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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

Chen Chen, Shi-Feng Chu, Qi-Di Ai, Zhao Zhang, Fei-Fei Guan, Sha-Sha Wang, Yi-Xiao Dong, Jie Zhu, Wen-Xuan Jian, Nai-Hong Chen
CKLF1 is a chemokine with increased expression in ischemic brain, and targeting CKLF1 has shown therapeutic effects in cerebral ischemia model. Microglia/macrophage polarization is a mechanism involved in poststroke injury expansion. Considering the quick and obvious response of CKLF1 and expeditious evolution of stroke lesions, we focused on the effects of CKLF1 on microglial/macrophage polarization at early stage of ischemic stroke (IS). The present study is to investigate the CKLF1-mediated expression of microglia/macrophage phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, discussing the involved pathway...
April 13, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Cassiana Siebert, Micaela Federizzi de Oliveira, Vanusa Manfredini, Angela T S Wyse
Homocysteine (HCY) has been linked to oxidative stress and varied metabolic changes that are dependent on its concentration and affected tissues. In the present study we evaluate parameters of energy metabolism [succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), complex II and IV (cytochrome c oxidase), and ATP levels] and oxidative stress [DCFH oxidation, nitrite levels, antioxidant enzymes and lipid, protein and DNA damages, as well as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related (Nrf2) protein abundance] in amygdala and prefrontal cortex of HCY-treated rats...
April 4, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Alejandro F De Nicola, Maria Claudia Gonzalez Deniselle
Steroids are complex molecules, exerting known and still unknown effects in the nervous system. Throughout this volume, the reader will find a wide spectrum of articles, giving an up-to-date account of the molecular, physiological, pharmacological, and clinical aspects of steroid action on the nervous system.
April 2, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jiaying Yuan, Benson O A Botchway, Yong Zhang, Xiaoning Tan, Xizhi Wang, Xuehong Liu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe nervous system disease with high morbidity and disability rate. Signaling pathways play a key role in the neuronal restorative mechanism following SCI. SRY-related high mobility group (HMG)-box gene 9 (SOX9) affects glial scar formation via Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway. Activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is transferred into nucleus to upregulate TGF-β-SOX9. Curcumin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties...
March 26, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Paola Brivio, Judith R Homberg, Marco A Riva, Francesca Calabrese
The serotoninergic system plays a key role in environmental sensitivity, potentially through down-stream effects on the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. We previously demonstrated that juvenile serotonin transporter knockout (SERT-/- ) rats, showing increased environmental sensitivity, exhibit a decreased GABA-mediated inhibitory tone in the cortex. Since the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems are tightly interconnected, we here analyzed glutamatergic markers in the prefrontal cortex of SERT-/- rats, from the early stages of life until adulthood...
March 26, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Timothy D Foley
Free radical-mediated oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity have long been considered insults relevant to the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other aging-related neurodegenerative disorders (NDD). Among these phenomena, the significance of oxidative stress and, more generally, redox perturbations, for NDD remain ill-defined and unsubstantiated. Here, I argue that (i) free radical-mediated oxidations of biomolecules can be dissociated from the progression of NDD, (ii) oxidative stress fails as a descriptor of cellular redox states under conditions relevant to disease, and (iii) aberrant upregulation of compensatory reducing activities in neural cells, resulting in reductive shifts in thiol-based redox potentials, may be an overlooked and paradoxical contributor to disease progression...
March 23, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jelena Popović, Andrijana Klajn, Tatjana Paunesku, Qing Ma, Si Chen, Barry Lai, Milena Stevanović, Gayle E Woloschak
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a side effect of platinum-based chemotherapy and decreases the quality of life of cancer patients. We compared neuroprotective properties of several agents using an in vitro model of terminally differentiated human cells NT2-N derived from cell line NT2/D1. Sodium azide and an active metabolite of amifostine (WR1065) increase cell viability in simultaneous treatment with cisplatin. In addition, WR1065 protects the non-dividing neurons by decreasing cisplatin caused oxidative stress and apoptosis...
