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Journal of Neuroimmunology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716674/atypical-presentation-of-fulminant-primary-central-nervous-system-angiitis
#1
Sean Spence, Denise Ng, Colin Casault
BACKGROUND: Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System (PACNS) is a rare cause of CNS vasculitis that should be included as part complete differential diagnosis, especially in cases with suggestive imaging findings and an absence of secondary causes for CNS vasculitis. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 47-year-old previously healthy Caucasian male presenting with rapid progression of encephalopathy and fevers. Extensive infectious, autoimmune, and imaging workups were unrevealing...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30713112/tongue-tremor-in-neurofascin-155-igg4-seropositive-chronic-inflammatory-polyradiculoneuropathy
#2
Chiara Briani, Alessandro Salvalaggio, Marta Ruiz, Mario Cacciavillani, Francesca Rinaldi, Ilaria Callegari, Roberto Gasparotti, Diego Franciotta
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with anti-neurofascin-155 antibodies is a subgroup of CIDP with tremor and poor response to intravenous immunoglobulins. A 23-year-old male presented with a 6-month history ataxic-stepping gait, stocking tactile hypoesthesia, areflexia, tremor at limbs and tongue. Neurophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid analysis supported the diagnosis of CIDP. Tongue EMG was negative. Serum was positive for neurofascin-155 IgG4. His symptoms improved with intravenous methylprednisolone and then immunoglobulins, but not the tremor...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738572/adjuvant-and-antigenic-properties-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#3
Davide Cossu, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Tamami Sakanishi, Eiichi Momotani, Nobutaka Hattori
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants, has been linked as a possible risk factor for human multiple sclerosis. In the current study we investigated the adjuvant effect of MAP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Groups of C57BL/6 mice were actively immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 peptide emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant modified containing heat-killed MAP (MIFA). MOG-MIFA immunized mice showed an early disease onset and more severe clinical scores in comparison with MOG-CFA immunized mice, demonstrating for the first time the adjuvant effect of MAP on EAE development...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691695/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-expression-in-brain-and-immune-cells-of-oreochromis-niloticus
#4
C E Covantes-Rosales, G A Toledo-Ibarra, K J G Díaz-Resendíz, G H Ventura-Ramón, M I Girón-Pérez
Nervous and immune systems maintain a bidirectional communication, expressing receptors for neurotransmitters and cytokines. Despite being well established in mammals, this has been poorly described in lower vertebrates as fishes. Experimental evidence shows that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) regulates the immune response. In this research, we evaluated mRNA levels of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in spleen mononuclear cells of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and compared the expression levels of immune cells with the brain...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686545/nmda-receptor-antibody-encephalitis-presenting-as-transient-epileptic-amnesia
#5
Sharon A Savage, Sarosh R Irani, M Isabel Leite, Adam Z Zeman
Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA) is a subtype of temporal lobe epilepsy, typically presenting in a person's early 60s, and of unknown aetiology. Encephalitis caused by antibodies to NMDA receptors (NMDARE) has not previously been documented in TEA. We describe a 47-year-old male who satisfied criteria for TEA, but given his atypical symptoms, was also screened for autoimmune epilepsy. High levels of serum NMDAR antibodies were found, suggesting NMDARE. Immunosuppressive treatment gradually eliminated the NMDA receptor antibodies...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685070/pancreatic-ductal-cell-antigens-are-important-in-the-development-of-invasive-insulitis-in-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#6
Abhirup Jayasimhan, Darcy P Ellis, Alexandra I Ziegler, Robyn M Slattery
Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas are selectively destroyed. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) expressed in peri-islet Schwann cells (pSCs) and in the ductal cells of the pancreas is one of the candidate autoantigens for T1D. Immune responses to GFAP expressing cell types precede the islet autoimmunity in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice. By removing MHC class I from GFAP expressing cell types, we tested the role of autoantigens presented by these cell types in the development of invasive insulitis...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685069/reduced-levels-of-coco-in-sera-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-potential-role-in-neuro-regeneration-failure
#7
Karin Mausner-Fainberg, Moran Penn, Maya Golan, Moshe Benhamou, Smadar Gertel, Arnon Karni
