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Radiation Protection Dosimetry

Zora S Žunić, Rosaline Mishra, Igor Čeliković, Zdenka Stojanovska, Ilia V Yarmoshenko, Georgy Malinovsky, Nenad Veselinović, Ljiljana Gulan, Zoran Ćurguz, Janja Vaupotič, Predrag Ujic, Predrag Kolarž, Gordana Milić, Tibor Kovacs, Balvindar K Sapra, Norbert Kavasi, Sarata K Sahoo
The main contribution to population exposure is due to radon and thoron progenies and not radon itself. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate annual effective dose using the results of Direct Radon and Thoron Progeny Sensors were exposed in 69 selected schools and 319 dwellings in several regions of Balkans: in Serbia: regions of Sokobanja and Kosovo and Metohija, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Srpska and Slovenia. Obtained average total effective doses are in the range from 0.22 mSv a-1 (schools in Republic of Srpska) to 2...
March 13, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
H Ishii, K Chida, K Satsurai, Y Haga, Y Kaga, M Abe, Y Inaba, M Zuguchi
The International Commission on Radiological Protection has substantially reduced the recommended maximum annual eye lens dose for workers. Use of a dedicated eye dosemeter is one method for accurate dose monitoring. The main aim of this study was to yield recommendations for optimal placement of eye dosemeters to estimate the eye dose to interventional cardiology physicians and nurses. A phantom measurement was conducted to simulate typical interventional cardiology procedures. Considering eight X-ray tube angulations, the left side of the head position provide good estimates for physician, and the forehead position provide good estimates for nurse...
March 13, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Daphnée Villoing, Ae-Kyoung Lee, Hyung-do Choi, Choonsik Lee
Over the past decades, the application of single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography in neuroimaging has markedly increased. In the current study, we used a series of Korean computational head phantoms with detailed cranial structures for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-y-old children and adult and a Monte Carlo transport code, MCNPX, to calculate age-dependent specific absorbed fraction (SAF) for mono-energetic electrons ranging from 0.01 to 4 MeV and S values for seven radionuclides widely used in nuclear medicine neuroimaging for the combination of ten source and target regions...
March 13, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Roberto Cherubini, Francis A Cucinotta, Peter O'Neill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Perko Vukotic, Nevenka Antovic, Ranko Zekic, Nikola Svrkota, Tomislav Andjelic, Ranko Svrkota, Radivoje Mrdak, Andrija Djurovic, Aleksandar Dlabac, Natasa Bjelica, Tamara Djurovic, Marija Bogicevic
Recent residential radon survey in Montenegro revealed the national average annual radon activity concentrations: unweighted AM = 110 Bq m-3, GM = 58.3 Bq m-3, and population weighted (AM)w = 100.5 Bq m-3, (GM)w = 92.8 Bq m-3. Based on (AM)w and dose conversion factor of 9 nSv per Bq h m-3, average effective dose from exposure to indoor radon at homes is estimated to be 1.58 mSv y-1. 222Rn was measured with CR-39 detectors for two consecutive six-month periods. Radon concentrations are discussed with respect to their distribution, to the seasons, climate zones, urban and rural areas, house types, floor levels, basement and foundation slab...
March 6, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ali Mehdipour, Masoumeh Parsi, Faezeh-Sadat Khorram
The practical aspects of two recently developed patient dose optimization methods in computed tomography (CT) examinations, size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) and acceptable quality dose (AQD), were verified for the chest and abdomen/pelvis examinations. A dose survey was performed in a CT institute by considering patients lateral diameter, weight and body mass index (BMI). The AQD tables for weight and BMI groups and SSDE threshold curves were obtained. The mean of volume CT dose index and dose length product for standard-size patients were compared with the national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) of Iran...
