Carl P Walther
A growing variety of cardiac devices are available to monitor or support cardiovascular function. The entwined nature of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease makes the relationship of these devices with kidney disease a multifaceted question relating to the use of these devices in individuals with kidney disease and to the effects of the devices and device placement on kidney health. Cardiac devices can be categorized broadly into cardiac implantable electronic devices, structural devices, and circulatory assist devices...
May 16, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Sara M Wing, Thomas A Mavrakanas, Ziv Harel
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is associated with an increased risk of stroke, which increases as kidney function declines. In the general population and in those with a moderate degree of CKD (creatinine clearance 30-50 mL/min), the use of oral anticoagulation to decrease the risk of stroke has been the standard of care based on a favorable risk-benefit profile that had been established in seminal randomized controlled trials. However, evidence regarding the use of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention is less clear in patients with severe CKD (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) and those receiving maintenance dialysis, as these individuals were excluded from such large randomized controlled trials...
May 14, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Mario Funes Hernandez, Tara I Chang
Despite being the world's top risk factor for death and disability, hypertension awareness and control within the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population have decreased. This is particularly important considering the heightened severity and management challenges of hypertension in CKD patients, whose outcomes are often worse compared with persons with normal kidney function. Therefore, finding novel therapeutics to improve blood pressure control within this vulnerable group is paramount. Although medications that target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system remain a mainstay for blood pressure control in most stages of CKD, we discuss novel approaches that may expand their use in advanced CKD...
May 11, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Nisha Bansal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Christine P Limonte, Julio A Lamprea-Montealegre, Katherine R Tuttle
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent, estimated to affect over 800 million people worldwide. Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney disease. Both diabetes and CKD are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and related morbidity and mortality. Over the last several years, there has been a shift in focus toward integrating kidney and cardiovascular care, particularly in diabetes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, and nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists have rapidly become cornerstones of kidney and cardiovascular risk-focused care in diabetes and CKD...
May 4, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Marcelle L Tuttle, James C Fang, Mark J Sarnak, Wendy McCallum
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) comprises approximately one-half of all diagnoses of heart failure. There is significant overlap of this clinical syndrome with chronic kidney disease (CKD), with many shared comorbid conditions. The presence of CKD in patients with HFpEF is one of the most powerful risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes, including death and heart failure hospitalization. The pathophysiology linking HFpEF and CKD remains unclear, but it is postulated to consist of numerous bidirectional pathways, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired sodium handling...
May 3, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Amir Kazory
Congestion is the primary driver of hospital admissions in patients with heart failure and the key determinant of their outcome. Although intravenous loop diuretics remain the predominant agents used in the setting of acute heart failure, the therapeutic response is known to be variable, with a significant subset of patients discharged from the hospital with residual hypervolemia. In this context, urinary sodium excretion has gained attention both as a marker of response to loop diuretics and as a marker of prognosis that may be a useful clinical tool to guide therapy...
May 2, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Kaitlyn E Order, Nancy M Rodig
Children with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) face a lifetime of complex medical care, alternating between maintenance chronic dialysis and kidney transplantation. Kidney transplantation has emerged as the optimal treatment of ESKD for children and provides important quality of life and survival advantages. Although transplantation is the preferred therapy, lifetime exposure to immunosuppression among children with ESKD is associated with increased morbidity, including an increased risk of cancer. Following pediatric kidney transplantation, cancer events occurring during childhood or young adulthood can be divided into two broad categories: post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and non-lymphoproliferative solid tumors...
April 4, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Brittany Schreiber, Sudipta Tripathi, Sarah Nikiforow, Anil Chandraker
Cancer is one of the most devastating complications of kidney transplantation and constitutes one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients. Immunosuppression, although effective in preventing allograft rejection, inherently inhibits immune surveillance against oncogenic viral infections and malignancy. Adoptive cell therapy, particularly immune effector cell therapy, has long been a modality of interest in both cancer and transplantation, though has only recently stepped into the spotlight with the development of virus-specific T-cell therapy and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy...
March 29, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Karthik Venkataraman, Tania Salehi, Robert P Carroll
Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of malignancy as a result of immunosuppression and are increasingly exposed to checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). However, CPI therapy can precipitate allograft rejection. This review aims to summarize the current literature describing the epidemiology, immunological mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of CPI-associated allograft rejection.Initial studies of CPIs suggested allograft rejection post commencement of CPIs occured commonly (40-60%), occurring between 2 and 6 weeks after CPI initiation, with a cancer response rate approaching 50%...