March 14, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaoxu Zhang, Piao Ye, Dandan Wang, Yunsheng Liu, Lan Cao, Yancong Wang, Yuxia Xu, Cuiqing Zhu
Reactive microglia clustering around amyloid plaques in brain is a histopathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and reflects the contribution of neuroinflammation in AD pathogenesis. β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) has been shown to induce a range of microglial responses including chemotaxis, cytotoxicity and inflammation, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Considering the fundamental role of RhoA/ROCK signaling in cell migration and its broad implication in AD and neuroinflammation, we hypothesized that RhoA/ROCK signaling might be involved in Aβ-induced microglial responses...
March 9, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Chi-Hsin Lin, Li-Ya Liao, Tsung-Ying Yang, Yi-Jyun Chang, Chia-Wen Tung, Shih-Lan Hsu, Chi-Mei Hsueh
It is known that cerebral ischemia can cause brain inflammation and adiposome can serve as a depot of inflammatory mediators. In the study, the pro-inflammatory and pro-death role of adiposome in ischemic microglia and ischemic brain was newly investigated. The contribution of PPARγ to adiposome formation was also evaluated for the first time in ischemic microglia. Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) animal model and the in vitro glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD) cell model were both applied in the study...
March 9, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Amanda Spring de Almeida, Flávia Karine Rigo, Samira Dal-Toé De Prá, Alessandra Marcone Milioli, Diéssica Padilha Dalenogare, Gabriele Cheiran Pereira, Camila Dos Santos Ritter, Diulle Spat Peres, Caren Tatiane de David Antoniazzi, Carolina Stein, Rafael Noal Moresco, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Gabriela Trevisan
Severe and poorly treated pain often accompanies breast cancer. Thus, novel mechanisms involved in breast cancer-induced pain should be investigated. Then, it is necessary to characterize animal models that are reliable with the symptoms and progression of the disease as observed in humans. Explaining cancer-induced nociception in a murine model of breast carcinoma was the aim of this study. 4T1 (104 ) lineage cells were inoculated in the right fourth mammary fat pad of female BALB/c mice; after this, mechanical and cold allodynia, or mouse grimace scale (MGS) were observed for 30 days...
March 8, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Marcos Galán-Ganga, Ángel J García-Yagüe, Isabel Lastres-Becker
Microglial cells are essential mediators of neuroinflammatory processes involved in several pathologies. Moreover, the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) is essential in the crosstalk between neurons and microglia. However, the exact roles of CX3CL1, CX3CL1 receptor (CX3CR1) and microglia signalling are not fully understood in neuroinflammation. In addition, the findings reported on this subject are controversial. In this work, we investigated whether CX3CL1 induced pro-inflammatory signalling activation through NF-κB pathway...
March 4, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Chongyang Tang, Haiyang Wang, Hongmei Wu, Shi Yan, Zhibin Han, Zhenfeng Jiang, Meng Na, Mian Guo, Dunyue Lu, Zhiguo Lin
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with neurodegeneration, often leading to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Type 1 HS, which is characterized by severe neuronal loss and gliosis predominantly in regions CA1 and CA4, is the most common subtype and is associated with the best prognosis according to the ILAE classification system. MiRNAs participate in the biological processes underlying many nervous system diseases, including epilepsy. However, the miRNA expression profile of HS ILAE type 1 is not completely understood...
February 21, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Xiao-Qing Li, Yang-Yang Wang, Ting-Ting Yang, Yi-Ning Qian, He Yin, Shan-Shan Zhong, Rong A, Yang He, Bao-Lei Xu, Guang-Zhi Liu
Various studies demonstrate that CD137 (TNFRSF9, 4-1BB) promotes atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in experimental models via interactions with the CD137 ligand (CD137L). However, the exact role of CD137 in ischemic stroke remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed dynamic changes of peripheral CD137 expression on T cells in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), as well as alternation of neurological function, infarct size and cerebral inflammatory status after inhibition of the CD137/CD137L pathway using an anti-CD137L monoclonal antibody...
February 18, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Tania Campos-Ordonez, David Zarate-Lopez, Nereida Ibarra-Castaneda, Jonathan Buritica, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Cyclohexane (CHX) is an organic solvent commonly used as a drug-of-abuse. This drug increases the oxidative stress and glial reactivity in the hippocampus, which suggests that this brain region is vulnerable to CHX effects. This study aimed to establish the behavioral changes and the pathological alterations that occur in the Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) and Dentate Gyrus (DG) after a long-lasting exposure to CHX. We exposed CD1 mice to a recreational-like dose of CHX (~ 30,000 ppm) for 30 days and explored its consequences in motor skills, reward-seeking behavior, and the CA3 and DG hippocampal subfields...