Demyelination, axonal loss and failure of tissue repair characterize MS lesions. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling is associated with remyelination failure. Coco is one of the BMP antagonists. We found reduced Coco serum levels in relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) and primary progressive MS (PP-MS) patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Exposure of P19 cells, in the presence of retinoic acid, BMP-2, or BMP-4 to Coco, at average sera level of MS patients failed to induce neuronal phenotype, in contrast to the average sera level of HC...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683426/nanocurcumin-improves-regulatory-t-cell-frequency-and-function-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Sanam Dolati, Zohreh Babaloo, Hormoz Ayromlou, Majid Ahmadi, Reza Rikhtegar, Davood Rostamzadeh, Leila Roshangar, Mohammad Nouri, Amir Mehdizadeh, Vahid Younesi, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic incapacitating disease of the central nervous system, it has been reported that the disturbance in the development and function of Treg subpopulations is associated with the disability status in the RRMS. Accordingly, in the current study, the objective was to specify nanocurcumin effects on Treg cells frequency, and function in patients with RRMS. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 50 patients with RRMS were enrolled in this study in which 25 were treated for at least six months with nanocurcumin capsules while the other half received placebo capsules as the control group...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683425/modulation-of-the-extraneuronal-cholinergic-system-on-main-innate-response-leukocytes
#9
REVIEW
Covantes-Rosales Carlos Eduardo, Toledo-Ibarra Gladys Alejandra, Díaz-Resendiz Karina Janice Guadalupe, Ventura-Ramón Guadalupe Herminia, Pavón Lenin, Becerril-Villanueva Enrique, Bauer Moisés Evandro, Bottaso Oscar, Girón-Pérez Manuel Iván
The expression of elements of the cholinergic system has been demonstrated in non-neuronal cells, such as immune cells, where acetylcholine modulates innate and adaptive responses. However, the study of the non-neuronal cholinergic system has focused on lymphocyte cholinergic mechanisms, with less attention to its role of innate cells. Considering this background, the aims of this review are 1) to review information regarding the cholinergic components of innate immune system cells; 2) to discuss the effect of cholinergic stimuli on cell functions; 3) and to describe the importance of cholinergic stimuli on host immunocompetence, in order to set the base for the design of intervention strategies in the biomedical field...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686546/altered-naive-cd4-t-cell-homeostasis-in-myasthenia-gravis-and-thymoma-patients
#10
Siegfried Kohler, Thomas Keil, Tobias Alexander, Andreas Thiel, Marc Swierzy, Mahmoud Ismail, Jens Carsten Rückert, Andreas Meisel
In Myasthenia Gravis (MG) thymic pathologies are often present and thymectomy is used as treatment. By flow cytometry we elucidated alterations of naïve CD4+ T cell homeostasis in MG patients and patients with thymoma. MG patients showed increased absolute numbers of CD31- central naïve CD4+ T cells. Thymoma patients displayed a significantly higher fraction of peripheral blood CD31+ thymic naive T cells. We show an altered naive CD4+ T cell homeostasis in MG patients that might predispose to autoimmunity...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642576/clinical-characterization-of-anti-gq1b-antibody-syndrome-in-korean-children
#11
Lira Yoon, Bo Ryung Kim, Hye Young Kim, Min Jung Kwak, Kyung Hee Park, Mi Hye Bae, Yunjin Lee, Sang Ook Nam, Hee Young Choi, Young Mi Kim
Anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome encompasses Miller Fisher syndrome and its related disorders. We retrospectively identified 11 pediatric patients (5.4-18 years old) with anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome. Diagnoses of patients included acute ophthalmoparesis (n = 6), classical Miller Fisher syndrome (n = 2), Miller Fisher syndrome/Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1), acute ataxic neuropathy (n = 1), and pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness (n = 1). Nine patients (81.8%) fully recovered. Maturational change in GQ1b antigen expression and the accessibility of anti-GQ1b antibodies might be the cause of the difference of clinical manifestations in children with anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30610965/calcitriol-but-not-fgf23-increases-in-csf-and-serum-of-ms-patients
#12
Mohammad Sajad Emami Aleagha, Bahaadin Siroos, Abdolamir Allameh, Shirin Shakiba, Sakineh Ranji-Burachaloo, Mohammad Hossein Harirchian
The anti-inflammatory role of the active metabolite of vitamin D, namely 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), has been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS). Moreover, recent studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is involved in the regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis. The probable changes of FGF23 and calcitriol concentrations in the CSF and serum of patients with MS were evaluated. Calcitriol concentration in the CSF and serum of MS patients was significantly higher than that in non-MS patients, while FGF23 concentration in MS patients was comparable to controls...
