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Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31409187/a-latent-class-approach-to-modeling-trajectories-of-health-care-cost-in-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Joseph F Levy, Marjorie A Rosenberg
Introduction. Estimating costs of medical care attributable to treatments over time is difficult due to costs that cannot be explained solely by observed risk factors. Unobserved risk factors cannot be accounted for using standard econometric techniques, potentially leading to imprecise prediction. The goal of this work is to describe methodology to account for latent variables in the prediction of longitudinal costs. Methods. Latent class growth mixture models (LCGMMs) predict class membership using observed risk factors and class-specific distributions of costs over time...
August 13, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31375053/multiobjective-calibration-of-disease-simulation-models-using-gaussian-processes
#2
Aditya Sai, Carolina Vivas-Valencia, Thomas F Imperiale, Nan Kong
Background . Developing efficient procedures of model calibration, which entails matching model predictions to observed outcomes, has gained increasing attention. With faithful but complex simulation models established for cancer diseases, key parameters of cancer natural history can be investigated for possible fits, which can subsequently inform optimal prevention and treatment strategies. When multiple calibration targets exist, one approach to identifying optimal parameters relies on the Pareto frontier...
August 2, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31375050/bayesian-meta-analysis-of-multiple-continuous-treatments-with-individual-participant-level-data-an-application-to-antipsychotic-drugs
#3
Jacob Spertus, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, Sharon-Lise T Normand
Modeling dose-response relationships of drugs is essential to understanding their safety effects on patients under realistic circumstances. While intention-to-treat analyses of clinical trials provide the effect of assignment to a particular drug and dose, they do not capture observed exposure after factoring in nonadherence and dropout. We develop a Bayesian method to flexibly model the dose-response relationships of binary outcomes with continuous treatment, permitting multiple evidence sources, treatment effect heterogeneity, and nonlinear dose-response curves...
August 2, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31354096/enhancing-public-health-messaging-discrete-choice-experiment-evidence-on-the-design-of-hiv-testing-messages-in-china
#4
Maya Durvasula, Stephen W Pan, Jason J Ong, Weiming Tang, Bolin Cao, Chuncheng Liu, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Joseph D Tucker
Introduction . While a growing literature documents the effectiveness of public health messaging on social media, our understanding of the factors that encourage individuals to engage with and share messages is limited. In the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, rising incidence and low testing rates despite decades of interventions suggest the need for effective, targeted messaging to reach underserved populations. Social media platforms and sex-seeking apps present a promising avenue, as web-based strategies can take advantage of existing trust within dense social networks...
July 29, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31354095/impact-of-timing-on-measurement-of-decision-quality-and-shared-decision-making-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-breast-cancer-patients
#5
Karen R Sepucha, Aisha T Langford, Jeffrey K Belkora, Yuchiao Chang, Beverly Moy, Ann H Partridge, Clara N Lee
Purpose. The objective of this study was to examine whether scores of shared decision-making measures differ when collected shortly after (1 month) or long after (1 year) breast cancer surgical treatment decisions. Methods. Longitudinal, multisite survey of breast cancer (BC) patients, with measurements at 1 month and 1 year after surgery at 4 cancer centers. Patients completed the BC Surgery Decision Quality Instrument (used to generate a knowledge score, ratings of goals, and concordance with treatment preferences) and Shared Decision Making (SDM) Process survey at both time points...
July 29, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31354033/on-the-likelihood-of-surrogates-conforming-to-the-substituted-judgment-standard-when-making-end-of-life-decisions-for-their-partner
#6
Eleonore Batteux, Eamonn Ferguson, Richard J Tunney
A considerable proportion of end-of-life decisions are made by the patient's next-of-kin, who can be asked to follow the substituted judgment standard and decide based on the patient's wishes. The question of whether these surrogate decision makers are actually able to do so has become an important issue. In this study, we examined how the likelihood of surrogates conforming to the substituted judgment standard varies with individual differences in mortality acceptance and confidence in their decision making...
July 29, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31354031/designing-unforced-choice-experiments-to-inform-health-care-decision-making-implications-of-using-opt-out-neither-or-status-quo-alternatives-in-discrete-choice-experiments
#7
Domino Determann, Dorte Gyrd-Hansen, G Ardine de Wit, Esther W de Bekker-Grob, Ewout W Steyerberg, Mattijs S Lambooij, Line Bjørnskov Pedersen
Background . Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used in the health care context to inform on patient preferences for health care services. In order for such experiments to provide useful and policy-relevant information, it is vital that the design includes those options that the respondent faces in the real-life situation. Whether to include opt-out, neither, or status quo alternatives has, however, received little attention in the DCE literature. We aim to investigate whether the use of different unforced choice formats affects DCE results in different settings: 1) opt-out versus neither in a health care market where there is no status quo and 2) including status quo in addition to opt-out in a health care market with a status quo...
