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American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology

Vasiliki Chatzaraki, Wolf Schweitzer, Michael J Thali, Garyfalia Ampanozi
Nasal septum defects may have forensic relevance because they are associated with various mechanisms, including trauma and cocaine abuse. Like all human body tissues, the nasal septum may be affected by maggots' infestation during postmortem decomposition. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) can reveal small findings and related details. Three cases of early postmortem period and 2 cases of advanced decomposition, where external examination of the nasal cavities and PMCT revealed nasal septum defect, are presented...
April 10, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
James R Gill, Holly G Olko, Maura E DeJoseph
This study on cremation clearance examines whether physical inspections detect more unnatural unreported deaths than medicolegal investigations without inspections. We reviewed all deaths reported to the medical examiner for cremation clearance during 2 distinct years and compared subsequent amendments of death certificates after 2 different investigative methodologies (1 with and 1 without physical inspection). Of 10,367 deaths in 2012, there were 86 deaths (0.83%) in which the investigation with physical inspection resulted in amendments to the death certificate...
April 8, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
D Kimberley Molina, Kathy Pinneri, John A Stash, Ling Li, Kathryn Vance, Caroline Cross
Abnormal organ weights often serve as an indicator of underlying disease or other pathological process making assessment of organ weight a critical part of the autopsy examination and interpretation. Unfortunately, normal organ weights for children are often based on studies done in the 1930s and 1960s. Thus, the present study was designed to accurately assess organ weights in children to establish reference ranges for use in autopsy examinations. A total of 1759 traumatic deaths in children aged 0 to 12 years were reviewed...
April 8, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
William T Harrison, Thomas Bouldin, Anne Buckley, Januario Estrada, Roger McLendon, Kimberly Janssen
Primary central nervous system tumors are an extremely rare cause of sudden, unexpected death in children as most patients develop symptoms because of increased intracranial pressure and seek medical attention. Rarely, a forensic pathologist may encounter a primary intracranial neoplasm in a pediatric decedent that was not suspected before death. Herein, we present a case of a supratentorial neuroepithelial tumor found at autopsy in a 3-year-old African American boy without any reported significant medical history...
April 2, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Marwa Boussaid, Mohamed Amin Mesrati, Yosra Mahjoub, Hiba Limem, Nouha Ben Abdeljalil, Abdelfatteh Zakhama, Abir Aissaoui
Chronic calcific constrictive pericarditis is a rare condition. It can cause severe morbidity and even mortality. The diagnosis may be difficult to establish due to its variable clinical signs. We report an autopsy case of a 54-year-old male with a past medical history of well treated hypertension, diabetes and dyspnea present of 2 weeks, who was discovered dead in his bed. The postmortem examination showed a large band of calcification of the pericardium with obliteration of the pericardial space. Both pericardium and epicardium were thickened with bread-and-butter appearance...
March 30, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Hsuan-Yun Hu, Shyh-Yuh Wei, Tai-Yun Wu, Wei-Hsiang Huang, Chih-Hsin Pan
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health issues worldwide, and global efforts have altered the TB epidemic. This study analyzed 71 cases of TB at autopsy notified via Taiwan Medical Examiner Surveillance for Lethal Infectious Disease (Taiwan Med-X) between 2012 and 2017 and applied immunohistochemistry to formalin-fixed lung tissue. Tuberculosis was present in 0.57% (71/12,369) forensic autopsy cases in the institute. Among the study cases, 30 (42.3%) cases were newly diagnosed with TB at autopsy, whereas 41 (57...
March 23, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Lisa Franceschetto, Luigi Carlini, Massimo Lancia, Mauro Bacci
Impalement injuries occur when a large foreign body traverses or penetrates a body cavity or extremity. Nowadays, impalement injuries are uncommon and are usually a consequence of a fall onto a blunt object or a road accident. The authors report a case of a woman found dead in her apartment, seemingly killed by a firearm injury to the abdomen. However, after the autopsy was carried out, it became clear that the injuries had the features of an impalement. After the inquiry, the murder weapon was identified as a battering ram, used by the robbers to break into the house of the woman...
March 23, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Martin Janík, Jozef Krajčovič, František Novomeský, Ľubomír Straka, Petr Hejna
Multiple sclerosis, currently incurable and potentially profoundly disabling demyelinating central nervous system disease, is associated with higher occurrence of suicide as affected individuals are prone to major depression and psychosis. Despite progressively incapacitating neurologic impairment, well-staffed institutions, and limited repertoire of methods of suicide, which prevents patients from purposefully ending their lives, suicide-determined patients typically commit suicide resulting from a medication overdose, sharp force traumata, self-neglect, or deliberate starvation...
March 23, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Fabio De-Giorgio, Simone Grassi, Arnaldo Carbone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Stephan Andreas Bolliger, Silvan Gort, Beat Kaelin, Vera Barrera, Michael Josef Thali, Rosa Maria Martinez
Occasional case reports have described isolated cases of conducted electrical weapon (CEW) probes piercing the human skull. In an experimental setting, we examined whether these cases were just unfortunate incidents, how deeply such probes can pierce the skull, and whether firing distance and CEW probe type play a role in the skull-piercing capability.We fired 5 different CEW cartridges (XP 10.6 m, XP 7.6 m, smart 10.6 m, smart 7.6 m, and smart probe 7.6 m) from 4 different distances (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 m) at head phantoms made of either 5- or 7-mm-thick polyurethane spheres covered with a thin layer of gelatine and buckskin...
