journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38049116/neurorehabilitation-for-adults-with-brain-and-spine-tumors
#41
REVIEW
Hanna Hunter, Evelyn Qin, Allison Wallingford, April Hyon, Amar Patel
Central nervous system (CNS) malignancies (i.e. brain and spine tumors) and their treatments can result in a multitude of neurologic deficits. Patients with CNS malignancies experience physical, cognitive, and psychosocial sequelae that can impact their mobility and quality of life. Neurorehabilitation can play a critical role in maintaining independence, preventing disability, and optimizing safety with activities of daily living. This review provides an overview of the neurorehabilitation approaches for patients with CNS malignancies, neurologic impairments frequently treated, and rehabilitation interventions in various health care settings...
February 2024: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38183973/headache-management-in-individuals-with-brain-tumor
#42
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ami Cuneo, Natalia Murinova
Headache occurs commonly in individuals diagnosed with cerebral neoplasm. Though the features of a brain tumor-associated headache may vary, a progressive nature of headache and a change in headache phenotype from a prior primary headache disorder often are identified. Pathophysiologic mechanisms proposed for headache associated with brain tumor include headache related to traction on pain-sensitive structures, activation of central and peripheral pain processes, and complications from surgical, chemotherapeutic and/or radiotherapy treatment(s)...
January 6, 2024: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38096849/neuro-oncology-treatment-strategies-for-primary-glial-tumors
#43
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Fernando Santos-Pinheiro, Jerome J Graber
Primary brain tumors underwent reclassification in the 2021 World Health Organization update, relying on molecular findings (especially isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations and chromosomal changes in 1p, 19q, gain of chromosome 7 and loss of chromosome 10). Newer entities have also been described including histone 3 mutant midline gliomas. These updated pathologic classifications improve prognostication and reliable diagnosis, but may confuse interpretation of prior clinical trials and require reclassification of patients diagnosed in the past...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38096848/neuro-oncology
#44
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lynne P Taylor, Tresa M McGranahan, Vyshak Alva Venur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38011864/management-of-brain-metastases-a-review-of-novel-therapies
#45
REVIEW
Shreyas Bellur, Atulya Aman Khosla, Ahmad Ozair, Rupesh Kotecha, Michael W McDermott, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
Brain metastases (BMs) represent the most common intracranial tumors in adults, and most commonly originate from lung, followed by breast, melanoma, kidney, and colorectal cancer. Management of BM is individualized based on the size and number of brain metastases, the extent of extracranial disease, the primary tumor subtype, neurological symptoms, and prior lines of therapy. Until recently, treatment strategies were limited to local therapies, like surgical resection and radiotherapy, the latter in the form of whole-brain radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37995744/central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#46
REVIEW
Trusha Shah, Vyshak A Venur
Central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) is a rare and aggressive malignancy that primarily affects the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of CNSL encompassing its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment modalities, and prognosis. Although the main focus is on primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), ocular lymphoma, primary leptomeningeal lymphoma, and secondary CNS lymphoma are also discussed. The pathobiology of CNSL involves the infiltration of malignant lymphocytes within the CNS parenchyma or leptomeninges...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37989214/leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-from-solid-tumor-malignancies-treatment-strategies-and-biomarkers
#47
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rachna Malani, Ankush Bhatia, Allison Betof Warner, Jonathan T Yang
Leptomeningeal metastases/diseases (LMDs) are a late-stage complication of solid tumor or hematologic malignancies. LMD is spread of cancer cells to the layers of the leptomeninges (pia and arachnoid maters) and subarachnoid space seen in 3 to 5% of cancer patients. It is a disseminated disease which carries with it significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. Our understanding of disease pathophysiology is currently lacking; however, advances are being made. As our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, treatment strategies have evolved...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37963583/intracranial-germ-cell-tumors
#48
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Teri Danielle You Ying Yeoh, Vincent Nga, Miriam Kimpo, Simon S Lo, Balamurugan Vellayappan
Intracranial germ cell tumors are rare tumors occurring in adolescents and young adults, which include germinomas and non-germinomatous type germ cell tumors (NGGCT). In the past few decades, cooperative trial groups in Europe and North America have developed successful strategies to improve survival outcomes and decrease treatment-related toxicities. New approaches to establishing diagnosis have deferred the need for radical surgery. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) is above 90% and even patients who present with metastatic germinoma can still be cured with chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37963582/surgical-management-and-advances-in-the-treatment-of-glioma
#49
REVIEW
Andrew A Hardigan, Joshua D Jackson, Anoop P Patel
The care of patients with both high-grade glioma and low-grade glioma necessitates an interdisciplinary collaboration between neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, neurologists and other practitioners. In this review, we aim to detail the considerations, approaches and advances in the neurosurgical care of gliomas. We describe the impact of extent-of-resection in high-grade and low-grade glioma, with particular focus on primary and recurrent glioblastoma. We address advances in surgical methods and adjunct technologies such as intraoperative imaging and fluorescence guided surgery that maximize extent-of-resection while minimizing the potential for iatrogenic neurological deficits...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37963581/brain-tumor-imaging-review-of-conventional-and-advanced-techniques
#50
REVIEW
Andrew Campion, Michael Iv
Approaches to central nervous system (CNS) tumor classification and evaluation have undergone multiple iterations over the past few decades, in large part due to our growing understanding of the influence of genetics on tumor behavior and our refinement of brain tumor imaging techniques. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) both play a critical role in the diagnosis and monitoring of brain tumors, although MRI has become especially important due to its superior soft tissue resolution. The purpose of this article will be to briefly review the fundamentals of conventional and advanced techniques used in brain tumor imaging...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37949117/classification-and-grading-of-central-nervous-system-tumors-according-to-the-world-health-organization-5th-edition
#51
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rebecca A Yoda, Patrick J Cimino
The World Health Organization (WHO) released the 5th edition of its classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in 2021. Advances in the landscape of molecular tumor pathophysiology prompted major revisions to the previous edition released in 2016, some of which were first introduced by the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumor Taxonomy-Not Official WHO (cIMPACT-NOW). The 2021 classification system integrates newly gained molecular insights to guide changes in tumor taxonomy and nomenclature, introduces several new types of tumors, and expands the use of molecular testing for diagnosis and grading, with a particular impact on adult-type and pediatric-type gliomas, ependymomas, and embryonal tumors...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37949116/brain-tumors-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-review
#52
REVIEW
Julien Rousseau, Julie Bennett, Mary Jane Lim-Fat
Brain tumors account for the majority of cancer-related deaths in adolescents and young adults (AYAs), defined as individuals aged 15 to 39. AYAs constitute a distinct population in which both pediatric- and adult-type central nervous system (CNS) tumors can be observed. Clinical manifestations vary depending on tumor location and often include headaches, seizures, focal neurological deficits, and signs of increased intracranial pressure. With the publication of the updated World Health Organization CNS tumor classification in 2021, diagnoses have been redefined to emphasize key molecular alterations...