July 29, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31319752/a-new-method-for-model-based-health-economic-evaluation-utilizing-and-extending-moment-generating-functions
#8
Tristan Snowsill
Background. Health economic evaluations frequently include projections for lifetime costs and health effects using modeling frameworks such as Markov modeling or discrete event simulation (DES). Markov models typically cannot represent events whose risk is determined by the length of time spent in state (sojourn time) without the use of tunnel states. DES is very flexible but introduces Monte Carlo variation, which can significantly limit the complexity of model analyses. Methods. We present a new methodological framework for health economic modeling that is based on, and extends, the concept of moment-generating functions (MGFs) for time-to-event random variables...
July 18, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31319751/personalized-decision-making-for-biopsies-in-prostate-cancer-active-surveillance-programs
#9
Anirudh Tomer, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Daan Nieboer, Frank-Jan Drost, Monique J Roobol, Ewout W Steyerberg
Background. Low-risk prostate cancer patients enrolled in active surveillance programs commonly undergo biopsies for examination of cancer progression. Biopsies are conducted as per a fixed and frequent schedule (e.g., annual biopsies). Since biopsies are burdensome, patients do not always comply with the schedule, which increases the risk of delayed detection of cancer progression. Objective. Our aim is to better balance the number of biopsies (burden) and the delay in detection of cancer progression (less is beneficial) by personalizing the decision of conducting biopsies...
July 18, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31268405/cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-uses-of-polyvalent-meningococcal-vaccines-in-niger-an-agent-based-transmission-modeling-study
#10
S M Niaz Arifin, Christoph Zimmer, Caroline Trotter, Anaïs Colombini, Fati Sidikou, F Marc LaForce, Ted Cohen, Reza Yaesoubi
Background. Despite the introduction of an effective serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac™), sporadic epidemics of other Neisseria meningitidis serogroups remain a concern in Africa. Polyvalent meningococcal conjugate (PMC) vaccines may offer alternatives to current strategies that rely on routine infant vaccination with MenAfriVac plus, in the event of an epidemic, district-specific reactive campaigns using polyvalent meningococcal polysaccharide (PMP) vaccines. Methods. We developed an agent-based transmission model of N...
July 3, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31257997/cultural-values-can-they-explain-differences-in-health-utilities-between-countries
#11
Bram Roudijk, A Rogier T Donders, Peep F M Stalmeier
Introduction. Health utilities are widely used in health care. The distributions of utilities differ between countries; some countries more often report worse than dead health states, while mild states are valued more or less the same. We hypothesize that cultural values explain these country-related utility differences. Research Question. What is the effect of sociodemographic background, methodological factors, and cultural values on differences in health utilities? Methods and Analyses. Time tradeoff data from 28 EQ-5D valuation studies were analyzed, together with their sociodemographic variables...
July 1, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31253053/alternative-conversion-methods-for-transition-probabilities-in-state-transition-models-validity-and-impact-on-comparative-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness
#12
Beate Jahn, Christina Kurzthaler, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Elamin H Elbasha, Annette Conrads-Frank, Ursula Rochau, Gaby Sroczynski, Christoph Urach, Marvin Bundo, Niki Popper, Uwe Siebert
Background . In state-transition models (STMs), decision problems are conceptualized using health states and transitions among those health states after predefined time cycles. The naive, commonly applied method (C) for cycle length conversion transforms all transition probabilities separately. In STMs with more than 2 health states, this method is not accurate. Therefore, we aim to describe and compare the performance of method C with that of alternative matrix transformation methods. Design . We compare 2 alternative matrix transformation methods (Eigenvalue method [E], Schure-Padé method [SP]) to method C applied in an STM of 3 different treatment strategies for women with breast cancer...
June 28, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31226911/comparison-of-three-measures-of-shared-decision-making-sdm-process_4-collaborate-and-sure-scales
#13
Suzanne Brodney, Floyd J Fowler, Michael J Barry, Yuchiao Chang, Karen Sepucha
Objective. If shared decision making (SDM) is to be part of quality assessment, it is necessary to have good measures of SDM. The purpose of this study is to compare the psychometric performance of 3 short patient-reported measures of SDM. Methods. Patients who met with a specialist to discuss possible surgery for hip or knee osteoarthritis (hips/knees), lumbar herniated disc, or lumbar spinal stenosis (backs) were surveyed shortly after the visit and again 6 months later. Some of the patients saw a patient decision aid (PDA) prior to the meeting...
