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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657330/ten-years-of-reach-an-animal-protection-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Katy Taylor
It has now been 11 years since the EU's new chemicals legislation (Regulation No. 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH]) came into force. Two important statements in the REACH Regulation in relation to animal testing and alternatives are: Article 1(1), which states that one of its purposes is to promote alternative methods; and Article 25(1), which states that animal testing should be used as a last resort. This review looks at the mechanisms that were put in place within REACH to achieve these aims and asks, not only if they are being implemented properly, but also if they have been sufficient...
December 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657329/phase-0-including-microdosing-approaches-applying-the-three-rs-and-increasing-the-efficiency-of-human-drug-development
#2
Tal Burt, Le Thuy Vuong, Elizabeth Baker, Graeme C Young, A Daniel McCartt, Mats Bergstrom, Yuichi Sugiyama, Robert Combes
Phase 0 approaches, including microdosing, involve the use of sub-therapeutic exposures to the tested drugs, thus enabling safer, more-relevant, quicker and cheaper first-in-human (FIH) testing. These approaches also have considerable potential to limit the use of animals in human drug development. Recent years have witnessed progress in applications, methodology, operations, and drug development culture. Advances in applications saw an expansion in therapeutic areas, developmental scenarios and scientific objectives, in, for example, protein drug development and paediatric drug development...
December 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657328/the-application-of-humane-endpoints-and-humane-killing-methods-in-animal-research-proposals-a-retrospective-review
#3
Kathrin Herrmann, Paul Flecknell
Refinement refers to the use of methods that help to minimise animal suffering in the laboratory. Research in this area has increased significantly over the past two decades. However, the extent to which refinements are applied in practice is uncertain. To provide an indication of the implementation and awareness of refinements, we reviewed the experimental techniques for 684 surgical interventions described in 506 animal research applications sent to the German competent authorities for approval in 2010. In this paper, we describe and discuss the appropriateness of the proposed humane endpoints and killing methods...
December 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657327/where-to-draw-the-line-should-the-age-of-protection-for-zebrafish-be-lowered
#4
EDITORIAL
Lynne U Sneddon
Zebrafish are not protected by legislation in many countries until they reach the first feed stage, typically at five days post-fertilisation. If they exhibit similar responses to adults when responding to pain and other stimuli should they be given more protection?
December 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488713/does-the-stress-of-laboratory-life-and-experimentation-on-animals-adversely-affect-research-data-a-critical-review
#5
REVIEW
Jarrod Bailey
Recurrent acute and/or chronic stress can affect all vertebrate species, and can have serious consequences. It is increasingly and widely appreciated that laboratory animals experience significant and repeated stress, which is unavoidable and is caused by many aspects of laboratory life, such as captivity, transport, noise, handling, restraint and other procedures, as well as the experimental procedures applied to them. Such stress is difficult to mitigate, and lack of significant desensitisation/habituation can result in considerable psychological and physiological welfare problems, which are mediated by the activation of various neuroendocrine networks that have numerous and pervasive effects...
November 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488712/severity-classification-of-surgical-procedures-and-application-of-health-monitoring-strategies-in-animal-research-proposals-a-retrospective-review
#6
Kathrin Herrmann, Paul Flecknell
Animal experimentation has been one of the most controversial areas of animal use, mainly due to the intentional harms inflicted upon the animals used. In an effort to reduce these harms, research on refinement has increased significantly over the past 20 years. However, the extent to which these efforts have helped to reduce the severity of the research procedures, and thus animal suffering, is uncertain. To provide an indication of the awareness and implementation of refinement methods, we reviewed the experimental techniques for 684 surgical interventions described in 506 animal research applications that had been sent to the German competent authorities for approval in 2010...
