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American Journal of Primatology

Juan de Dios Rodríguez-Callejas, Daniel Cuervo-Zanatta, Abraham Rosas-Arellano, Caroline Fonta, Eberhard Fuchs, Claudia Perez-Cruz
Microglia are cells that protect brain tissue from invading agents and toxic substances, first by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thereafter by clearing tissue by phagocytosis. Microglia express ferritin, a protein with ferroxidase activity capable of storing iron, a metal that accumulates in brain during aging. Increasing evidence suggests that ferritin plays an important role in inflammation. However, it is not known if ferritin/iron content can be related to the activation state of microglia. To this end, we aimed to delineate the role of ferritin in microglia activation in a non-human primate model...
February 18, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Katie Oliver, Dusit Ngoprasert, Tommaso Savini
Primate survival in disturbed forests can be governed by a complex of forest variables. For nocturnal arboreal primates, determining these ecological features is notoriously difficult but is critically important for their conservation. Here we assessed the effects of forest type, food availability, human disturbance, and forest structure on the nocturnal Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) in Sakaerat Biosphere, north-east Thailand, a small disturbed fragment containing dry evergreen, dry dipterocarp, and plantation forests...
February 18, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Carlos G Schrago, Hector N Seuánez
The phylogenetic position of owl monkeys, grouped in the genus Aotus, has been a controversial issue for understanding Neotropical primate evolution. Explanations of the difficult phylogenetic assignment of owl monkeys have been elusive, frequently relying on insufficient data (stochastic error) or scenarios of rapid speciation (adaptive radiation) events. Using a coalescent-based approach, we explored the population-level mechanisms likely explaining these topological discrepancies. We examined the topological variance of 2,192 orthologous genes shared between representatives of the three major Cebidae lineages and the outgroup...
February 18, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Suzette D Tardif
The life history of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) points to this species as a premiere nonhuman primate aging model. In order to take advantage of these features, we require an expanded and refined understanding of aging in this species. The papers in this special issue move this field forward substantially by providing exciting new findings about the aging of the common marmoset and the potential this species offers for revealing aging's secrets and improving the lives of aging humans.
February 6, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Anna I Roberts, Anwesha Chakrabarti, Sam G B Roberts
Studying the communication systems of primates can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human language. Some theories propose that language evolved to help meet the demands of managing complex social relationships. Examining the associations between sociality and communication in the great apes can help to identify the specific selection pressures that may have been important for language evolution. In particular, gestural communication is believed to be important because it is a relatively recent trait seen only in primates and particularly in the great apes...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Richard G Coss, Cailey Cavanaugh, Whitney Brennan
In many primates, the acoustic properties of alarm calls can provide information on the level of perceived predatory threat as well as influence the antipredator behavior of nearby conspecifics. The present study examined the harmonics-to-noise ratio (tonality of spectral structure) of alarm calls emitted by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in trees directed at photographic models of a boa constrictor, neotropical rattlesnake, scorpion eater snake, and white snake-shaped control presented on the ground...
January 21, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Alessio Veneziano, Joel D Irish, Carlo Meloro, Chris Stringer, Isabelle De Groote
The reduction in dental size and mandibular robusticity is regarded as a major trend in human evolution, traditionally considered the result of the peculiar extra-oral food processing skills of Homo. The use of stone tools and fire would have allowed our ancestors to chew softer food in smaller bite size, thus relaxing the selective pressures to keep a large dentition and a robust lower jaw. This perspective assumes that differences in dental size and mandibular robusticity in hominins represent functional dissimilarities...
January 21, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Corinna N Ross, Jessica Adams, Olga Gonzalez, Edward Dick, Luis Giavedoni, Vida L Hodara, Kimberley Phillips, Anna D Rigodanzo, Balakuntalam Kasinath, Suzette D Tardif
The development of the marmoset as a translational model for healthspan and lifespan studies relies on the characterization of health parameters in young and geriatric marmosets. This cross-sectional study examined health phenotypes in marmosets for five domains of interest for human health and aging: mobility, cognition, metabolism, homeostasis, and immune function. Geriatric marmosets were found to have significant executive function impairment when compared to young animals. While geriatric animals did not show gross abnormalities in mobility and measures of locomotion, their types of movement were altered from young animals...
January 21, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Ellesse D Janda, Kate L Perry, Emma Hankinson, David Walker, Stefano Vaglio
Primate chemical communication remains underappreciated, as primates are considered to rely on other sensory modalities. However, various lines of evidence suggest that olfaction plays an important role in primate societies, including the conspicuous scent-marking behavior of many strepsirrhines and callitrichines. Although lemurs typically show scent-marking, little is known about this behavior in red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). We combined behavioral observations and semiochemistry analyses to improve our understanding of scent-marking in two captive troops housed at Dudley and Twycross zoos (UK)...