June 21, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31226909/facts-and-fears-in-public-reporting-patients-information-needs-and-priorities-when-selecting-a-hospital-for-cancer-care
#14
Susan Chimonas, Elizabeth Fortier, Diane G Li, Allison Lipitz-Snyderman
Objective. Public reporting on the quality of provider care has the potential to empower patients to make evidence-based decisions. Yet patients seldom consult resources such as provider report cards in part because they perceive the information as irrelevant. To inform more effective public reporting, we investigated patients' information priorities when selecting a hospital for cancer treatment. We hypothesized that patients would be most interested in data on clinical outcomes. Methods. An experienced moderator led a series of focus groups using a semistructured discussion guide...
June 21, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31226903/how-do-older-adults-consider-age-life-expectancy-quality-of-life-and-physician-recommendation-when-making-cancer-screening-decisions-results-from-a-national-survey-using-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#15
Ellen M Janssen, Craig E Pollack, Cynthia Boyd, John F P Bridges, Qian-Li Xue, Antonio C Wolff, Nancy L Schoenborn
Background. Older adults with limited life expectancy frequently receive cancer screening, although on average, harms outweigh benefits. We examined the influence of life expectancy on older adults' cancer screening decisions relative to three other factors. Methods. Adults aged 65+ years ( N = 1272) were recruited from a national online survey panel. Using a discrete choice experiment, we systematically varied a hypothetical patient's life expectancy, age, quality of life, and physician's recommendation and asked whether the participant would choose screening...
June 21, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31179868/use-of-lotteries-for-the-promotion-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-service-a-discrete-choice-experiment-among-adult-men-in-tanzania
#16
Jason J Ong, Nyasule Neke, Mwita Wambura, Evodius Kuringe, Jonathan M Grund, Marya Plotkin, Marc d'Elbée, Sergio Torres-Rueda, Hally R Mahler, Helen A Weiss, Fern Terris-Prestholt
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is effective in reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, countries like Tanzania have high HIV prevalence but low uptake of VMMC. We conducted a discrete-choice experiment to evaluate the preferences for VMMC service attributes in a random sample of 325 men aged 18 years or older from the general population in 2 Tanzanian districts, Njombe and Tabora. We examined the preference for financial incentives in the form of a lottery ticket or receiving a guaranteed transport voucher for attendance at a VMMC service...
June 10, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31179833/evaluating-parameter-uncertainty-in-a-simulation-model-of-cancer-using-emulators
#17
Tiago M de Carvalho, Eveline A M Heijnsdijk, Luc Coffeng, Harry J de Koning
BACKGROUND: Microsimulation models have been extensively used in the field of cancer modeling. However, there is substantial uncertainty regarding estimates from these models, for example, overdiagnosis in prostate cancer. This is usually not thoroughly examined due to the high computational effort required. OBJECTIVE: To quantify uncertainty in model outcomes due to uncertainty in model parameters, using a computationally efficient emulator (Gaussian process regression) instead of the model...
June 10, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31161867/estimating-the-expected-value-of-sample-information-across-different-sample-sizes-using-moment-matching-and-nonlinear-regression
#18
Anna Heath, Ioanna Manolopoulou, Gianluca Baio
BACKGROUND: The expected value of sample information (EVSI) determines the economic value of any future study with a specific design aimed at reducing uncertainty about the parameters underlying a health economic model. This has potential as a tool for trial design; the cost and value of different designs could be compared to find the trial with the greatest net benefit. However, despite recent developments, EVSI analysis can be slow, especially when optimizing over a large number of different designs...
June 4, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31161860/manipulating-the-5-dimensions-of-the-euroqol-instrument-the-effects-on-self-reporting-actual-health-and-valuing-hypothetical-health-states
#19
Aki Tsuchiya, Nick Bansback, Arne Risa Hole, Brendan Mulhern
BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D instrument has 5 dimensions. This article reports on the effects of manipulating a) the order in which the 5 dimensions are presented (appearing first v. last), b) splitting of the composite dimensions ("pain or discomfort" and "anxiety or depression"), and c) removing or "bolting off" 1 of the 5 EQ-5D dimensions at a time. The effects were examined in 2 contexts: 1) self-reporting health and 2) health state valuations. METHODS: Three different types of discrete choice experiments (DCE) including a duration attribute were designed...
June 4, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31142205/decisional-conflict-scale-findings-among-patients-and-surrogates-making-health-decisions-part-ii-of-an-anniversary-review
#20
Mirjam M Garvelink, Laura Boland, Krystal Klein, Don Vu Nguyen, Matthew Menear, Hilary L Bekker, Karen B Eden, Annie LeBlanc, Annette M O'Connor, Dawn Stacey, France Légaré
BACKGROUND: We explored decisional conflict as measured with the 16-item Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) and how it varies across clinical situations, decision types, and exposure to decision support interventions (DESIs). METHODS: An exhaustive scoping review was conducted using backward citation searches and keyword searches. Eligible studies were published between 1995 and March 2015, used an original experimental/observational research design, concerned a health-related decision, and provided DCS data...
May 29, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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