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Food and Chemical Toxicology

Hui Ye, Ian C Shaw
In silico molecular modelling is used to study interactions between flavonoid phytoestrogens and estrogen receptor (ER)α. Twenty flavonoids from foods were studied; e.g., genistein from soy, naringenin from grapefruit, phloretin from pears, chrysin from oyster mushrooms. These potential ligands' molecular attributes and their spatial arrangements that favour binding to the ligand binding cleft (LBC) of ERα are identified, and Docking Scores calculated. The Docking Score order is the same as the estrogenicity order for 8 of the flavonoids studied in detail...
April 12, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Elga Schreiber, Oscar Alfageme, Tania Garcia, Neus González, Juan José Sirvent, Margarita Torrente, Mercedes Gómez, José L Domingo
This study was aimed at determining whether dienestrol (DIES) affects reproduction in male offspring of rats following oral maternal exposure during gestation and lactation. Pregnant rats were treated from GD 6 to PND 21. Animals received 0 (control-vehicle), 0.75, 1.5, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 50, 75 μg/kg bw/d of DIES. A control group -without vehicle-was also included. High DIES concentrations caused abortions at 75 and 50 μg/kg bw/d, while at 12.5 μg/kg bw/d had still miscarriages. Ten male rats per group were kept alive until PND 90 to ensure sexual maturity...
April 12, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yue Wang, Shiyu Ji, Wenjing Zang, Nianchen Wang, Jinping Cao, Xian Li, Chongde Sun
In this study, a unique citrus species (Citrus australasica) was selected, and its fruit characteristics, phenolic compounds and ability to inhibit inflammation were preliminarily studied. Finger lime fruits showed distinctive features in shape, size, weight, colour, total soluble solids, water-soluble pectin, sugar and acids contents. Combining UPLC-HRMS and UPLC-DAD analysis, 31 phenolics, 1 secoiridoid derivative and 1 neolignan glycoside were preliminarily identified and quantified. The phenolics composition of finger limes showed cultivar and tissue specificity...
April 9, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Verónica García Ibarra, Raquel Sendón, Juana Bustos, Perfecto Paseiro Losada, Ana Rodríguez Bernaldo de Quirós
Food packaging may be a potential source of contamination, through the migration of chemicals from the packaging into the food, thus food consumption is an important route of human exposure to packaging contaminants. In the present study an approach to estimate the exposure to different chemicals transferred from food packaging was designed. As a first step a GC-MS screening was conducted to identify potential contaminants in the materials. Secondly, different chemicals previously identified in the packaging materials were selected for exposure assessment...
April 8, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Alla P Toropova, Andrey A Toropov, Marco Marzo, Sylvia E Escher, Jean Lou Dorne, Nikolaos Georgiadis, Emilio Benfenati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Isaac M Ogara, Wilfred A Abia, Benedikt Warth, Bojan Šarkanj, Paul C Turner, Rudolf Krska
In order to understand the changes in toxic metabolite profiles in uncooked and cooked foods, samples of flour/grain (n = 40) and their corresponding plate-ready food (n = 39) were collected from 40 households in two states of northern Nigeria. The food samples were analyzed for multiple fungal metabolites by LC-MS/MS and daily intakes of mycotoxins in the diets were estimated and compared to established margin of exposure (MOE) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. Both food groups contained 65 fungal and plant metabolites, inclusive of 23 mycotoxins...
April 6, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Grace E Sutherland, Marco E Franco, Sarah M Willing, Ramon Lavado
The accumulation of chemical compounds in fish tissue represents significant health concerns for seafood consumers, but little is known about the risks to human health associated with such substances. The identification of adverse biological responses upon exposure to contaminants has been facilitated by the development of in vitro systems resembling the human dietary pathway. The present study explores the applicability of an organotypic co-culture system, using intestinal (Caco-2) and hepatic (HepaRG) cell lines, to provide insight into the toxicity of chemical mixtures found in commercially available seafood...
