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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

Jennifer D Ellis, Stella M Resko, Kathryn Szechy, Richard Smith, Theresa J Early
Support for legalization of marijuana has increased over the past several years. While studies have examined correlates of favoring marijuana legalization, less attention has been placed on those who are unsure about legalization, despite the potentially important role of this group as states vote on legalization in upcoming elections. Using data from a statewide sample of adults in Michigan, this study examined whether those who support, oppose, or are unsure about legalization differed based on demographics, marijuana use, and perceived risk associated with marijuana use...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Justine W Welsh, Lora L Passetti, Rodney R Funk, Jane Ellen Smith, Robert J Meyers, Mark D Godley
Treatment retention and engagement of emerging adults with opioid use disorders can be particularly challenging. This study compares treatment outcomes of young adults with primary opioid use (OU) to those with primary marijuana or alcohol use (MAU), who received the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), an evidence-based therapy for the treatment of substance use. The MAU and OU groups were comprised of an outcome sample of 419 young adults ages 18-25. Groups were compared on intake demographics, clinical characteristics, and measures of treatment retention and other associated factors, including treatment initiation and engagement...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Kyubeom Kim, Hyesung Lee, Ju-Young Shin
Our study assessed the trends and patterns of tramadol prescriptions and possible correlations of a person being prescribed tramadol using the Korean National Health Insurance Service Sample Cohort from 2003 to 2013. The study population consisted of patients who were prescribed tramadol, opioids, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in an outpatient setting. From 2003 to 2013, the number of tramadol users increased from 2,476 (19.9% of the study population in 2003) to 124,592 (33.3% of the 2013 study population)...
May 11, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Mathilde M Husky, Chrianna Bharat, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Viviane Kovess-Masfety
The study aimed to examine the age of onset of stages of alcohol use in the general population, and to estimate the association of cohort use with the probability of transitioning from alcohol use to alcohol use disorder (AUD) and remission. French data (N = 2,894) from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders Survey and collected in 2000 were used. Data on lifetime history of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders, and remission were collected. Nearly every adult has consumed alcohol at least once in their lifetime (92...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Phillip L Marotta, Tim Hunt, Louisa Gilbert, Elwin Wu, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Nabila El-Bassel
Over the last decade, New York State has experienced one of the greatest increases in opioid overdose deaths in the United States, particularly from heroin and synthetic opioids. This study investigated spatial patterns in the distribution of county-level rates of overdose deaths in New York State and associations between prescriptions for opioid pain relievers, race, and overdose deaths from 2013-2015. Global and local Moran's I tests for spatial autocorrelation examined Bayesian smoothed rates of overdose for clusters of counties with high and low rates of overdose mortality...
May 5, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Marc Vogel, Patrick Köck, Johannes Strasser, Gerhard Wiesbeck, Marc Walter, Kenneth M Dürsteler
We present the case of a 35-year-old woman in heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) expressing the wish for the transition to oral opioid agonist treatment. After failed attempts to change to oral diacetylmorphine and slow-release oral morphine, respectively, she was induced on overlapping buprenorphine (BUP) treatment with the Bernese method. Gradual dose increases to BUP 48 mg per day did not result in attenuation of subjective effects of IV diacetylmorphine (DAM) 190 mg. Instead, the patient showed increased sedation...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Ilana Berlowitz, Heinrich Walt, Christian Ghasarian, Fernando Mendive, Chantal Martin-Soelch
Chronic illness management today commonly involves alternative medicines. Substance use disorder (SUD), as a chronic psychosomatic illness, might benefit from a similar approach. The accredited Takiwasi Center offers such an SUD treatment program involving Amazonian medicine combined with psychotherapy. The current study assessed this integrative program's short-term therapeutic effects. We measured baseline data from 53 dependence-diagnosed males admitted to treatment (T1) and repeated clinical outcome variables at treatment completion (T2)...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Ediomo-Ubong E Nelson, Gboyega E Abikoye
This study investigates barriers to utilization of drug abuse treatment by female street sex workers in Nigeria. Twenty-seven (n = 27) street sex workers were recruited through venue-based snow-ball sampling. In-depth, individual interviews were conducted, and transcripts were subjected to thematic, inductive and data-driven analysis. Sex workers use psychoactive drugs to manage the hazards of street sex work, including guilt, stigma, and violence. While a few denied drug-related harms, doubted treatment efficacy and evinced self-efficacy in managing drug problems, the majority of sex workers recognized drug-related harms and the need for treatment...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Alexandra Vsl Rodrigues, Francisco Jcg Almeida, Maria A Vieira-Coelho
N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is an indole alkaloid produced by a number of plants and animals, including humans. Its psychoactive effects were first described in 1956 by Stephen Szára, but have been exploited for centuries by South American indigenous populations in the form of ayahuasca. In the present review, we assess the state of the art regarding a putative role for endogenous DMT and potential clinical applications of ayahuasca and DMT. A review assessing the pharmacological profile of DMT and its clinical effects in humans was performed using the PubMed data base until 5 August 2018 with the words: ayahuasca and N,N-dimethyltryptamine...
April 25, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Courtenay Cummings, Charlotte Beard, Janice M Habarth, Christopher Weaver, Amie Haas
Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used substances for college-attending young adults. This study evaluated differences in substance-specific consequence attribution by alcohol-marijuana use patterns (concurrent alcohol and marijuana [CAM; use of both substances, not at same time] and simultaneous [SAM; use of both, at same time]) as well as alcohol-only (AO). First-year college students with prior alcohol use (N = 610, 50.9% women, 71% White, Mage = 18) completed an online assessment of past-three-month substance use, including SAM, and related consequences...
