Rengin Elsurer Afsar, Baris Afsar, Talat Alp Ikizler
Excessive dietary sodium intake is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, especially in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although implementation of a low-sodium diet in patients with CKD generally is recommended, data supporting the efficacy of this practice is mostly opinion-based. Few controlled studies have investigated the specific association of dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular events and mortality in CKD. Furthermore, in epidemiologic studies, the association of sodium intake with CKD progression, cardiovascular risk, and mortality is not homogeneous, and both low- and high-sodium intake has been associated with adverse health outcomes in different studies...
August 26, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Keiichi Sumida, Joseph F Pierre, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Paolo C Colombo, Ryan T Demmer, Csaba P Kovesdy
Recent advances in microbiome research have informed the potential role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal systems, and, when altered, in the pathogenesis of various cardiometabolic disorders, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The improved understanding of gut dysbiosis in cardiometabolic pathologies in turn has led to a vigorous quest for developing therapeutic strategies. These therapeutic strategies aim to investigate whether interventions targeting gut dysbiosis can shift the microbiota toward eubiosis and if these shifts, in turn, translate into improvements in (or prevention of) CKD and its related complications, such as premature cardiovascular disease...
August 22, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Xiaonan H Wang, S Russ Price
Muscle wasting (ie, atrophy) is a serious consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that reduces muscle strength and function. It reduces the quality of life for CKD patients and increases the risks of comorbidities and mortality. Current treatment strategies to prevent or reverse skeletal muscle loss are limited owing to the broad and systemic nature of the initiating signals and the multifaceted catabolic mechanisms that accelerate muscle protein degradation and impair protein synthesis and repair pathways...
August 21, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Ban-Hock Khor, Keiichi Sumida, Nicole Scholes-Robertson, Maria Chan, Kelly Lambert, Holly Kramer, Siu-Fai Lui, Angela Yee-Moon Wang
Nutrition is an integral component in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and kidney health professionals play a crucial role in educating patients on dietary interventions for CKD. Several dietary modifications are indicated for CKD that require frequent adaptations with CKD progression and with underlying metabolic disturbances. However, poor adherence to dietary interventions is not uncommon among patients with CKD. An effective education program on nutrition intervention consists of providing knowledge and developing skills that are necessary to support behavioral change...
August 18, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Samantha L Gelfand, Dirk M Hentschel
In this review, we discuss common challenges at the interface between dialysis access planning, prognostication, and patient-centered decision making. Particularly for patients whose survival benefit from dialysis is attenuated by advanced age or other serious illness, knowing the potential complications and anticipated frequency of access procedures is essential for patients and families to be able to conceptualize what life on dialysis will look like. Although starting dialysis with a functioning graft or fistula is associated with reduced infection rates, mortality, hospitalizations, and cost compared with a central venous catheter, these benefits must be weighed against the chance that early access placement in an elderly or seriously ill patient is an unnecessary surgery because the chronic kidney disease never progresses, the patient dies before developing an indication to start dialysis, or, the patient prefers conservative kidney management over dialysis...
August 12, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Amanda K Leonberg-Yoo, Scott J Gilbert
Offering and providing effective conservative kidney management (CKM) for patients with end-stage kidney disease who do not want dialysis is a foundational skill that all nephrology fellows should learn during fellowship training. However, the current educational landscape in fellowship training programs is sparse and is not recognized currently as a skill within the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) guidelines. Moreover, there is no standardized curriculum, methods of assessment of this learning objective, and no structure for implementation within general and subspecialty nephrology training programs...
August 11, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Olgert Bardhi, Deborah J Clegg, Biff F Palmer
Dietary intervention is an essential factor in managing a multitude of chronic health conditions such as cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. In recent decades, there has been a host of research suggesting the potential benefit of plant-based diets in mitigating the health outcomes of these conditions. Plant-based diets are rich in vegetables and fruits, while limiting processed food and animal protein sources. The underlying physiological mechanism involves the interaction of several macronutrients and micronutrients such as plant protein, carbohydrates, and dietary potassium...
August 4, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Kelly Lambert, Robert Gardos, Helen Coolican, Lauren Pickel, Hoon-Ki Sung, Angela Yee-Moon Wang, Albert Cm Ong
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a chronic, progressive hereditary condition characterized by abnormal development and growth of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. There is increasing interest in exploring whether dietary modifications may prevent or slow the disease course in people with PKD. Although vasopressin-receptor agonists have emerged as a novel drug treatment in advancing care for people with PKD, several recent landmark trials and clinical discoveries also have provided new insights into potential dietary-related therapeutic strategies...