February 28, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Janet Ayobami Ademola, Abdullateef Abdulkareem
Radon-222 concentration in groundwater from Lagos State, Nigeria was measured. The arithmetic means of the radon concentration in the water ranged between 0.138 ± 0.058 and 0.411 ± 0.135 Bq.l-1. The geometric means ranged from 0.121 to 0.389 Bq.l-1. These were below the recommended limits set by International Organizations. The mean annual effective doses from the ingestion of radon-222 in water varied from 2.27 ± 0.95 to 6.75 ± 2.22 μSv.y-1 for adult, 4.54 ± 1.91 to 13.50 ± 4.43 μSv.y-1 for child and 2...
February 28, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
R N Nana, M Boadu, M N Moyo, P K Gyekye, B O Botwe
Preliminary studies on effective and eye lens doses of six Radiologists, four Cardiologists have been conducted for a period of 3 months. Electronic dosemeters positioned under and over lead apron of staff were used for the dosimetry. The estimated effective dose per month to Cardiologist and Radiologist were 0.01-0.07 mSv and 0.03-0.14 mSv, respectively. The estimated eye lens doses per month to Cardiologists and Radiologists were also 0.15-0.30 mSv and 0.53-3.39 mSv, respectively. The effective doses per month to staff were below the ICRP acceptable limit of 1...
February 28, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
H Rabus, W Y Baek, V Dangendorf, U Giesen, G Hilgers, H Nettelbeck
Progress in the field of ionising radiation (IR) metrology achieved in the BioQuaRT project raised the question to what extent radiobiological investigations would benefit from metrological support of the applied methodologies. A panel of experts from the medical field, fundamental research and radiation protection attended a workshop at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt to consult on metrology needs related to biological radiation effects. The panel identified a number of metrological needs including the further development of experimental and computational techniques for micro- and nanodosimetry, together with the determination of related fundamental material properties and the establishment of rigorous uncertainty budgets...
February 27, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ahmed Jibril Abdi, Bo Mussmann, Alistair Mackenzie, Benedikte Klaerke, Poul Erik Andersen
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the radiation dose and image quality of the low dose 2D/3D EOS slot scanner (LDSS) to conventional digital radiography (DR) X-ray imaging systems for chest and knee examination protocols. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The effective doses (ED) to the patient in the chest and knee clinical examination protocols for LDSS and DR X-ray imaging systems were determined using the dose area product and PCXMC Monte Carlo simulation software. The CDRAD phantom was imaged with 19 cm, and 13 cm thick Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) blocks to simulate the chest and knees respectively of a patient of average adult size...
February 27, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Neslihan Sarigul, Murat Surucu, Bulent Aydogan
The objective of this study is to determine the energy response factors for BeO optically simulated dosemeter (OSLD) using general cavity theory and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. A virtual phantom is constructed in EGSnrc MC program and energy response of BeO OSLDs were simulated at 5 cm depth for x-ray beams ranging from 1.25 to 25 MV and at 2 cm for beams with <250 kV including ISO 4037 narrow beam energies in a virtual water phantom. The energy response factor for a given radiation quality relative to 60Co was determined for BeO and compared to the Al2O3:C and LiF:Mg,Ti dosemeters...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
S Sholom, S W S McKeever
Olive oil is proposed as a medium for storage of nails in the time between nail harvesting and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements to minimise the decay of the radiation-induced EPR signals (RIS). The behaviours of three main EPR signals, namely, RIS, mechanically induced and the background signals (MIS and BG, respectively), were studied for storage in olive oil. The properties of the MIS and BG signals were very similar to those previously observed for the storage in a vacuum. The RIS singlet slightly increased during the first day of storage and then remained practically unchanged at least for 6 days...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Kotaro Tani, Naoaki Kunishima, Yu Igarashi, Eunjoo Kim, Takeshi Iimoto, Osamu Kurihara
One of the authors (O.K.) stayed in the area located ~110 km south from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant during the arrival of radioactive plumes released into the environment due to the accident in March 2011 in Japan. A previous study determined his 131I thyroid content using an NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The one remaining issue was to investigate the measurement error due to inevitable differences in the configuration (e.g. the thyroid shape and volume) between the physical phantom employed for calibration of the spectrometer and the real subject...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