February 15, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Bo Liu, Ze-Bin Huang, Xin Chen, Yi-Xiang See, Zi-Kai Chen, Huan-Kai Yao
Glucose and glutamine are two essential ingredients for cell growth. Glycolysis and glutaminolysis can be linked by glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT, composed of GFAT1 and GFAT2) that catalyzes the synthesis of glucosamine-6-phosphate and glutamate by using fructose-6-phosphate and glutamine as substrates. The role of mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR, composed of MTOR1 and MTOR2) in regulating glycolysis has been explored in human cancer cells. However, whether MTOR can interact with GFAT to regulate glucosamine-6-phosphate is poorly understood...
February 15, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Francele Valente Piazza, Ethiane Segabinazi, André Luís Ferreira de Meireles, Filipe Mega, Christiano de Figueiredo Spindler, Otávio Américo Augustin, Gabriela Dos Santos Salvalaggio, Matilde Achaval, Maria Sol Kruse, Héctor Coirini, Simone Marcuzzo
Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavorable intrauterine environment for offspring development. Although it is known that diabetes can cause brain alterations and increased risk for neurologic disorders, the relationship between neuroimmune activation, brain changes, and neurodevelopment deficits in the offspring remains unclear. In order to elucidate the short- and long-term biological basis of the developmental outcomes caused by the severe uncontrolled maternal hyperglycemia, we studied apoptosis, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation pathways in the hippocampus of neonates and young rats born to diabetic dams...
February 9, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Nasreena Sajjad, Abubakar Wani, Ankita Sharma, Rohaya Ali, Sumaya Hassan, Rabia Hamid, Huma Habib, Bashir Ahmad Ganai
Alzheimer disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. It is the common form of dementia in elderly people. The etiology of this disease is multifactorial, pathologically it is accompanied with accumulation of amyloid beta and neurofibrillary tangles. Accumulation of amyloid beta and mitochondrial dysfunction leads to oxidative stress. In this study, neuroprotective effect of Artemisiaamygdalina against H2 O2 -induced death was studied in differentiated N2a and SH-SY5Ycells. Cells were treated with H2 O2 to induce toxicity which was attenuated by Artemisia amygdalina...
February 6, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Christopher Karen, Koilmani Emmanuvel Rajan
Early-life experiences have been linked to individual's epigenetic status and social behaviour. Therefore, the present study aims to test whether the presence of mother suppress the early-life stressful social experience (SSE)-induced effect on social behaviour of adolescent and adult rats, and associated epigenetic changes. To test this, experimental groups [maternally separated pups (MSP)/pups with their mother (M+P)] were allowed to experience the presence of a stranger (ST), and then their social behaviour was compared with the maternal separated (MS) and control (Con) group...
February 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
P S Jairani, P M Aswathy, Dhanya Krishnan, Ramsekhar N Menon, Joe Verghese, P S Mathuranath, Srinivas Gopala
Peripheral blood-derived macrophages isolated from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have earlier been reported to demonstrate ineffective phagocytosis of amyloid-beta compared to the age-matched control subjects. However, the mechanisms causing unsuccessful phagocytosis remain unclear. Oxidative stress and the presence of ApoEε4 allele has been reported to play a major role in the pathogenesis of AD, but the contribution of oxidative stress and ApoEε4 in macrophage dysfunction leading to ineffective Aβ phagocytosis needs to be analyzed...
January 29, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Zhenhai Yu, Ning Xu, Naili Zhang, Yanlian Xiong, Zhiqiang Wang, Shaohua Liang, Dongmei Zhao, Fei Huang, Chuansen Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of transplantation of bone marrow neural tissue-committed stem cell-derived sensory neuron-like cells for the repair of peripheral nerve sensory impairments in rats. Bone marrow was isolated and cultured to obtain the neural tissue-committed stem cells (NTCSCs), and the differentiation of these cells into sensory neuron-like cells was induced. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), bone marrow NTCSCs, and bone marrow NTCSC-derived sensory neurons (NTCSC-SNs) were transplanted by microinjection into the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) in an animal model of sensory defect...
January 25, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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