August 3, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Laetitia Koppe, Robert H Mak
Protein energy wasting(PEW) is a term that most nephrologists used to define nutritional disorders in patients with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Although this nomenclature is well implemented in the field of nephrology, the use of other terms such as cachexia or malnutritionin the majority of chronic diseases can induce confusion regarding the definition and interpretation of these terms. There is ample evidence in the literature that the pathways involved in cachexia/malnutrition and PEW are common...
August 2, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Peter Hedderich, Luis Ng Sueng, Hesham Shaban
Conservative kidney management is a nondialytic treatment option for advanced chronic kidney disease that involves interventions to delay kidney function loss, medications to treat symptoms, and psychosocial support for patients and their loved ones. Several geriatric medicine principles are applicable to patients who are considering or receiving conservative kidney management, including the integration of physical, psychological, and social factors into medical care and medical decisions; careful review of medication lists with selective deprescribing; and screening for geriatric syndromes such as frailty and functional impairment...
August 1, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Samantha Gelfand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Massimo Torreggiani, Angela Yee-Moon Wang, Antioco Fois, Giorgina Barbara Piccoli
Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of the clinical management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nevertheless, randomized controlled trials often have failed to show a relevant benefit of low-protein diets in nonselected CKD populations in terms of slowing the progression of kidney disease and need for dialysis. The more the target population is selected, the less the results can be generalizable to implement in clinical practice. On the contrary, observational studies, especially if performed with patient-centered, flexible approaches, point toward an extensive implementation of dietary protein restriction in different and unselected CKD populations...
August 1, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Alexandra E Bursic, Jane O Schell
Hospice care offers multidisciplinary expertise to optimize symptom management and quality of life for patients with limited life expectancy and help ensure that patients receive care that reflects their personal goals and values. Many patients receiving conservative kidney management (CKM) and their loved ones can benefit from the additional support that hospice provides, particularly as symptom burdens and functional status worsen over the last few months of life. We provide an overview of hospice services and how they may benefit patients receiving CKM, describe the evolution of optimal CKM strategies and collaboration between nephrology and hospice clinicians over the course of disease progression, and explore challenges to effective hospice care delivery for patients with chronic kidney disease and how to address them...
July 29, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Jessica Dawson, Cameron McLean
Conservative kidney management (CKM) is a treatment option for kidney failure, particularly for the elderly and those with co-morbidities. Dietitians can play an important role in the provision of CKM by enhancing patients' quality of life through the management of nutrition impact symptoms (symptoms that result in decreased eating, including anorexia, nausea, dry mouth, and taste changes), as well as symptoms that result from malnutrition, including fatigue, weakness, activity intolerance, slow wound healing, and low mood...
July 26, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Naoka Murakami, Amanda J Reich, Martha Pavlakis, Joshua R Lakin
Conservative kidney management (CKM) has been increasingly accepted as a therapeutic option for seriously ill patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. CKM is active medical management of advanced chronic kidney disease without dialysis, with a focus on delaying the worsening of kidney disease and minimizing symptom burden. CKM may be considered a suitable option for kidney transplant recipients with poorly functioning and declining allografts, defined as patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (<20 mL/min per 1...
July 25, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Kelly Chenlei Li, Mark Ashley Brown
Deciding between dialysis and conservative kidney management (CKM) in an elderly or seriously ill person with kidney failure is complex and requires shared decision making. Patients and families look to their nephrologist to provide an individualized recommendation that aligns with patient-centered goals. For a balanced and considered decision to be made, dialysis should not be the default and nephrologists need to be familiar with relevant prognostic information including survival, symptom burden, functional trajectory, and quality of life with dialysis and with CKM...
July 21, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Shruti Gupta, Naoka Murakami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Cal H Robinson, Rulan S Parekh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Elliot Koranteng Tannor, Onu Ugochi Chika, Ikechi G Okpechi
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing in prevalence and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and lower middle-income countries (LLMICs). Risk factors for CKD are numerous and may start in utero through to adulthood. Low socioeconomic status increases the risk of CKD and contributes to late presentation and suboptimal management especially in LLMICs. This leads to progression to kidney failure with associated increased mortality when kidney replacement therapy is required...
March 24, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
Chantal Zinga, Kalulu Taba, Gauthier Mesia, Ernest Sumaili, Gaston Tona, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Junior Kindala, Nazaire Nseka
Although medicinal plants are beneficial, they also can be important risk factors for the development of acute and chronic kidney injury, as well toxicity of other solid organs. There are a lack of reports of adverse kidney events and drug interactions resulting from medicinal plants owing to a lack of professional surveillance and specific data on kidney toxicity, especially in low-resource settings. Within the context of increased medicinal plant use and lack of effective regulatory control, safety is a key priority issue...
February 19, 2023: Seminars in Nephrology
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