November 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488711/a-comparison-of-pyrogen-detection-tests-in-the-quality-control-of-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccines-the-applicability-of-the-monocyte-activation-test
#7
Vitor Fernandes Silva, Daniel da Silva Guedes Junior, Ivna Alana da Silveira, Alessandra Santos Almeida, Fernando de Paiva Conte, Isabella Fernandes Delgado, Cristiane Caldeira Silva, Octavio Augusto França Presgrave, Katherine Antunes de Mattos
The meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MenCC) is an interesting model with which to test the efficacy of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) as an alternative method of pyrogen testing in the quality control of vaccines. The MenCC that has been produced by Bio-Manguinhos in Brazil is in the final development stage, and, as recommended in the guidelines for MenCC production, its pyrogen content must be determined by using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT). This represents an ideal opportunity to compare LAL and RPT data with data obtained by using a MAT system with cryopreserved whole blood and IL-6/IL-1β as marker readouts...
November 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30488710/electronic-cigarettes-can-dependable-public-health-policies-be-developed-and-applied-without-relevant-and-reliable-risk-assessments
#8
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls, Robert D Combes
The use of electronic cigarettes is being encouraged as a way of escaping from the harm resulting from conventional tobacco smoking, while scant attention is being paid to the long-term risks of inhaling electronic cigarette vapour. More information is needed for an acceptable risk assessment, from integrated non-animal testing and sound clinical investigations.
November 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30365336/brazil-starts-to-ban-animal-use-in-higher-education-a-positive-and-progressive-development
#9
Rita de Cássia Maria Garcia, Nick Jukes, Vanessa Bones, Rosangela Gebara, Mariângela Freitas de Almeida Souza, Valeska Regina Reque Ruiz, Luciano Alonso, Thales Tréz, Simone Tostes Oliveira, Alexandro Aluisio Rocha, Gutemberg Alves, Rita Leal Paixão, Rita Cassia Alves Alcântara Menezes, Claudia Dias, Monica Levy Andersen, Débora Gasparetto, Karynn Capilé, Júlia Maria Matera, Róber Bachinski
The Brazilian government has published a resolution that bans animal use in some practical classes within undergraduate and high school technical education from April 2019. Resolution No. 38/2018, issued by the National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA), bans the killing of animals for dissection purposes and animal experiments in practical classes that do not involve the acquisition of new skills. The initial call for the ban was by the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), an independent body comprising Brazilian professors and international collaborators dedicated to the implementation of replacement alternatives in education...
September 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30365335/in-vitro-human-tissues-via-multi-material-3-d-bioprinting
#10
REVIEW
David B Kolesky, Kimberly A Homan, Mark Skylar-Scott, Jennifer A Lewis
This paper highlights the foundational research on multi-material 3-D bioprinting of human tissues, for which the Lewis Bioprinting team at Harvard University was awarded the 2017 Lush Science Prize. The team's bioprinting platform enables the rapid fabrication of 3-D human tissues that contain all of the essential components found in their in vivo counterparts: cells, vasculature (or other tubular features) and extracellular matrix. The printed 3-D tissues are housed within a customised perfusion system and are subjected to controlled microphysiological environments over long durations (days to months)...
September 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30365334/2017-lush-science-prize
#11
Jenny McCann, Terry McCann
Now in its sixth year, the Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding money prizes of up to £350,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working towards the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund) is awarded...
September 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30365333/the-2017-lush-prize-awards
#12
EDITORIAL
Kelly BéruBé, Craig Redmond
This year saw eighteen prizewinning projects from eleven countries, and a new award in recognition of the work of Andrew Tyler.
