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American Journal of Nephrology

Per Wändell, Axel C Carlsson, Xinjun Li, Danijela Gasevic, Johan Ärnlöv, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to study the association between the country of birth and incident end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in several immigrant groups in Sweden, using individuals born in Sweden or with Swedish-born parents as referents. METHODS: A cohort study of first- and second-generation immigrants residing in Sweden between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2012 was performed. Outcomes were defined as having at least one registered diagnosis of ESKD in the National Patient Register...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Thorir E Long, Solveig Helgadottir, Dadi Helgason, Gisli H Sigurdsson, Tomas Gudbjartsson, Runolfur Palsson, Olafur S Indridason, Martin I Sigurdsson
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine different definitions of renal recovery following postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and how these definitions associate with survival and the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients who underwent abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular, or orthopedic surgery at a single university hospital between 1998 and 2015. Recovery of renal function following postoperative AKI was assessed comparing 4 different definitions: serum creatinine (SCr) (i) < 1...
January 30, 2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Tae-Hwi Schwantes-An, Sai Liu, Margaret Stedman, Brian S Decker, Leah Wetherill, Howard J Edenberg, Matteo Vatta, Tatiana M Foroud, Glenn M Chertow, Sharon M Moe
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and those undergoing dialysis. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypotheses that polymorphisms in FGF23, its co-receptor alpha-klotho (KL), and/or FGF23 receptors (FGFR) are associated with cardiovascular events and/or mortality. METHODS: We used 1,494 DNA samples collected at baseline from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events Trial, in which patients were randomized to the calcimimetic cinacalcet or placebo for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism...
January 22, 2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Kai Jiang, Lilach O Lerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Fozia Ajmal, Janice Probst, John Brooks, James Hardin, Zaina Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Medicare uses a quality incentive program (QIP) criteria to evaluate care in dialysis facilities and apply monetary penalties on underperforming facilities. Smaller dialysis facilities are likely to be rural and operate on lower profit margin; therefore, such facilities are likely to underperform and face Medicare penalties. The variation in QIP scores by facility size is not yet known. We investigated the association between freestanding dialysis facility size and QIP scores...
December 17, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Xiaoling Ye, Jeroen P Kooman, Frank M van der Sande, Bernard Canaud, Stefano Stuard, Michael Etter, Xiaoqi Xu, Cristina Marelli, Adrian Guinsburg, Albert Power, Len A Usvyat, Yuedong Wang, Peter Kotanko, Jochen G Raimann
BACKGROUND: Low serum sodium (SNa) is associated with an increased mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Dialysis patients are thought to have an individual pre-dialysis SNa set-point, yet there is evidence for variability of pre-dialysis SNa in individual patient. In this study, we explored the association of several SNa variability metrics with all-cause mortality in a large patient population from the international MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes (MONDO) Initiative. METHODS: All adult incident patients from the MONDO database with more than 5 SNa measurements during the first year on HD were included...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Timmy Lee, Joyce Qian, Mae Thamer, Michael Allon
BACKGROUND: Despite national vascular access guidelines promoting the use of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) over arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) for dialysis, AVF use is substantially lower in females. We assessed clinically relevant AVF and AVG surgical outcomes in elderly male and female patients initiating hemodialysis with a central venous catheter (CVC). METHODS: Using the United States Renal Data System standard analytic files linked with Medicare claims, we assessed incident hemodialysis patients in the United States, 9,458 elderly patients (≥67 years; 4,927 males and 4,531 females) initiating hemodialysis from July 2010 to June 2011 with a catheter and had an AVF or AVG placed within 6 months...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Tadao Akizawa, Masaomi Nangaku, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Masanobu Arai, Ryosuke Koretomo, Atsushi Matsui, Hideki Hirakata
BACKGROUND: Enarodustat (JTZ-951) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that mimics adaptive responses to hypoxic conditions and may provide a new therapeutic approach for managing anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and maintenance dose of enarodustat in anemic patients with CKD not on dialysis. METHODS: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) naïve patients (correction group) and patients on a stable dose of ESA (conversion group) were randomized to receive 2, 4, or 6 mg of enarodustat or placebo once daily for 6 weeks in a double-blind manner (Period 1) followed by 24 weeks of open enarodustat treatment to maintain their hemoglobin (Hb) levels within a target range of 10...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Lauren C Bylsma, Heidi Reichert, Shawn M Gage, Prabir Roy-Chaudhury, Robert J Nordyke, Jon Fryzek, Shannon L M Dahl, Theodore Lithgow, Jeffrey H Lawson
BACKGROUND: Chronic hemodialysis requires a mode of vascular access through an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), a prosthetic arteriovenous graft (AVG), or a central venous catheter (CVC). AVF is recommended over AVG or CVC due to increased patency and decreased intervention rates for those that mature. AVG are preferred over CVC due to decreased infection and mortality risk. The aims of this study were to evaluate the lifespan of AVF and AVG in maturation, sustained access use, and abandonment...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Piero Ruggenenti, Giuseppe Remuzzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Uchenna Anyanwagu, Richard Donnelly, Iskandar Idris