April 19, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Thomas K Brown, Geoff E Noller, Julie O Denenberg
This article examines the therapeutic potential of ibogaine, a powerful oneiric alkaloid derived from Tabernanthe iboga, through exploring the subjective experiences of 44 participants from two observational treatment studies for opioid use disorder. Following treatment with ibogaine HCl, the participants (Mexico, n = 30; New Zealand, n = 14) completed the States of Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) to quantify the magnitude of their psychotropic experience. Participants were asked to provide written transcripts of their experiences, with those supplied being analyzed thematically through an iterative process, to produce a set of coded themes...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Matthew J Baggott, Kathleen J Garrison, Jeremy R Coyle, Gantt P Galloway, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis, John E Mendelson
Entactogens such as 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "molly", "ecstasy") appear to have unusual, potentially therapeutic, emotional effects. Understanding their mechanisms can benefit from clinical experiments with related drugs. Yet the first known drug with such properties, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), remains poorly studied and its pharmacokinetics in humans are unknown. We conducted a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 1.4 mg/kg oral racemic MDA and compared results to those from our prior similar studies with 1...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Kirsten E Smith, Amanda M Bunting, Robert Walker, Martin T Hall, Oliver Grundmann, Olivia Castillo
In Asia, Mitragyna speciosa (e.g., "kratom") has been used to mitigate alcohol and drug dependence. Some preliminary findings suggest kratom's potential use as an informal harm-reduction method in the United States, such as an opioid substitute or as a means of lessening opioid withdrawal symptoms. To determine correlates of past-year kratom use among a sample of polysubstance users enrolled in residential recovery programs in Kentucky, an anonymous survey was completed by clients in April 2017. Logistic regression was used to identify significant associations with past-year kratom use...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Alexander Trope, Brian T Anderson, Andrew R Hooker, Giancarlo Glick, Christopher Stauffer, Joshua D Woolley
Contemporary research with classic psychedelic drugs (e.g., lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin) is indebted to the twentieth-century researchers and clinicians who generated valuable clinical knowledge of these substances through experimentation. Several recent reviews that highlight the contributions of this early literature have focused on psychedelic-assisted individual psychotherapy modalities. None have attempted to systematically identify and compile experimental studies of psychedelic-assisted group therapy...
April 5, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Alan K Davis, Brooke J Arterberry
Marijuana (MJ) refusal self-efficacy and obsessive/harmonious passion for MJ use are associated with use and related consequences but have not been examined simultaneously. We examined the relation among obsessive/harmonious passion for MJ use, refusal self-efficacy, frequency of use, and related consequences in an online community sample (n = 524; mean age = 23.78; 87.5% male). A path analysis revealed that, while controlling for the relationship between MJ use and consequences, lower refusal self-efficacy was related to greater obsessive passion and to greater harmonious passion, and was associated with more consequences but not with MJ use...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
James Fadiman, Sophia Korb
Albert Hoffman suggested that low doses of LSD might be an appropriate alternative to Ritalin. Following this possibility, a systematic exploration of the effects of "microdoses," comprising hundreds of lengthy descriptive reports, was undertaken. Based on these reports, using a psychedelic in the microdose range (10 micrograms) every three days was determined to be safe across a wide variety of individuals and conditions. Over 18 months, more than a thousand individuals from 59 countries did a daily evaluation of negative and positive emotional state using the PANAS checklist plus written reports for between one week and four months...
March 29, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Jennifer Dore, Brent Turnipseed, Shannon Dwyer, Andrea Turnipseed, Julane Andries, German Ascani, Celeste Monnette, Angela Huidekoper, Nicole Strauss, Phil Wolfson
Currently, ketamine is the only legal psychedelic medicine available to mental health providers for the treatment of emotional suffering. Over the past several years, ketamine has come into psychiatric use as an intervention for treatment resistant depression (TRD), administered intravenously without a psychotherapeutic component. In these settings, ketamine's psychedelic effects are viewed as undesirable "side effects." In contrast, we believe ketamine can benefit patients with a wide variety of diagnoses when administered with psychotherapy and using its psychedelic properties without need for intravenous (IV) access...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Alicia L Danforth
This exploratory inquiry analyzed subjective experiences autistic adults reported after they took the drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also known as ecstasy, in nonclinical settings. Using a secure, globally available website, this study collected data from participants in 13 countries who were experienced with MDMA (n = 100). A subset of survey respondents (n = 24) were then invited to participate in qualitative interviews. The researcher applied thematic content analysis of interview transcripts to create a comprehensive account of emergent themes...
March 25, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
David E Smith
A review of the primary role that this journal (and by extension, Dr. David Smith) has played in bearing witness to the second wave of psychedelic research as our modern-day culture embraces the current third wave of the psychedelic revival, exploring through research its therapeutic uses.
March 20, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Anne C Wagner, Michael C Mithoefer, Ann T Mithoefer, Candice M Monson
Treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have evolved significantly in the past 35 years. From what was historically viewed as a pervasive, intractable condition have emerged multiple evidence-based intervention options. These treatments, predominantly cognitive behavioral in orientation, provide significant symptom improvement in 50-60% of recipients. The treatment of PTSD with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy using a supportive, non-directive approach has yielded promising results. It is unknown, however, how different therapeutic modalities could impact or improve outcomes...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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