December 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623801/immune-cell-derived-bdnf-does-not-mediate-neuroprotection-of-the-murine-anti-cd52-antibody-in-a-chronic-autoimmune-mouse-model
#13
Seray Demir, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Ralf Linker, Ralf Gold
The murine anti-CD52 antibody, an equivalent of the humanized antibody alemtuzumab, which is successfully used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, was used to explore a potential neuroprotective effect driven by immune cell derived brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Therefore, lineage specific constitutive knock-out mice with a BDNF deficiency in T cells and macrophages were used and compared to treated wildtype mice. Neither therapeutic nor preventive application of the murine anti-CD52 antibody in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, the MOG35-55 EAE, revealed a beneficial contribution of immune cell derived BDNF to the disease outcome...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597394/association-of-typhoid-fever-with-anti-nmdar-encephalitis-in-a-young-child
#14
Meenal Garg, Jaikrishan Mittal, Piyush Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597393/rheumatoid-meningitis-sine-arthritis
#15
Cathy Lee Ching, Lawrence Kenyon, Matthew Berk, Chantel Park
Rheumatoid meningitis is a rare and very serious extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. We present a case of a 7()year-old female with no history of arthritis who developed stroke-like symptoms, seizures, psychosis and compulsive behavior. Serial brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) over four months demonstrated progressive interhemispheric meningeal thickening. She had mild lymphocytic pleocytosis on the cerebrospinal fluid analysis and serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies resulted positive in high titers...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30583216/effects-of-moderate-versus-high-intensity-swimming-training-on-inflammatory-and-cd4-t-cell-subset-profiles-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#16
Yu Xie, Zhengyi Li, Yong Wang, Xiaoxu Xue, Wenhai Ma, Yijie Zhang, Junpeng Wang
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence about experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, has been shown to modulate disease parameters within exercise intervention. However, these initial studies weren't carried out intensity of exercise in mice. This study explored the impacts of different-intensity swimming training on EAE mice. Female mice were given access to swimming with predetermined weight (moderated-intensity (ME) group is 0% body weight; high-intensity (HE) group is 4% body weight) for 6 weeks, were immunized to induce EAE and then continued swimming until sacrificed...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30579155/cumulative-influence-of-parity-related-genomic-changes-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Divya Mehta, Shivangi Wani, Leanne Wallace, Anjali K Henders, Naomi R Wray, Pamela A McCombe
Pregnancy reduces the frequency of relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and parity also has a beneficial long term effect on disease outcome. We aimed to uncover the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial long-term effects of parity in MS. Genome-wide gene expression revealed 574 genes associated with parity; 38.3% showed significant DNA methylation changes (enrichment p = 0.029). These genes overlapped with previous MS genes in humans and a rat MS model and were overrepresented within axon guidance (P = 1...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557688/nmdar-encephalitis-presenting-as-akinesia-in-a-patient-with-parkinson-disease
#18
Matteo Gastaldi, Carla Arbasino, Carlo Dallocchio, Luca Diamanti, Paola Bini, Enrico Marchioni, Diego Franciotta
We describe the case of a woman with Parkinson disease who developed an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated encephalitis. As a novelty, the encephalitis presentation mimicked a worsening of the pre-existing extrapyramidal syndrome, manifesting mainly as severe bradykinesia and, eventually, akinesia. Brain MRI was normal, whereas cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis disclosed unique-to-CSF oligoclonal bands. Prompt identification and timely immunotherapy led to a complete recovery.
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30528247/corrigendum-to-everolimus-rad001-ameliorates-vascular-cognitive-impairment-by-regulating-microglial-function-via-the-mtorc1-signaling-pathway-j-neuroimmunol-299-2016-164-171
#19
Li Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Daojing Li, Nong Zhang, Ruiqiong Liu, Bin Han, Changjuan Wei, Haijie Liu, Xiaolin Xu, Jun-Wei Hao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557687/various-strategies-to-improve-efficacy-of-stem-cell-transplantation-in-multiple-sclerosis-focus-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-neuroprotection
#20
REVIEW
Forouzan Yousefi, Fahimeh Lavi Arab, Kolsoum Saeidi, Houshang Amiri, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly affect young adults and undergo heavy socioeconomic burdens. Conventional therapeutic modalities for MS mostly downregulate aggressive immune responses and are almost insufficient for management of progressive course of the disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), due to both immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties have been known as practical cells for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like MS...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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