December 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37918443/the-severely-wounded-brain-healed-outcome-prognostication-in-neurology
#53
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Zachary D Threlkeld, David Y Hwang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37832589/electroencephalography-as-a-biomarker-of-prognosis-in-acute-brain-injury
#54
REVIEW
Clio Rubinos, Maria Jose Bruzzone, Vyas Viswanathan, Lorena Figueredo, Carolina B Maciel, Suzette LaRoche
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a noninvasive tool that allows the monitoring of cerebral brain function in critically ill patients, aiding with diagnosis, management, and prognostication. Specific EEG features have shown utility in the prediction of outcomes in critically ill patients with status epilepticus, acute brain injury (ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury), anoxic brain injury, and toxic-metabolic encephalopathy. Studies have also found an association between particular EEG patterns and long-term functional and cognitive outcomes as well as prediction of recovery of consciousness following acute brain injury...
October 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37802121/ethical-considerations-in-neuroprognostication-following-acute-brain-injury
#55
JOURNAL ARTICLE
India A Lissak, Brian L Edlow, Eric Rosenthal, Michael J Young
Neuroprognostication following acute brain injury (ABI) is a complex process that involves integrating vast amounts of information to predict a patient's likely trajectory of neurologic recovery. In this setting, critically evaluating salient ethical questions is imperative, and the implications often inform high-stakes conversations about the continuation, limitation, or withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. While neuroprognostication is central to these clinical "life-or-death" decisions, the ethical underpinnings of neuroprognostication itself have been underexplored for patients with ABI...
October 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37802120/prognostic-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in-acute-vascular-brain-injury-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#56
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lindsey J Krawchuk, Matthew F Sharrock
Prognostic imaging biomarkers after acute brain injury inform treatment decisions, track the progression of intracranial injury, and can be used in shared decision-making processes with families. Herein, key established biomarkers and prognostic scoring systems are surveyed in the literature, and their applications in clinical practice and clinical trials are discussed. Biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke include computed tomography (CT) hypodensity scoring, diffusion-weighted lesion volume, and core infarct size on perfusion imaging...
October 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37793424/cognitive-biases-and-shared-decision-making-in-acute-brain-injury
#57
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alexis Steinberg, Baruch Fischhoff
Many patients hospitalized after severe acute brain injury are comatose and require life-sustaining therapies. Some of these patients make favorable recoveries with continued intensive care, while others do not. In addition to providing medical care, clinicians must guide surrogate decision makers through high-stakes, emotionally charged decisions about whether to continue life-sustaining therapies. These consultations require clinicians first to assess a patient's likelihood of recovery given continued life-sustaining therapies (i...
October 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37788681/neuroprognostication-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#58
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rebecca Traub, Vinay Chaudhry
Guillain-Barré syndrome is an immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nerves characterized by rapidly progressing symmetric weakness, areflexia, and albuminocytological dissociation. Most patients reach their nadir within 2 weeks. Disease severity can be mild to severe, with 20% of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange are equally effective treatments. Monitoring strength, respiratory function, blood pressure, and heart rate, as well as pain management and rehabilitative therapy are important aspects of management...
October 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37788680/clinical-grading-scales-and-neuroprognostication-in-acute-brain-injury
#59
REVIEW
Sahily Reyes-Esteves, Monisha Kumar, Scott E Kasner, Jens Witsch
Prediction of neurological clinical outcome after acute brain injury is critical because it helps guide discussions with patients and families and informs treatment plans and allocation of resources. Numerous clinical grading scales have been published that aim to support prognostication after acute brain injury. However, the development and validation of clinical scales lack a standardized approach. This in turn makes it difficult for clinicians to rely on prognostic grading scales and to integrate them into clinical practice...
October 2023: Seminars in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37788679/functional-mri-for-acute-covert-consciousness-emerging-data-and-implementation-case-series
#60
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Varina L Boerwinkle, Kirsten Gillette, Clio A Rubinos, Jordan Broman-Fulks, Fazila Aseem, Grace K DeHoff, Martin Arhin, Emilio Cediel, Tamara Strohm
Although research studies have begun to demonstrate relationships between disorders of consciousness and brain network biomarkers, there are limited data on the practical aspects of obtaining such network biomarkers to potentially guide care. As the state of knowledge continues to evolve, guidelines from professional societies such as the American and European Academies of Neurology and many experts have advocated that the risk-benefit ratio for the assessment of network biomarkers has begun to favor their application toward potentially detecting covert consciousness...
October 2023: Seminars in Neurology
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