January 21, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Kuo-Yang Wang, Kari L Christe, JoAnn Yee, Jeffrey A Roberts, Amir Ardeshir
Diarrhea with secondary decompensation is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in captive young rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) colonies. Approximately 25% of diarrhea cases with secondary decompensation are considered to be idiopathic chronic diarrhea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suspected but not systematically examined association between rotavirus infection and diarrhea with secondary decompensation among young rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC)...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Kimberley A Phillips, Chase M Watson, Ari Bearman, Anna R Knippenberg, Jessica Adams, Corinna Ross, Suzette D Tardif
Executive control is a higher-level cognitive function that involves a range of different processes that are involved in the planning, coordination, execution, and inhibition of responses. Many of the processes associated with executive control, such as response inhibition and mental flexibility, decline with age. Degeneration of white matter architecture is considered to be the one of the key factors underlying cognitive decline associated with aging. Here we investigated how white matter changes of the corpus callosum were related to cognitive aging in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Sarah J Neal Webb, Jann Hau, Steven J Schapiro
The National Institutes of Health and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums recommend that captive chimpanzees be housed in multi-male, multi-female, age-diverse groups of no less than seven individuals. These recommendations are rooted in the idea that captive chimpanzee groups should be modeled after free-ranging, wild, fission-fusion chimpanzee societies. However, captive chimpanzees do not face the environmental pressures faced by wild chimpanzees, including food scarcity, inter-group competition, and predation...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Robin I M Dunbar, Susan M Cheyne, Daoying Lan, Amanda Korstjens, Julia Lehmann, Guy Cowlishaw
We develop a time budget model for the hylobatid family with the aim of assessing the extent to which their contemporary and historical biogeographic distributions might be explained by ecological constraints. The model uses local climate to predict time budgets, and from this the limiting size of social group that animals could manage at a given location. The model predicts maximum group sizes that vary between 3 and 15 within the taxon's current distribution, indicating that the combination of their dietary and locomotor styles with the kinds of habitats they inhabit radically constrain group size...
January 3, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Sofia Ingrid Fredrika Forss, Alba Motes-Rodrigo, Christine Hrubesch, Claudio Tennie
The diversity of great ape diets requires behavioral flexibility. Consequently, the exploration of potentially novel food sources is supposedly beneficial, but simultaneously, apes show high neophobia to prevent harmful and poisonous food intake. Social information, such as presence of group members or observations of non-naïve, experienced individuals have been demonstrated to affect the acceptance of novel food items in primates. Sociality may have evolutionary effects on the response of apes to novel foods...
January 3, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Stephen R Ross, Bethany K Hansen, Lydia M Hopper, Amy Fultz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Lauren Petrullo, Amy Lu
Poor maternal condition during gestation is commonly associated with impaired fetal growth in humans and other animals. Although elevated maternal glucocorticoids (GCs) are often implicated as the mechanism of intrauterine growth stunting, the direct contribution of maternal GCs remains unclear because enzymatic conversion of GCs at the placenta may limit the ability of maternal hormones to reach the fetus. Further, because previous studies on gestational stress have often employed synthetic GCs, which cross the placenta unobstructed, it remains unknown whether naturalistic endogenous GC elevations will have similar effects...
January 3, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Jung Eun Park, Afonso C Silva
Research with non-human primates (NHP) has been essential and effective in increasing our ability to find cures for a large number of diseases that cause human suffering and death. Extending the availability and use of genetic engineering techniques to NHP will allow the creation and study of NHP models of human disease, as well as broaden our understanding of neural circuits in the primate brain. With the recent development of efficient genetic engineering techniques that can be used for NHP, there's increased hope that NHP will significantly accelerate our understanding of the etiology of human neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders...
December 26, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Jessica M Hoffman, Corinna Ross, ViLinh Tran, Daniel E L Promislow, Suzette Tardif, Dean P Jones
Recently, the common marmoset has been proposed as a non-human primate model of aging. Their short lifespan coupled with pathologies that are similar to humans make them an ideal model to understand the genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors that influence aging and longevity. However, many of the underlying physiological changes that occur with age in the marmoset are unknown. Here, we attempt to determine if individual metabolites are predictive of future death and to recapitulate past metabolomic results after a change in environment (move across the country) was imposed on a colony of marmosets...
December 26, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Erin L Kinnally, Lesly Ceniceros, Steten J Martinez
Early life experiences reorganize the brain and behavior of the developing infant, often with lifelong consequences. There is perhaps no more potent developmental influence than the quality of parental care: it is an experience common to all mammals, and its effects have been observed across species. The effects of parental care can be particularly difficult to abolish, as levels of care are often perpetuated across generations. However, genetic relatedness between parents can obscure the true mechanism of transgenerational cycles of parental care, because in intact families, genes, and environment are confounded...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
R Robin Baker, Todd K Shackelford
Historically, the empirical study of the role of sperm competition in the evolution of sexual traits has been problematic through an enforced reliance on indirect proxy measures. Recently, however, a procedure was developed that uses paternity data to measure sperm competition level directly in terms of males/conception (i.e., the number of males that have sperm present in a female's ampulla at conception). When tested on apes and humans (Hominoidea) this measure proved not only to correlate significantly with the traditionally used measure of relative testes size but also to offer a number of advantages...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
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