Lingrong Wen, Yueming Jiang, Yupeng Zhao, Jiali Yang, Huiling Liu, Guangrong Liu, Bao Yang
Mulberry leaf is a newly accepted vegetable for daily diet. It tastes good and has multiple health benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the chemicals responsible for these health benefits remain unveiled. Prenylated phenolics are characteristic bioactive compounds in mulberry leaf, which are recognized as good antioxidants. In this work, moracin N was purified from mulberry leaf. It showed better antioxidant activities than resveratrol. The EC50 value of cellular antioxidant activity was 24...
July 29, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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