March 27, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
David Massicotte-Azarniouch, J Ariana Noel, Greg A Knoll
Kidney transplantation is the ideal treatment modality for patients with end-stage kidney disease, with excellent outcomes post-transplant compared with dialysis. However, kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of infections and cancer because of the need for immunosuppression. Kidney transplant recipients have approximately two to three times greater risk of developing cancer than the general population, and cancer is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Most of the increased risk is driven by viral-mediated cancers such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, anogenital cancers, and Kaposi sarcoma...
March 26, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Ellen Dobrijevic, Nicole Scholes-Robertson, Chandana Guha, Martin Howell, Allison Jauré, Germaine Wong, Anita van Zwieten
Cancer has been identified by kidney transplant recipients as a critically important outcome. The co-occurrence of cancer and kidney transplantation represents a complex intersection of diseases, symptoms, and competing priorities for treatments. Research that focuses on biochemical parameters and clinical events may not capture the priorities of patients. Patient-centered research can improve the relevance and efficiency of research and is particularly pertinent in the setting of cancer and kidney transplantation to facilitate shared decision-making in complex clinical situations...
March 26, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Vikas R Dharnidharka, Marianna B Ruzinova, Lianna J Marks
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogenous set of unregulated lymphoid cell proliferations after organ or tissue transplant. A majority of cases are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus and higher intensity of pharmacologic immunosuppression. The clinical presentations are numerous. The diagnosis is ideally by histology, except in cases where the tumor is inaccessible to biopsy. While some pre-emptive therapies and treatment strategies are available have reasonable success are available, they do not eliminate the high morbidity and significant mortality after PTLD...
March 21, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Shankara K Anand, Vaishali Sanchorawala, Ashish Verma
Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by abnormal protein aggregate deposition that often leads to kidney involvement and end-stage kidney disease. With advancements in diagnostic techniques and treatment options, the prevalence of patients with amyloidosis requiring chronic dialysis has increased. Kidney transplantation is a promising avenue for extending survival and enhancing quality of life in these patients. However, the complex and heterogeneous nature of amyloidosis presents challenges in determining optimal referral timing for transplantation and managing post-transplantation course...
March 14, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Paul M Schroder, Ben E Biesterveld, David P Al-Adra
End-stage kidney disease patients who are referred for transplant undergo an extensive evaluation process to ensure their health prior to transplant due in part to the shortage of available organs. Although management and surveillance guidelines exist for malignancies identified in the transplant and waitlist populations, less is written about the management of premalignant lesions in this population. This review covers the less common premalignant lesions (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, thymoma, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor) that can be found in the transplant candidate population...
March 14, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Nelson Leung, Cihan Heybeli
Recent advances in the treatment of plasma cell disorders (PCDs) have provided a wealth of therapy alternatives and improved overall survival tremendously. Various types of PCDs are associated with kidney injury and end-stage kidney disease in a considerable number of patients. Kidney transplantation (KTx) is the best option for renal replacement therapy in select patients in terms of both quality of life parameters and overall survival. Even with modern therapies, all PCDs carry the risk of hematologic progression, whereas histologic recurrence and graft loss are other prevailing concerns in these patients...
March 13, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Naoka Murakami, Germaine Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Thita Chiasakul, François Mullier, Thomas Lecompte, Philippe Nguyen, Adam Cuker
Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are commonly used to prevent clotting of the hemodialysis extracorporeal circuit and optimize hemodialysis adequacy. There is no consensus on the optimal dosing for UFH and LMWHs during hemodialysis. In clinical practice, semiquantitative clotting scoring of the dialyzer and venous chamber may help to guide UFH and LMWH dose adjustment. Laboratory monitoring has not been shown to improve clinical outcomes and is therefore not routinely indicated in most hemodialysis patients...
January 29, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Matthew Ades, Camille Simard, Thomas Vanassche, Peter Verhamme, John Eikelboom, Thomas A Mavrakanas
Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) experience a high thrombotic risk but are also at increased risk of bleeding. There is an unmet need for safer antithrombotic therapy in patients with ESKD on hemodialysis. Factor XI (FXI) represents an attractive therapeutic target for anticoagulation because of the potential to mitigate the bleeding risks associated with currently approved anticoagulants, especially in patients at high risk of bleeding. FXI inhibition is also an attractive option in settings where coagulation is activated by exposure of the blood to artificial surfaces, including the extracorporeal circuit during hemodialysis...
January 24, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
Alba Santos, Almudena Vega, Andrew Davenport
An adequate knowledge of anticoagulants used to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit is crucial to provide optimal hemodialysis. Drugs can potentially prevent extracorporeal circuit clotting, but administration, half-life, and potential side effects differ. However, there is a lack of concise recommendations to guide anticoagulation and to avoid side effects. Because of the development of newer anticoagulant agents, direct thrombin inhibitors, and heparinoids, some of the side effects related to heparin may be overcome, but a deeper knowledge of these newer drugs is necessary...
January 24, 2024: Seminars in Nephrology
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