Thita Chiasakul, François Mullier, Thomas Lecompte, Philippe Nguyen, Adam Cuker
Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are commonly used to prevent clotting of the hemodialysis extracorporeal circuit and optimize hemodialysis adequacy. There is no consensus on the optimal dosing for UFH and LMWHs during hemodialysis. In clinical practice, semiquantitative clotting scoring of the dialyzer and venous chamber may help to guide UFH and LMWH dose adjustment. Laboratory monitoring has not been shown to improve clinical outcomes and is therefore not routinely indicated in most hemodialysis patients...
January 29, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Matthew Ades, Camille Simard, Thomas Vanassche, Peter Verhamme, John Eikelboom, Thomas A Mavrakanas
Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) experience a high thrombotic risk but are also at increased risk of bleeding. There is an unmet need for safer antithrombotic therapy in patients with ESKD on hemodialysis. Factor XI (FXI) represents an attractive therapeutic target for anticoagulation because of the potential to mitigate the bleeding risks associated with currently approved anticoagulants, especially in patients at high risk of bleeding. FXI inhibition is also an attractive option in settings where coagulation is activated by exposure of the blood to artificial surfaces, including the extracorporeal circuit during hemodialysis...
January 24, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Alba Santos, Almudena Vega, Andrew Davenport
An adequate knowledge of anticoagulants used to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit is crucial to provide optimal hemodialysis. Drugs can potentially prevent extracorporeal circuit clotting, but administration, half-life, and potential side effects differ. However, there is a lack of concise recommendations to guide anticoagulation and to avoid side effects. Because of the development of newer anticoagulant agents, direct thrombin inhibitors, and heparinoids, some of the side effects related to heparin may be overcome, but a deeper knowledge of these newer drugs is necessary...
January 24, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Floris Vanommeslaeghe, Wim Van Biesen, Karlien François
Maintaining patency of the extracorporeal hemodialysis (HD) circuit is a prerequisite to perform HD. Unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins are the most used anticoagulants in maintenance HD, but their administration comes with a major trade-off of bleeding complications. This narrative review article discusses technical factors impacting on HD circuit patency, such as tubings, dialyzer membranes, priming practices, and treatment settings. Strategies for monitoring extracorporeal circuit clotting during and after treatment are also reviewed, as these are essential tools for optimizing anticoagulation...
January 23, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Hideki Kawanishi, Masahide Koremoto, Casper F M Franssen, Marco van Londen
The development of biocompatible membranes, aiming to limit the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and coagulability during hemodialysis, has been an important step in reducing dialysis-related adverse outcomes. This includes a reduction in the risk of clotting of the extracorporeal circuit, thus enabling hemodialysis with a reduced dose or even without systemic anticoagulant drugs in patients with an increased bleeding risk. In this article, we summarize the in vitro research and clinical evidence on the antithrombotic properties of vitamin E- and heparin-coated membranes...
January 22, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Robert Kalyesubula, Nicola Wearne, Mary Kubo, Nadia Hussey, Saraladevi Naicker
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) are the leading infectious causes of death globally. The combined brunt of these diseases is experienced mainly in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. HIV/TB have devastating effects on the kidneys, leading to accelerated decline of kidney function as well as mortality. Managing the triad of TB/HIV and kidney disease is challenging. We discuss the epidemiology of HIV/TB coinfection and the kidney and the key mechanisms of kidney disease including genetic susceptibility...
January 20, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Anita van Eck van der Sluijs, Pearl Pai, Wenjuan Zhu, Gurbey Ocak
Cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent among patients on dialysis. For these diseases, antiplatelets and antithrombotic therapies including heparin, vitamin K antagonists, and direct oral anticoagulants, are being used. However, the benefit-risk balance of these therapies could differ for dialysis patients compared with the general population. This review article focuses on the bleeding risk associated with the use of heparin, antiplatelets, vitamin K antagonists, and direct oral anticoagulants in patients receiving hemodialysis...
January 17, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Matthias M Engelen, Peter Verhamme, Thomas Vanassche
Thrombotic complications in patients with end-stage kidney disease are frequent. While being a lifesaving treatment for these patients, hemodialysis introduces a thromboinflammatory environment. Additionally, the extracorporeal hemodialysis circuit itself is prone to clotting because of an interaction between different activation mechanisms of the coagulation system, platelets, and the immune system. Anticoagulation of the patient and the machine is frequently complicated by bleeding. We discuss the factors important in this balancing act and touch on potential strategies that are on the horizon to target thromboinflammation...
January 16, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Chandana Guha, Daniel Gallego, Amanda Grandinetti, Madeleine Warren, Allison Jaure
Clotting of the extracorporeal circuit is a complication in the process of hemodialysis that can result in missed or shortened dialysis sessions, higher nursing workload, and elevated cost of treatment. Repercussions of inadequate dialysis may include patient blood loss, fluid overload, build-up of minerals, higher hospitalization rates, and poor quality of life, contributing to increased patient distress. Preventing clotting through anticoagulation therapy is the key to maintaining patency of the dialysis circuit and supporting dialysis adequacy...