April 6, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Álvaro Crespo, Vicente Monedero, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Manuel Zúñiga
The capacity of two LAB strains to inhibit inorganic [Hg(II)] and organic (methyl-Hg; MeHg) mercury translocation through monolayers of co-cultures of NCM460 and HT29-MTX colonic cells was evaluated. Lactobacillus casei BL23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356 reduced the permeability of Hg(II) and MeHg from aqueous solutions through NCM460/HT29-MTX monolayers (20-94% reduction). However, assays using the bioaccessible (soluble) Hg fraction obtained by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of Hg-contaminated swordfish only showed a reduction (42%) with the BL23 strain...
April 6, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Guanlan Fan, Qi Zhang, Yang Wan, Feng Lv, Yunxi Chen, Yuan Ni, Wen Zou, Wei Zhang, Hui Wang
Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) could induce ovarian dysplasia in offspring. This study aimed to confirm its intrauterine origin and explore a programming mechanism of ovarian dysplasia caused by PNE. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine (2 mg/kg.d) from gestation day (GD) 9 to GD20. Serum of female offspring was obtained for hormone assays and ovarian tissues were collected. The results showed that PNE impaired ovarian development, and inhibited estradiol production and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) expression before and after birth...
April 5, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yuqing Sun, Shaoze Shi, Yaqiu Li, Qi Wang
The broad use of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and the accompanied incidences of kidney injury have attracted considerable interest in investigating the responsible toxic ingredients. It is challenging to evaluate toxicity of TCMs since they contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is an efficient tool to predict toxicity and QSAR study on TCMs-induced nephrotoxicity remains lacked. We developed QSAR models using three datasets of 609 compounds: natural products, drugs, and mixed (contained both kinds of data) datasets...
April 4, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Robin Mesnage, Charles Benbrook, Michael N Antoniou
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs). Other chemicals in GBHs are presumed as inert by regulatory authorities and are largely ignored in pesticide safety evaluations. We identified the surfactants in a cross-section of GBH formulations and compared their acute toxic effects. The first generation of polyethoxylated amine (POEA) surfactants (POE-tallowamine) in Roundup are markedly more toxic than glyphosate and heightened concerns of risks to human health, especially among heavily-exposed applicators...
April 3, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Zebin Guo, Xiangze Jia, Xiong Lin, Bingyan Chen, Siwei Sun, Baodong Zheng
Lotus seed amylose-fatty acid complexes were prepared using high hydrostatic pressure and the relationship between their structural properties and digestibility was investigated. The formation of lotus seed amylose-fatty acid complexes increased the values of weight molar mass (Mw), number molar mass (Mn), polydispersity index and resistant starch content compared to those of amylose controls. Mw and Mn values of lotus seed amylose and complexes decreased with an increase in high hydrostatic pressure from 500 MPa to 600 MPa, suggesting that the lotus seed amylose was decomposed into short glucan chains...
April 2, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ha-Yeon Song, Woo Sik Kim, Sajid Mushtaq, Ji Min Park, Sung-Hyun Choi, Jae-Woo Cho, Seung-Taik Lim, Eui-Baek Byun
Gamma irradiation is a useful technology to change the physical and biological properties of natural molecules. In this study, we investigated whether gamma irradiation improve properties of chrysin as an anti-inflammatory candidates. Chrysin was converted into two compounds (CM1 and CM2) by gamma irradiation. We determined the therapeutic potential of these compounds in bone marrow-derived macrophages and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in Balb/c mice. The structural changes to chrysin led to the reduction of cytotoxicity without loss of anti-inflammatory properties in BMDMs...
April 1, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yazhen Chen, Hetong Lin, Mengshi Lin, Peixuan Lin, Jicheng Chen
Defatted-sesame meal (DSM), a byproduct of sesame oil, has attracted considerable interest in the food industry for its strong antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to measure the content and distribution of lignans in DSM and evaluate their antioxidant activity after thermal processing and in vitro digestion. The results showed that the sesame lignans (SL) content and antioxidant activity were significantly influenced by the temperature and time during thermal preparation, and the maximum antioxidant potency composite index (ACI) was obtained after roasting the samples at 240 °C for 20 min...