E Bortolin, C De Angelis, M C Quattrini, O Barlascini, P Fattibene
The treatment with high doses of ionizing radiation is prescribed for the terminal sterilization of many healthcare products. In order to check the product irradiation, it may be useful to develop suitable detection methods. The aim of this work was to verify the suitability of the thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques to reveal illegal omission of radiation sterilization in glass used for blood test tubes. In particular, this work reports the results of the analysis performed on two batches of glass tubes provided by the same manufacturer...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Akira Furukawa
Biological dosimetry is used to estimate individual absorbed radiation dose by quantifying an appropriate biological marker. The most popular gold-standard marker is the appearance of dicentric chromosomes in metaphase. The metaphase finder is a tool for biological dosimetry that finds metaphase cells on glass slides. The author and a software company have designed a new system and are now preparing to produce the system commercially. The metaphase finder consists of an automated microscope, a camera, and a computer...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Onosohwo Bemigho Uwatse, Khairi Azri Bin Shamsul Khairi, M R I Faruque, D A Bradley
Batu Dam is of considerable importance to the metropolis of Kuala Lumpur, its existence and the quality assessment of its waters being essential in helping to maintain the lives of a large sector of the Malaysian population. Concerning the level of naturally occurring radioactivity contained within its waters, a well characterised HPGe γ-ray technique has been used in making measurements of the concentrations of primordial radionuclides in samples of surface water from the Dam. Based on the mean individual daily consumption of dam water, estimation has been made of the concomitant radiation dose...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Momen Orabi
Theoretical models to calculate the indoor gamma and radon doses are reviewed, refined and applied. The model for gamma doses is built based on the relative effects of the different room elements that control the amount of radiation. The relative doses are calculated by the MCNP5 simulation software. The gamma sources are due to the natural radiation from the 238U series, 232Th series and the radionuclide 40K. An application of the model that involves all the considered elements is demonstrated. The elements are the thickness of the walls, the density of the building material, the dimensions of the room, the existence of other rooms surrounding the room under study, the split of some walls into two portions, the existence of internal thin partial walls inside the room, the existence of windows and doors, and the incompleteness of the secular equilibrium in the 238U decay series due to radon release from the building materials...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Michael Lasithiotakis, Dimitrios C Xarchoulakos, Constantinos Potiriadis
This work evaluates the 137Cs and 90Sr content of wood pellets of the Greek energy market and additionally calculates worker exposure in Greek catering establishments (rotisseries). Wood pellets and ash samples were analysed through high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy and liquid scintillation. Imported pellets had higher 137Cs concentrations, especially pellets that were imported in bulk. Greek pellets had very smaller 137Cs amounts. Despite the high variation in 137Cs content the 137Cs exemption levels were not exceeded in any case...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Silvano Filice, Raffaella Rossi, Girolamo Crisi
The purpose of this study was to describe a simple procedure to assess head exposure of MRI workers to time-varying magnetic field, due to their movements in the static magnetic field of a 3T MRI scanner. A group of MRI workers were provided with a commercial portable meter that stored in its internal memory the instantaneous B values. The dB/dt was obtained by the post hoc processing of measured data. The movement-induced time-varying electric field (TVEF) was calculated from dB/dt. The weighted peak index was evaluated in the frequency domain, by first computing the spectrum of dB/dt waveform, to verify the compliance with the exposure limits...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Robert B Hayes, Ryan P O'Mara, David A Hooper
Diatomaceous earth is found in various locations around the planet. It is caused by the deposited exoskeleton material formed by the death of large concentrated populations of diatoms. The exoskeleton is effectively pure silicate and as such becomes a prospective material for retrospective dosimetry and dating. This work investigated the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence properties of commercially obtained diatomaceous earth. The material was not found to have useful dosimetric properties with conventional TL methodologies but did provide large dose estimates using the Single Aliquot Regeneration technique on some subset samples...
February 26, 2019: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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