BACKGROUND: Overt albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR] > 300 mg/g) is an established risk factor for progression of nephropathy and total mortality. However, whether a reduction in ACR translates into a reduction in mortality and/or cardiovascular (CV) events among insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in routine practice is currently not known. METHODS: We obtained data on a large cohort of insulin users with T2D and nephropathy (baseline ACR ≥300 mg/g) from UK general practices between 2007 and 2014...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Geeta Gyamlani, Praveen K Potukuchi, Fridtjof Thomas, Oguz Akbilgic, Melissa Soohoo, Elani Streja, Adnan Naseer, Keiichi Sumida, Miklos Z Molnar, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
BACKGROUND: To determine the association of vancomycin with acute kidney injury (AKI) in relation to its serum concentration value and to examine the risk of AKI in patients treated with vancomycin when compared with a matched cohort of patients receiving non-glycopeptide antibiotics (linezolid/daptomycin). METHODS: From a cohort of > 3 million US veterans with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, we identified 33,527 patients who received either intravenous vancomycin (n = 22,057) or non-glycopeptide antibiotics (linezolid/daptomycin, n = 11,470)...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Pottumarthi V Prasad, Lu-Ping Li, Jon M Thacker, Wei Li, Bradley Hack, Orly Kohn, Stuart M Sprague
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypoxia is a well-recognized factor in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Loss of microcirculation is thought to lead to enhanced renal hypoxia, which in turn results in the development of fibrosis, a hallmark of progressive CKD. To evaluate the role of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we performed perfusion, oxygenation, and diffusion MRI measurements in individuals with diabetes and stage 3 CKD. METHODS: Fifty-four subjects (41 individuals with diabetes and stage 3 CKD and 13 healthy controls) participated in this study...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
María Pérez Fernández, Patricia Martínez Miguel, Hao Ying, Christine E Haugen, Nadia M Chu, Diego María Rodríguez Puyol, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Silas P Norman, Jeremy D Walston, Dorry L Segev, Mara A McAdams-DeMarco
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (KT) candidates often present with multiple comorbidities. These patients also have a substantial burden of frailty, which is also associated with increased mortality. However, it is unknown if frailty is merely a surrogate for comorbidity, itself an independent domain of risk, or if frailty and comorbidity have differential effects. Better understanding the interplay between these 2 constructs will improve clinical decision making in KT candidates. OBJECTIVE: To test whether comorbidity is equally associated with waitlist mortality among frail and nonfrail KT candidates and to test whether measuring both comorbidity burden and frailty improves mortality risk prediction...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Kabir O Olaniran, Nwamaka D Eneanya, Andrew S Allegretti, Sophia H Zhao, Maureen M Achebe, Ravi I Thadhani
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell trait (SCT) is common among African Americans and has been historically considered to be benign. Recently, SCT has been associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease in the general population. Our understanding of SCT has been extrapolated largely from data of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Notably, in SCD, the outcomes differ by sex. The effect of SCT on cardiovascular risk in the African American CKD population is unknown, and the interaction between SCT and sex on cardiovascular risk has not been investigated...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Preeti Chandra
Complement activation occurs in many glomerular diseases, the exact pathway(s) of activation has been studied in detail in some diseases but not in all. C4d is generated by the activation of classical and lectin pathways, and its presence can point to the activation of either of these pathways. This review aims to summarize the available data with regard to the deposition of glomerular C4d in native kidney biopsies in different glomerular pathologies that may be useful for future research into the role of complement activation in glomerular diseases...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Ryan E Krahn, Ryan Tulowitzki, Gregory D Gudleski, Brian Murray, Bharath Rajagopalan, Winnie Su, Mary Muscarella, Judy Lambert, Anne B Curtis, Mandip Panesar
BACKGROUND: The etiology of sudden cardiac death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) is largely unknown, though there is evidence to suggest that metabolic alkalosis induced by HD with a high-bicarbonate dialysate/prescription may play a role. METHODS: We investigated the effects of metabolic alkalosis induced by HD with an acetate-containing bicarbonate-buffered dialysate on frequency of ventricular arrhythmia in 47 patients with ESRD on chronic HD using 48-h Holter monitoring in 3 phases: intra-HD, post-HD day 1, and post-HD day 2...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Andrew S Bomback
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Takaya Ozeki, Takayuki Katsuno, Hiroki Hayashi, Sawako Kato, Yoshinari Yasuda, Masahiko Ando, Naotake Tsuboi, Daisuke Hagiwara, Hiroshi Arima, Shoichi Maruyama
BACKGROUND: In pediatric patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome, recent trials have revealed that a 2-month, short-term steroid regimen is not inferior to an extended steroid course. However, the optimal duration of initial steroid therapy for adult steroid-sensitive minimal change disease (MCD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-month, short-term steroid regimen in the treatment of adult steroid-sensitive MCD patients...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Yi-Cheng Chang, Chia-Hsuin Chang, Yi-Ting Huang, Yi-Chun Yeh, Meng-Lun Hsieh, Wei-Shun Yang, Yu-Kang Tu
BACKGROUND: Extensive studies have demonstrated that sleep is an important modulator of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, its impact on renal function remains uncertain. METHODS: A total of 26,249 adults aged ≥20 years were recruited through voluntary health examinations in Taiwan. Sleep duration was self-reported by questionnaire. Proteinuria was graded semi-quantitatively by dipstick urine test. The associations of sleep duration with proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
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