April 1, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Peng Liu, Wei Wang, Jonathan Tang, Richard P Bowater, Yongping Bao
Sulforaphane (SFN) has shown anti-cancer effects in cellular and animal studies but its effectiveness has been limited in human studies. Here, the effects of SFN were measured in both human hepatocyte (HHL5) and hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Results showed that SFN inhibited cell viability and induced DNA strand breaks at high doses (≥20 μM). It also activated the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels at 24 h. Pre-treatment with a low dose SFN (≤5 μM) protected against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced cell damage...
March 30, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sandra Ventura, Márcio Rodrigues, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Garcinia cambogia supplements are widely used for weight loss. Knowing that epilepsy patients are at greater risk of developing overweight/obesity, the investigation of herb-drug interactions involving antiepileptic drugs of narrow therapeutic index is fully justified. This work was planned to assess potential pharmacokinetic-based interactions between G. cambogia extract and lamotrigine (LTG) through two independent pharmacokinetic studies. In the first study (co-administration study), rats were orally co-administered with a single-dose of G...
March 30, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Elisabet Cuyàs, Sara Verdura, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Ignacio Viciano, Laura Llorach-Parés, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera, Joan Brunet, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, José Antonio Encinar, Javier A Menendez
Catechol-containing polyphenols present in coffee and tea, while serving as excellent substrates for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-catalyzed O-methylation, can also operate as COMT inhibitors. However, little is known about the relationship between COMT and the characteristic phenolics present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). We here selected the EVOO dihydroxy-phenol oleacein for a computational study of COMT-driven methylation using classic molecular docking/molecular dynamics simulations and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics, which were supported by in vitro activity studies using human COMT...
March 29, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yongyi Yu, Yajun Zhang, Cebin Hu, Xinyuan Zou, Yang Lin, Yangyuan Xia, Lijun You
An immunologically active polysaccharide named as UPP-2 (1035.52 kDa) was isolated from Undaria pinnatifida using traditional water extraction followed by DEAE Sepharose fast flow chromatography. UPP-2 was proven to be a low sulfated polysaccharide with relatively abundant uronic acid (13.08 ± 0.67%). UPP-2 mainly consisted of xylose (64.55%), glucose (23.81%), arabinose (5.90%) and mannose (4.26%), and its main glycosidic linkage types included →2)-α-D-Xylp-(1→, →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, α-D-Xylp-(1→ and →2,4)-β-D-Xylp-(1 → ...
March 26, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Larissa T Franco, Tânia Petta, George E Rottinghaus, Keliani Bordin, Gilmar A Gomes, Paula Alvito, Ricardo Assunção, Carlos A F Oliveira
This study aimed to assess the exposure of Brazilian residents (N = 86) from rural areas to multiple mycotoxins and characterize the associated risk in two sampling periods (SP) (April-May and December/2016). Mycotoxins in food and urine samples were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Mean probable daily intake (PDI) values based on occurrence data in foods in both SP varied from 0.007 to 0.013, 0.069 to 1.002, 0.119 to 0.321 and 0.013-0.156 μg kg-1 body weight (bw) day-1 for aflatoxins (AFs), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FBs) and zearalenone (ZEN), respectively...
March 26, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yiyan Wang, Peipei Pan, Xiaoheng Li, Qiqi Zhu, Tongliang Huang, Ren-Shan Ge
Human placental CYP19A1 catalyzes the estrogen synthesis from androgens. The enzyme is encoded by CYP19A1 gene located in chromosome 15q21. This enzyme is a monooxygenase in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The various promoters of the CYP19A1 gene determine its expression in different tissues and the distal promoter I.1 controls its expression in the placenta and retinoids can regulate the expression. Many food components and environmental chemicals inhibit CYP19A1 activity via different modes of action. These chemicals include gossypol, flavones, flavanones, chalconoids, resveratrol, and tobacco alkaloids derived from foods as well as phthalates, insecticides, fungicides, and biocides in the contaminated foods...
March 25, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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