January 16, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Florine V Janssens, Björn Meijers, Karlien François
Heparin is the most widely used anticoagulant for maintaining patency of the extracorporeal blood circuit during intermittent hemodialysis. Inadvertently, this leads to systemic heparinization of the patient. Repeated intermittent heparinization during hemodialysis has been associated with increased bleeding risks and metabolic and immunologic effects. Alternative strategies for minimizing systemic anticoagulation encompass dilution methods, regional citrate anticoagulation, priming of the extracorporeal circuit, and modifications to dialyzer membranes and dialysate composition...
January 13, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Ifeoma I Ulasi, Emmanuel A Burdmann, Chinwuba K Ijoma, Li-Fang Chou, Chih-Wei Yang
Individuals, societies, and the environment are affected by neglected and emerging diseases. These diseases result in a variety of severe outcomes, including permanent disabilities, chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease, and even mortality. Consequences include high health care expenditures, loss of means of support, social stigma, and social exclusion. The burden of these diseases is exacerbated in low- and middle-income countries owing to poverty, inadequate fundamental infrastructure, and the absence of health and social protection systems...
January 11, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Thomas Demuynck, Muriel Grooteman, Piet Ter Wee, Mario Cozzolino, Björn Meijers
Calcium is a key clotting factor, and several inorganic molecules that bind to calcium have been found to reduce the clotting propensity of blood. Citrate, a calcium chelator, is used as inhibitor of the coagulation cascade in blood transfusion. Also, it is used as an anaticoagulant during dialysis to maintain patency of the extracorporeal circuit, known as regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA). The amount of citrate should be chosen such that ionized calcium concentrations in the extracorporeal circuit are reduced enough to minimize propagation of the coagulation cascade...
January 10, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Karlien François, Björn Meijers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Priti Meena, Dina Abdellatif, Vaibhav Tiwari, Santanu Chatterjee, Valerie A Luyckx
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis glaringly highlighted the critical need to develop resilient health care systems that are better prepared for epidemics. Millions of people died from COVID-19 itself, but almost three times as many died from health system disruptions. People living with kidney disease are highly vulnerable during outbreaks and pandemics and their needs must be included in preparedness planning. Health systems preparedness requires not only early identification and containment of outbreaks and maintenance of critical services during crises, but also bolstering population resilience and ensuring the safety of both health personnel and patients...
January 9, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Samira Bell, Griffith B Perkins, Urmila Anandh, P Toby Coates
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has led to a global pandemic that continues to be responsible for ongoing health issues for people worldwide. Immunocompromised individuals such as kidney transplant recipients and dialysis patients have been and continue to be among the most affected, with poorer outcomes after infection, impaired response to COVID-19 vaccines, and protracted infection. The pandemic also has had a significant impact on patients with underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD), with CKD increasing susceptibility to COVID-19, risk of hospital admission, and mortality...
January 9, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Bernd Stegmayr, Li Zuo, Ward Zadora
Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are commonly prescribed anticoagulants for chronic hemodialysis (HD). The dialysis population comprises a unique group that receives heparin three times per week for a long period, with potential long-term cumulative metabolic effects such as osteoporosis and worsening lipid profile. HD patients have approximately half the number of lipases as healthy individuals, and their lipid metabolism is limited because of this decrease as well as partially inhibited function...
January 8, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Theodore E Warkentin
Intermittent hemodialysis (HD) is almost invariably performed with heparin, and thus HD patients are at risk of developing the immune-mediated adverse effect heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), caused by anti-platelet factor 4/heparin IgG, which strongly activates platelets. HIT patients develop hypercoagulability with greatly increased risk of thrombosis, both venous and arterial. Certain HIT-associated complications are more likely to develop among HD patients, including hemofilter thrombosis despite heparin, intravascular catheter and/or arteriovenous fistula-associated thrombosis, post-heparin bolus anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions, and thrombotic stroke and acute limb artery thrombosis (reflecting the high frequency of underlying arteriopathy in many patients with renal failure)...
January 8, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Robert Kalyesubula, Urmila Anandh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Saraladevi Naicker, Chih-Wei Yang, Vivekanand Jha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Guillaume Mahamat Abderraman, Abdou Niang, Tahagod Mohamed, John D Mahan, Valerie A Luyckx
In lower-income settings there is often a dearth of resources and nephrologists, especially pediatric nephrologists, and individual physicians often find themselves caring for patients with chronic kidney diseases and end-stage kidney failure across the age spectrum. The management of such patients in high-income settings is relatively protocolized and permits high-volume services to run efficiently. The basic principles of managing chronic kidney disease and providing dialysis are similar for adults and children, however, given the differences in body size, causes of kidney failure, nutrition, and growth between children and adults with kidney diseases, nephrologists must understand the relevance of these differences, and have an approach to providing quality and safe dialysis to each group...
November 27, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
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