September 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30022676/the-development-of-a-clinical-skills-laboratory-at-ross-university-school-of-medicine
#13
Bernard Grevemeyer, Andrew Knight
Dedicated clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) that make use of models, mannequins and simulators, are being increasingly established in medical and veterinary schools. These have been commonplace in medical schools for more than two decades, but their incorporation within the teaching of veterinary curricula has occurred much more recently. In 2007, a decision was taken to establish a CSL at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine. We considered the range of skills that we wished to teach, the physical space and equipment needed, the storage and air conditioning requirements, the facilities needed to deliver PowerPoint lectures and case study presentations, and other essentials necessary to handle cadaver specimens...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30022675/exploring-the-use-of-alternatives-to-animals-in-undergraduate-education-in-australia
#14
Catherine Mallia, Patricia Logan, Rafael Freire
The replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use in education is part of the regulatory legislation in Australia, and requires the use of alternatives to animals where appropriate. The aims of this study were: a) to explore the extent of the replacement of animals when teaching life sciences to Australian undergraduate students; b) to understand which alternative models were being used, and the learning objectives covered; and c) to gain some insight into the circumstances facilitating the use of alternatives to animals in education...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30022674/a-survey-to-understand-public-opinion-regarding-animal-use-in-medical-training
#15
Ryan Merkley, John J Pippin, Ari R Joffe
A random survey was performed by ORC International Telephone CARAVAN®, on 24-27 March 2016, by trained interviewers. The aim of this survey was to gain further understanding of public perceptions in the United States of laboratory animal use, specifically for the purposes of medical training. Five statements were read in random order to the participants, who were then asked whether they agreed or disagreed with the statement. Survey responses were obtained from 1011 participants. For the combined statements: "If effective non-animal methods are available to train a) medical students and physicians, b) emergency physicians and paramedics, and c) paediatricians, those methods should be used instead of live animals", most respondents (82-83%) agreed...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30022673/characterisation-of-a-canine-epithelial-cell-line-for-modelling-the-intestinal-barrier
#16
Michelle J Farquhar, Emma McCluskey, Ruth Staunton, Kevin R Hughes, Jennifer C Coltherd
Little is known about how food interacts with the intestinal epithelium during the digestion process. However, it is known that ingredients in food can modulate the intestinal barrier, and have the potential to disrupt homeostasis of the gut. Here, we characterise a conditionally immortalised canine intestinal epithelial cell (cIEC) line for use in in vitro assays, to assess the effect of food ingredients on intestinal barrier function, permeability, cell health, and inflammation. Microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that cIECs had a phenotype consistent with those of epithelial origin, and were able to differentiate to mature enterocytes...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30022672/replacing-animal-use-in-education-and-training
#17
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls
In the USA, the general public want the use of animals in medical training to cease, but, at least in Australia, some teachers want it to continue, even when effective non-animal alternatives are available.
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29856647/the-replacement-of-animal-tests
#18
Robert D Combes
Progress toward the acceptance and application of validated alternative test methods as replacements for animal tests, is being frustrated by the unsatisfactory procedures involved in approving new test guidelines and deleting existing ones.
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29856646/a-review-of-the-contributions-of-cross-discipline-collaborative-european-imi-efpia-research-projects-to-the-development-of-replacement-reduction-and-refinement-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Sarah Wolfensohn
The objective of this review is to report on whether, and if so, how, scientific research projects organised and managed within collaborative consortia across academia and industry are contributing to the Three Rs (i.e. reduction, replacement and refinement of the use of animals in research). A number of major technological developments have recently opened up possibilities for more direct, human-based approaches leading to a reassessment of the role and use of experimental animals in pharmacological research and biomedicine...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29856645/murine-alveolar-epithelial-cells-and-their-lentivirus-mediated-immortalisation
#20
Sandra Sapich, Marius Hittinger, Remi Hendrix-Jastrzebski, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Tobias May, Dagmar Wirth, Robert Bals, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
In this study, we describe the isolation and immortalisation of primary murine alveolar epithelial cells (mAEpC), as well as their epithelial differentiation and barrier properties when grown on Transwell® inserts. Like human alveolar epithelial cells (hAEpC), mAEpC transdifferentiate in vitro from an alveolar type II (ATII) phenotype to an ATI-like phenotype and exhibit features of the air-blood barrier, such as the establishment of a thin monolayer with functional tight junctions (TJs). This is demonstrated by the expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and the development of high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), peaking at 1800Ω ·cm²...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
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