March 9, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Sara Gioia, Mariano Cingolani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Chittaranjan Behera, Mohit Chauhan, Asit Kumar Sikary
Application of color on the external body surface before, during, and after death, such as during a festivity, cultural occasion, or after death ritual, can present as an artifact at forensic autopsy. The present study is a retrospective review of body color artifacts collected from postmortem reports, inquest papers and photographs of each individual case autopsied at our institutes during a 12 year period from 2004 to 2015. The reason for body colorations were various festivities, after death rituals and beautification products, among others...
March 9, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Valeria Santoro, Chiara Marini, Grazia Fuzio, Francesco Introna, Antonio De Donno
Age estimation is a crucial matter in several forensic and legal instances. The literature recommends carrying out hand and wrist radiograph to assess skeletal age. Much research has been conducted to examine the application of various methods in different categories. Our study aims to evaluate the reliability of Greulich and Pyle, Tanner-Whitehouse 2, and FELS methods in Beninese and Italian samples, with a total of 204 subjects, 102 (51 were male and 51 were female) from Benin and 102 (51 were male and 51 were female) from Italy, aged between 4 and 19 years...
March 9, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Fabio De-Giorgio, Simone Grassi, Massimo Miscusi, Luca Ricciardi, Filippo Maria Polli
Although strangulation is generally homicidal, the scientific literature reports several cases in which it is suicidal or even accidental. The former eventuality is particularly interesting because extremely atypical ligatures (such as locks of hair), complex dynamics, and uncommon findings can be involved. Only a meticulous evaluation of the body and of both direct and circumstantial evidence can help in the complex differential diagnosis that includes murder, suicide, and accident. In accidental strangulation, the number and severity of injuries depend on the magnitude of applied force...
March 9, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Silvia Farkašová Iannaccone, Peter Vasovčák, Dorota Sopková, Peter Švajdler, Reinhard Dettmeyer, Alessandra Rampazzo, Daniel Farkaš
In this article, we report the autopsy findings of a 23-year-old woman, who was found unconscious at home by her relatives. During the transportation to the hospital, the woman was handed over to the ambulance personnel, who were the first to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the hospital, after an hour-lasting asystole, the heart activity was restored. Prolonged cardiac arrest led to hypoxic brain injury, which resulted in a persistent coma. Examinations carried out during hospitalization detected hypokinetic interventricular septum, frequent ventricular extrasystoles and ventricular fibrillation...
March 5, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Milenko Bogdanović, Vesna Popović, Slobodan Savić, Tijana Durmić, Bojana Radnić
This case represents a planned complex suicide in which the victim combined gunshot to the head and hanging. The most interesting finding in the presented case was pale face, but without any visible injury to it at the time the body was found (more than 24 hours after death), whereas at autopsy (20 hours later), black eyes were prominent. The removal of the ligature led to the decompression of the neck and its blood vessels with consequential blood redistribution, which, alongside the liquid state of blood, resulted in the aforementioned finding...
March 5, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Alessandra Spagnolia, Walter L Kemp
When a hunter intentionally fires a weapon and the projectile strikes another human, the manner of death is most often certified as a homicide. The intent of the individual firing the weapon is unknown and the possibility that a hunting "accident" represents a concealed intentional homicide must always be considered. However, in some circumstances such as a documented ricochet, the manner of death may be certified as accident.The death of a hunter who was being mauled by a grizzly bear and subsequently died will be presented...
February 21, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Daniel W Dye, Gerald McGwin, Daniel S Atherton, Brandi McCleskey, Gregory G Davis
In 2005, the National Association of Medical Examiners approved the Forensic Autopsy Performance Standards. Standard B3.7 indicates that a forensic pathologist shall perform a forensic autopsy when the death is by apparent intoxication by alcohol, drugs, or poison.The Jefferson County Coroner/Medical Examiner Office has observed an increase in our caseload by 10% per year since 2012. We designed a study to determine if a pathologist could correctly classify the cause of death (COD) and manner of death (MOD) of suspected drug-related deaths without information from the internal examination...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Rosagemma Ciliberti, Giuseppe Armocida, Marta Licata
On May 16, 2017, the judgment of the Italian court ended the legal battle concerning the repatriation request of the famous skull, belonging to the "brigand" Giuseppe Villella. During the autopsy examination on the corpse of Villella, Lombroso observed a median occipital dimple on the skull, a feature visible in other mammals, including primates, but absent in humans. This feature could demonstrate an anomalous dimension of the median lobe of Villella's cerebellum. From this anatomical finding, Lombroso consolidated the atavism theory, which established a close connection between morphological features and behavior...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Merryl Terry, Donna Marlowe Stewart
Sudden unexplained death in infancy is a leading cause of death among infants between 1 month and 1 year of age in the United States. The medical examiner is frequently given the difficult task of attempting to rule out other causes of death such as infantile trauma or child abuse. A thorough postmortem examination of the skin is a crucial component of the autopsy, as is sufficient knowledge of both benign and traumatic skin pathologies. In addition to lifesaving interventions performed by medical personnel, traditional remedies may also be performed that could be confused with trauma...
January 23, 2019: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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